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Breadfruit (''Artocarpus altilis'') is a species of
flowering tree
flowering tree
in the
mulberry ''Morus'', a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In ...
and
jackfruit The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to t ...

jackfruit
(''Artocarpus heterophyllus'') family (
Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 38 genera and over 1100 species. Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less so in temperate climates; however ...

Moraceae
) believed to be a
domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that sec ...
descendant of ''
Artocarpus camansi ''Artocarpus camansi'', the breadnut, is a species of medium-sized tree in the family Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiosperm ...
'' originating in
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
, the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
, and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. It was initially spread to
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
via the
Austronesian expansion The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eas ...
. It was further spread to other tropical regions of the world during the Colonial Era. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century. Today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions, including lowland
Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or ...

Central America
, northern
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
, and the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
. In addition to the fruit serving as a
staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...

staple food
in many cultures, the light, sturdy
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
of breadfruit has been used for
outrigger An outrigger is a projecting structure on a boat, with specific meaning depending on types of vessel. Outriggers may also refer to legs on a wheeled vehicle that are folded out when it needs stabilization, for example on a crane that lifts ...
s, ships, and houses in the tropics. Breadfruit is closely related to ''
Artocarpus camansi ''Artocarpus camansi'', the breadnut, is a species of medium-sized tree in the family Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiosperm ...
'' (breadnut or seeded breadfruit) of New Guinea, the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
, and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, '' Artocarpus blancoi'' (''tipolo'' or ''antipolo'') of the Philippines, and '' Artocarpus mariannensis'' (''dugdug'') of
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
, all of which are sometimes also referred to as "breadfruit". It is also closely related to the jackfruit.


History

According to
DNA fingerprinting DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene mole ...
studies, the wild seeded ancestor of breadfruit is the breadnut (''
Artocarpus camansi ''Artocarpus camansi'', the breadnut, is a species of medium-sized tree in the family Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiosperm ...
'') which is native to
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...

New Guinea
, the
Maluku Islands The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas () (''Molukken'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piec ...

Maluku Islands
, and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. It was one of the
canoe plants One of the major human migration events was the maritime settlement of the islands upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Euro ...
spread by
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
voyagers around 3,000 years ago into
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
,
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...

Melanesia
, and
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a ...

Polynesia
, where it was not native. ''A. camansi'' was domesticated and selectively bred in Polynesia, giving rise to the mostly seedless ''Artocarpus altilis''. Micronesian breadfruit also show evidence of hybridization with the native '' Artocarpus mariannensis'', while most Polynesian and Melanesian cultivars do not. This indicates that Micronesia was initially colonized separately from Polynesia and Melanesia through two different migration events which later came into contact with each other in eastern Micronesia.
Sir Joseph Banks Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observat ...
and others saw the value of breadfruit as a highly productive food in 1769, when stationed in
Tahiti Tahiti (; Tahitian ; ; previously also known as Otaheite) is the largest island of the Windward group of the Society Islands The Society Islands (french: Îles de la Société, officially ''Archipel de la Société;'' ty, Tōtaiete mā) a ...

Tahiti
as part of the expedition commanded by
Captain James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...
. The late-18th-century quest for cheap, high-energy food sources for
slaves Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property. Slavery typically involves the enslaved per ...
in British colonies prompted colonial administrators and plantation owners to call for the plant to be brought to the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
. As president of the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
, Banks provided a cash bounty and gold medal for success in this endeavor, and successfully lobbied his friends in government and the Admiralty for a British Naval expedition. In 1787,
William Bligh Vice-admiral (Royal Navy), Vice-Admiral William Bligh (9 September 1754 – 7 December 1817) was an officer of the Royal Navy and a colonial administrator. The Mutiny on the Bounty occurred during his command of in 1789; after being set adri ...
was appointed captain of , and ordered to proceed to the South Pacific to collect the plants; this voyage was interrupted by
mutiny Mutiny is a revolt among a group of people (typically of a military, of a crew or of a crew of Piracy, pirates) to oppose, change, or overthrow an organization to which they were previously loyal. The term is commonly used for a rebellion among ...

mutiny
, and the plants never arrived. In 1791, Bligh commanded a second expedition with and , which collected seedless breadfruit plants in Tahiti and transported these to
St. Helena Saint Helena () is a British possession in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote volcanic tropical island west of the coast of south-western Africa, and east of Rio de Janeiro in South America. It is one of three constituent parts of the ...

