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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, a bud is an undeveloped or
embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positive reviews. Production News ...
shoot In botany, shoots consist of plant stem, stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds. The new growth from seed germination that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop. In the spring, ...

shoot
and normally occurs in the
axil A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred ...
of a
leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaf
or at the tip of a
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious roots from the nodes. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root In vascular plants, the roo ...

stem
. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological classificat ...
, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.


Overview

The buds of many
woody plant A woody plant is a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, ...
s, especially in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called ''scales'' which tightly enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance which serves as added protection. When the bud develops, the scales may enlarge somewhat but usually just drop off, leaving a series of horizontally-elongated
scar A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticl ...
s on the surface of the growing stem. By means of these scars one can determine the age of any young branch, since each year's growth ends in the formation of a bud, the formation of which produces an additional group of bud scale scars. Continued growth of the branch causes these scars to be obliterated after a few years so that the total age of older branches cannot be determined by this means. In many plants scales do not form over the bud, and the bud is then called a naked bud. The minute underdeveloped leaves in such buds are often excessively hairy. Naked buds are found in some shrubs, like some species of the
Sumac Sumac ( or ), also spelled sumach, is any one of about 35 species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orde ...

Sumac
and
Viburnum ''Viburnum'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Viburnum
s (''Viburnum alnifolium'' and ''V. lantana'') and in
herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from the Greek ''trācheia''), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 accepted known species) that are defined ...
plants. In many of the latter, buds are even more reduced, often consisting of undifferentiated masses of cells in the axils of leaves. A terminal bud occurs on the end of a stem and lateral buds are found on the side. A head of
cabbage Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea'') is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an Annual plant, annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbag ...

cabbage
(see
Brassica ''Brassica'' () is a genus of plants in the cabbage and mustard family ( Brassicaceae). The members of the genus are informally known as cruciferous vegetables, cabbages, or mustard plants. Crops from this genus are sometimes called ''cole cro ...
) is an exceptionally large terminal bud, while
Brussels sprout The brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbage Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea'') is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an Annual plant, annual vegetab ...
s are large lateral buds. Since buds are formed in the axils of leaves, their distribution on the stem is the same as that of leaves. There are alternate, opposite, and whorled buds, as well as the terminal bud at the tip of the stem. In many plants buds appear in unexpected places: these are known as adventitious buds. Often it is possible to find a bud in a remarkable series of gradations of bud scales. In the buckeye, for example, one may see a complete gradation from the small brown outer scale through larger scales which on unfolding become somewhat green to the inner scales of the bud, which are remarkably leaf-like. Such a series suggests that the scales of the bud are in truth leaves, modified to protect the more delicate parts of the plant during unfavorable periods.


Types of buds

Buds are often useful in the identification of plants, especially for woody plants in winter when leaves have fallen. Buds may be classified and described according to different criteria: location, status, morphology, and function. Botanists commonly use the following terms: *for location: **, when located at the tip of a stem (apical is equivalent but rather reserved for the one at the top of the plant); ** axillary, when located in the axil of a leaf (lateral is the equivalent but some adventitious buds may be lateral too); **
adventitiousImportant structures in plant development are buds, shoot In botany, shoots consist of plant stem, stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds. The new growth from seed germination that grows upw ...
, when occurring elsewhere, for example on trunk or on roots (some adventitious buds may be former axillary ones reduced and hidden under the bark, other adventitious buds are completely new formed ones). *for status: **accessory, for secondary buds formed besides a principal bud (axillary or terminal); **resting, for buds that form at the end of a growth season, which will lie dormant until onset of the next growth season; **dormant or latent, for buds whose growth has been delayed for a rather long time. The term is usable as a synonym of ''resting'', but is better employed for buds waiting undeveloped for years, for example epicormic buds; **pseudoterminal, for an axillary bud taking over the function of a terminal bud (characteristic of species whose growth is
sympodial Sympodial growth is type of bifurcating branching pattern where one branch develops more strongly than the other, resulting in the stronger branches forming the primary shoot and the weaker branches appearing laterally. A sympodium, also referred ...
: terminal bud dies and is replaced by the closer axillary bud, for examples
beech Beech (''Fagus'') is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America. Recent classifications recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, ''Engleriana'' and ''Fagus''. The ''Engler ...
,
persimmon The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus '' Diospyros''. The most widely cultivated of these is the Oriental persimmon, '' Diospyros kaki''. ''Diospyros'' is in the family Ebenaceae, and a number of non ...

persimmon
, ''
Platanus ''Platanus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer t ...
'' have sympodial growth). *for morphology: **scaly or covered (perulate), when scales, also referred to as a perule (lat. perula, perulaei) (which are in fact transformed and reduced leaves) cover and protect the embryonic parts; **naked, when not covered by scales; **hairy, when also protected by hairs (it may apply either to scaly or to naked buds). *for function: **vegetative, if only containing vegetative pieces: embryonic shoot with leaves (a leaf bud is the same); **reproductive, if containing embryonic flower(s) (a flower bud is the same); **mixed, if containing both embryonic leaves and flowers.


Image gallery

File:Alnus glutinosa bud 2.jpg, ''
Alnus glutinosa ''Alnus glutinosa'', the common alder, black alder, European alder, European black alder, or just alder, is a species of tree in the family (biology), family Betulaceae, native plant, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. ...

Alnus glutinosa
'' bud File:Tilia platyphallos bud.jpg, ''
Tilia ''Tilia'' is a genus of about 30 species of trees or bushes, native throughout most of the temperateness, temperate Northern Hemisphere. The tree is known as linden for the European species, and basswood for North American species. In Britain and ...

Tilia
'' bud File:Buds of Fraxinus excelsior 03.jpg, Black buds of a European ash, ''
Fraxinus excelsior ''Fraxinus'' , English name ash, is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The t ...

Fraxinus excelsior
'' File:Bud1web.jpg, An opening
inflorescence An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). Th ...
bud at left, that will develop like the one to its right File:Flower bud of Sunflower - Helianthus.JPG, Inflorescence bud of a
sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also re ...

sunflower
File:Quince Blossom with removed watermark.jpg, A
quince The quince (; ''Cydonia oblonga'') is the sole member of the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie su ...

quince
's flower bud with spirally folded petals File:Flower Buds.jpeg, Opening ''
Nelumbo ''Nelumbo'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...

Nelumbo
'' flower buds File:Coreopsis tinctoria cultivar Uptick Cream and Red 8.JPG, Opening ''Coreopsis tinctoria'' flower buds


References

{{Authority control Plant physiology
Plant morphology ''Plant morphology'' is the field in botany that studies the diversity in forms, with the naked eye or slight optical magnification. This is opposed to plant anatomy (see :Plant anatomy) that needs to cut into plants to be able to study its subject, ...