s_on_the_surface_of_a_[[limestone;_[[Carmel_Formation.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="limestone.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="ooids on the surface of a [[limestone">ooids on the surface of a [[limestone; [[Carmel Formation">limestone.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="ooids on the surface of a [[limestone">ooids on the surface of a [[limestone; [[Carmel Formation (Middle [[Jurassic) of southern Utah, USA. Largest is 1.0 mm in diameter.
Carbonate rocks are a class of [[sedimentary rocks composed primarily of [[carbonate minerals. The two major types are [[limestone, which is composed of calcite
(different crystal forms of CaCO3
), and dolomite rock
(also known as dolostone), which is composed of mineral dolomite
Calcite can be either dissolved
by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH
, and dissolved ion
concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility
in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases.
When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures.
s develop in carbonate rocks because of their solubility
in dilute acid
ic groundwater. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will also create conditions suitable for cave
is the metamorphic
carbonate rock. Rare igneous
carbonate rocks exist as intrusive carbonatite
s and even rarer volcanic