St. Helena
, in the Atlantic, and and
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
in the West Indies. Although Bligh won the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
medal for his efforts, the introduction was not entirely successful, as most slaves refused to eat the new food.


Description

Breadfruit trees grow to a height of . The large and thick
leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ...

leaves
are deeply cut into
pinnate Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather Feathers are epidermis (zoology), epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both Bird, avian (bird) and some non-avian (non-bird) and ...
lobes. All parts of the tree yield
latex Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class o ...

latex
, which is useful for boat
caulking Caulk or, less frequently, caulking is a material used to seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade ...

caulking
. The trees are
monoecious Monoecy (; adjective form: monoecious ) is a sexual system A sexual system is a pattern of sex allocationSex allocation is the allocation of resources to male versus female reproduction in sexual species.Charnov EL. (1982). ''The Theory of Sex A ...
, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
s emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers. The latter grow into capitula, which are capable of
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
just three days later. Pollination occurs mainly by fruit bats, but cultivated varieties produce fruit without pollination. The compound, false fruit develops from the swollen
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
, and originates from 1,500-2,000 flowers visible on the skin of the fruit as hexagon-like disks. Breadfruit is one of the highest-yielding food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more grapefruit-sized fruits per season, requiring limited care. In the
South Pacific The South Pacific is the Southern Hemisphere portion of the Pacific Ocean, Earth's largest oceanic division, and which includes several islands and archipelagos. It may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * South Pacific (novel), ''South Paci ...

South Pacific
, the trees yield 50 to 150 fruits per year, usually round, oval or oblong weighing 0.25–6 kg. Productivity varies between wet and dry areas. Studies in
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
indicate a reasonable potential of . The ovoid fruit has a rough surface, and each fruit is divided into many
achene An achene (; Greek ἀ, ''a'', privative A privative, named from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rom ...

achene
s, each achene surrounded by a fleshy
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
and growing on a fleshy
receptacle Receptacle may refer to: Biology * Receptacle (botany), a plant anatomical part * Seminal receptacle, a sperm storage site in some insects Electrical engineering * Auxiliary car power outlet, formerly known as ''Cigarette lighter receptacle'', a ...
. Most selectively bred
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s have
seedless fruit A seedless fruit is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. T ...
, whereas seeded varieties are grown mainly for their edible seeds. Breadfruit is usually propagated using
root cutting stem cutting has been coaxed to form new roots, and is now a complete plant. A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative reproduction, vegetative (asexual) plant propagation, propagation. A piece of the Plant st ...
s. Breadfruit is closely related to the breadnut, from which it might have been naturally selected. It is noticeably similar in appearance to its relative of the same
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
, the
jackfruit The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to t ...

jackfruit
(''
Artocarpus heterophyllus The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the Common fig, fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae). Its origin is in the region between the Western Ghats of southern India and the rainf ...

Artocarpus heterophyllus
''). Breadfruit has hundreds of
varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, ...
and thousands of common names varying according to its geographic distribution, and is cultivated in some 90 countries. The closely related ''
Artocarpus camansi ''Artocarpus camansi'', the breadnut, is a species of medium-sized tree in the family Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiosperm ...
'' can be distinguished from ''A. altilis'' by having spinier fruits with numerous seeds. '' Artocarpus mariannensis'' can be distinguished by having dark green elongated fruits with darker yellow flesh, as well as entire or shallowly lobed leaves.


Habitat

Breadfruit is an equatorial lowland species. It grows best below elevations of , but is found at elevations of . Preferred soils are neutral to
alkali In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo dur ...

alkali
ne ( pH of 6.1–7.4) and either sand, sandy loam, loam or sandy clay
loam Loam (in geology and soil science) is soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements tha ...
. Breadfruit is able to grow in
coral sand Image:CoralSandAruba.jpg, Coral sand from a beach on Aruba Coral sand is a collection of sand of particles originating in tropical and sub-tropical Marine (ocean), marine environments from bioerosion of limestone skeletal material of marine organi ...
s and
saline soils 249x249px, Saline incrustation in a PVC irrigation pipe from Brazil Soil salinity is the salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; sal ...
. The breadfruit is ultra-tropical, requiring a temperature range of and an annual rainfall of .


Nutrition

Breadfruit is 71% water, 27%
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s, 1%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
and negligible in
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
(see table). In a 100 gram amount, raw breadfruit is a rich source (35% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in ...
, DV) of
vitamin C Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain ca ...

vitamin C
, and a moderate source (10% DV each) of
thiamin Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydroge ...

thiamin
and
potassium Potassium is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, b ...

potassium
, with no other nutrients in significant content.


Uses


Food

Breadfruit is a
staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...

staple food
in many tropical regions. Most breadfruit varieties produce fruit throughout the year. Both ripe and unripe fruit have culinary uses; unripe breadfruit is cooked before consumption. Before being eaten, the fruit are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. When cooked, the taste of moderately ripe breadfruit is described as
potato The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found thro ...

potato
-like, or similar to freshly baked bread. One breadfruit tree can produce each season. Because breadfruit trees usually produce large crops at certain times of the year, preservation of harvested fruit is an issue. One traditional preservation technique is to bury peeled and washed fruits in a leaf-lined pit where they
ferment Fermentation is a metabolism, metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic Substrate (chemistry), substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in ...
over several weeks and produce a sour, sticky paste. So stored, the product may endure a year or more, and some pits are reported to have produced edible contents more than 20 years later. Fermented breadfruit mash goes by many names such as ''mahr'', ''ma'', ''masi'', ''furo'', and ''bwiru'', among others. Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed into a variety of other foods. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented breadfruit mash mixed with
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
milk baked in
banana leaves The banana leaf is the leaf of the banana plant, which may produce up to 40 leaves in a growing cycle. The leaves have a wide range of applications because they are large, flexible, waterproof and decorative. They are used for cooking, wrapping, ...

banana leaves
. Whole fruits can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods, such as coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats, or other fruits. The filled fruit can be cooked further so the flavor of the filling permeates the flesh of the breadfruit.


Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands

The seedless breadfruit is found in
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...

Brunei
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
and
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, where it is called . It is commonly made into
fritters A fritter is a portion of meat, seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digi ...

fritters
and eaten as snacks. Breadfruit fritters are sold as local street food. In the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, breadfruit is known as in
Tagalog Tagalog may refer to: Language * Tagalog language Tagalog (, ; ) is an Austronesian languages, Austronesian language spoken as a first language by the ethnic Tagalog people, who make up a quarter of the population of the Philippines, and as a se ...
and in the
Visayan languages The Bisayan languages or the Visayan languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of co ...

Visayan languages
. It is also called (also spelled ), along with the closely related ''
Artocarpus camansi ''Artocarpus camansi'', the breadnut, is a species of medium-sized tree in the family Moraceae The Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiosperm ...
'', and the
endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gro ...
'' Artocarpus blancoi'' ( or ). All three species, as well as the closely related
jackfruit The jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus''), also known as jack tree, is a species of tree in the fig The fig is the edible fruit of ''Ficus carica'', a species of small tree in the flowering plant family Moraceae. Native plant, Native to t ...

jackfruit
, are commonly used much in the same way in savory dishes. The immature fruits are most commonly eaten as (cooked with
coconut milk Coconut milk is an opaque, milky-white liquid extracted from the grated pulp of mature coconuts. The opacity (optics), opacity and rich taste of coconut milk are due to its high coconut oil, oil content, most of which is saturated fat. Coconu ...
). . In the
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
an staple food called , the traditional ingredient of mashed
taro ''Colocasia esculenta'' is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corm A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant ...

taro
root can be replaced by, or augmented with, mashed breadfruit. The resulting "breadfruit poi" is called .


South Asia

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
, it is cooked as a curry using coconut milk and spices (which becomes a side dish) or boiled. Boiled breadfruit is a famous main meal. It is often consumed with scraped coconut or ''coconut sambol'', made of scraped coconut, red chili powder and salt mixed with a dash of
lime Lime refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime may also refer to: Botany * Austra ...
juice. A traditional sweet snack made of finely sliced, sun-dried breadfruit chips deep-fried in coconut oil and dipped in heated treacle or sugar syrup is known as ''rata del petti''. In
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
,
fritter A fritter is a portion of meat, seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digi ...

fritter
s of breadfruit, called ''jeev kadge phodi'' in Konkani or ''kadachakka varuthath'' in
Malayalam Malayalam (; , ) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogni ...

Malayalam
are a local delicacy in coastal
Karnataka Karnataka (; ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in f ...

Karnataka
and
Kerala Kerala ( ; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Kerala
. In
Seychelles Seychelles (; ), officially the Republic of Seychelles (french: link=no, République des Seychelles; Creole: ''La Repiblik Sesel''), is an archipelagic island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country ...

Seychelles
, it was traditionally eaten as a substitute for rice, as an accompaniment to the mains. It would either be consumed boiled (''friyapen bwi'') or grilled (''friyapen griye''), where it would be put whole in the wood fire used for cooking the main meal and then taken out when ready. It is also eaten as a dessert, called ''ladob friyapen'', where it is boiled in coconut milk, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon and a pinch of salt.


Caribbean and Latin America

In
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primari ...

Belize
, the Mayan people call it ''masapan''. In
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
, breadfruit is called ''panapen'' or ''pana'', for short, although the name ''pana'' is often used to refer to breadnut, seeds of which have traditionally been boiled, peeled and eaten whole. In some inland regions it is also called ''mapén'' and used to make ''
pasteles ''Pasteles'' (; singular ''pastel''), also known as pastelles (singular pastelle) in the English-speaking Caribbean, are a traditional dish in several Latin American and Caribbean countries. In Puerto Rico Puerto Rico ('; abbreviated PR, ...

pasteles
'' just with breadfruit. Breadfruit is often served boiled with a mixture of sauteed '''' (salted cod fish), olive oil and onions. Mostly as '''' where about 1 inch chunks are fried, lighty flattered and fried again. '' de pana'' fried breadfruit mashed with olive oil, garlic, broth, and chicharrón. ''Rellenos de Pana'' is a fritter. Breadfruit is grated with squash and mixed with flour and salt, it is then filled with cheese, meat or sea food rolled into a ball and fried. Ripe breadfruit is used in desserts: '' flan de pana'' (breadfruit custard) and ice cream (). In the
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with ...

Dominican Republic
, it is called ''buen pan'' or "good bread". In
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
, breadfruit is boiled with salted meat and mashed with butter to make breadfruit coucou. It is usually eaten with saucy meat dishes. In
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
, breadfruit is boiled in soups or roasted on stove top, in the oven or on wood coal. It is usually eaten with the national dish
ackee The ackee, also known as ankye, achee, akee, ackee apple or ayee (''Blighia sapida'') is a fruit of the Sapindaceae sapindus, soapberry family, as are the lychee and the longan. It is native to tropics, tropical West Africa. The scientific name ...
and salt fish. The ripe fruit is used in salads or fried as a side dish.


Timber and other uses

Breadfruit was widely used in a variety of ways among
Pacific Islanders Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
. Its lightweight wood (
specific gravity Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemon ...
of 0.27) is resistant to
termite Termites are eusocial Eusociality (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...

termite
s and
shipworm The shipworms are marine bivalve Bivalvia (), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic ...

shipworm
s, so it is used as timber for structures and
outrigger canoe Outrigger boats are various watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional ...
s. Its
wood pulp Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fiber Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ethers or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants ...
can also be used to make
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

paper
, called breadfruit ''tapa''.
Native Hawaiians Native Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians ( haw, kānaka ʻōiwi, , and ), are the Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonou ...
used its sticky
latex Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class o ...

latex
to
trap A trap is a Trapping#Trap_types, mechanical device used to capture or restrain an animal for purposes such as hunting, pest control, or ecological research. Trap or TRAP may also refer to: Art and entertainment Films and television * Trap (201 ...
bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

bird
s, whose
feather Feathers are epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage Plumage ( "feather") is a layer of feather Feathers are epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both avi ...

feather
s were made into
cloaks A cloak is a type of loose garment worn over clothing, mostly but not always as outerwear for outdoor wear, serving the same purpose as an overcoat, protecting the wearer from the weather. It may form part of a uniform. Cloaks have been and ar ...
. The wood of the breadfruit tree was one of the most valuable timbers in the construction of traditional houses in Samoan architecture. Breadfruit contains
phytochemical Phytochemicals are chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by che ...
s having potential as an
insect repellent An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces to discourage insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect repellents help prevent and cont ...
. The parts of the fruits that are discarded can be used to feed livestock. The leaves of breadfruit trees can also be browsed by cattle.


In culture

On
Puluwat Image:Puluwat carolinesISS002-E-9207.PNG, 300px, NASA picture of Poluwat Atoll. Poluwat, also Polowat, formerly Puluwat, is a coral atoll and a municipality of Chuuk State, Chuuk state, Federated States of Micronesia. Geography Polowat is located ...
in the Caroline Islands, in the context of sacred ''yitang'' lore, breadfruit (''poi'') is a figure of speech for knowledge. This lore is organized into five categories: war, magic, meetings, navigation, and ''breadfruit''. According to an etiological Hawaiian mythology, Hawaiian myth, the breadfruit originated from the sacrifice of the war god Kū. After deciding to live secretly among mortals as a farmer, Kū married and had children. He and his family lived happily until a famine seized their island. When he could no longer bear to watch his children suffer, Kū told his wife that he could deliver them from starvation, but to do so he would have to leave them. Reluctantly she agreed, and at her word, Kū descended into the ground right where he had stood until only the top of his head was visible. His family waited around the spot he had last been, day and night, watering it with their tears until suddenly, a small green shoot appeared where Kū had stood. Quickly, the shoot grew into a tall and leafy tree that was laden with heavy breadfruits that Kū's family and neighbors gratefully ate, joyfully saved from starvation. Though they are widely distributed throughout the Pacific, many breadfruit Hybrid (biology)#Plant hybrid, hybrids and
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
s are seedless or otherwise biologically incapable of naturally dispersing long distances. Therefore, it is clear that humans aided distribution of the plant in the Pacific, specifically prehistoric groups who colonized the Pacific Islands. To investigate the patterns of human migration throughout the Pacific, scientists have used molecular dating of breadfruit hybrids and cultivars in concert with anthropological data. Results support the west-to-east migration hypothesis, in which the Lapita people are thought to have traveled from
Melanesia Melanesia (, ) is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...

Melanesia
to numerous
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; fj, Kai-Polinesia; sm, Polenisia; rar, Porinetia; ty, Pōrīnetia; tvl, Polenisia; tkl, Polenihia) is a ...

Polynesia
n islands. The world's largest collection of breadfruit varieties was established by botanist Diane Ragone, from over 20 years' travel to 50 Pacific islands, on a plot outside of Hana, Hawaii, Hana, on the isolated east coast of Maui (
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
).


Propagation

Breadfruit is plant propagation, propagated mainly by seeds, although seedless fruit, seedless breadfruit can be propagated by transplanting sucker (botany), suckers that grow off the surface roots of the tree. The roots can be purposefully injured to induce the growth of suckers, which are then separated from the root and planted in a pot or directly transplanted into the ground. Pruning also induces sucker growth. Sucker cuttings are placed in plastic bags containing a mixture of soil, peat and sand, and kept in the shade while moistened with liquid fertilizer. When roots are developed, the transplant is put in full sun until time for planting in the orchard. For propagation in quantity, root cuttings are preferred, using segments about thick and long. Rooting may take up to 5 months to develop, with the young trees ready for planting when they are high.


Gallery

Image:Breadfruit drawing.jpg, Drawing of breadfruit by John Frederick Miller File:Breadfruit 4.jpg, alt=Artocarpus altilis, Breadfruit in Mangalore File:Artocarpus altilis.jpg, alt=Artocarpus altilis, ''Artocarpus altilis'' in Hawai'i File:Breadfruit pounder, French Polynesia, Tahitian people, polished basalt, HAA.JPG, A polished basalt breadfruit pounder File:Artocarpus altilis 麵包樹 20210412100900 01.jpg, Male flowers


See also

* Artocarpus camansi, Breadnut (''Artocarpus camansi'') * Cempedak (''Artocarpus integer'') * Jackfruit (''Artocarpus heterophyllus'') * ''Treculia'' – known as African breadfruit


References


External links


Breadfruit Institute
{{Authority control Artocarpus Crops originating from Asia Crops originating from the Pacific Edible fruits Flora of Malesia Flora of Melanesia Flora of Papuasia Flora of Polynesia Flora of the Southwestern Pacific Fruit trees Fruit vegetables Hawaiian cuisine Jamaican cuisine Oceanian cuisine Polynesian cuisine Staple foods Tropical agriculture Tropical fruit Barbadian cuisine