HOME

TheInfoList




A biome is a collection of
plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Docto ...

plants
and
animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animals
that have common characteristics for the
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...

environment
they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological
communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...
that have formed in response to a shared physical
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
. ''Biome'' is a broader term than ''
habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers at the ...

habitat
''; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the
human microbiome The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiota Microbiota are "ecological communities of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism'' from the el, ...
is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on or in a human body. A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales. The biotas of the Earth make up the
biosphere The biosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
.


History of the concept

The term was suggested in 1916 by Clements, originally as a synonym for
biotic community aquatic and terrestrial food web. A biocenosis (UK English, ''biocoenosis'', also biocenose, biocoenose, biotic community, biological community, Community (ecology), ecological community, life assemblage,) coined by Karl Möbius in 1877, des ...
of Möbius (1877). Later, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of
phytophysiognomy
phytophysiognomy
,
formation Formation may refer to: Linguistics * Back-formation, the process of creating a new lexeme by removing or affixes * Word formation, the creation of a new word by adding affixes Mathematics and science * Cave formation or speleothem, a secondary m ...
and
vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular re ...

vegetation
(used in opposition to
flora Flora is all the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...

flora
), with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.Coutinho, L. M. (2006). O conceito de bioma. ''Acta Bot. Bras.'' 20(1): 13–23

.
In 1935, Arthur Tansley, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea, calling it
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
. The
International Biological Program The International Biological Program (IBP) was an effort between 1964 and 1974 to coordinate large-scale ecological and environmental studies. Organized in the wake of the successful International Geophysical Year The International Geophysical Ye ...
(1964–74) projects popularized the concept of biome. However, in some contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. In German literature, particularly in the
Walter Walter may refer to: People * Walter (name) Walter or Walther is a German masculine given name derived from Old High German ''Walthari'', composed of the elements ''walt-'' (Proto-Germanic ''*wald-'') "power", "forest" and ''hari'' (Proto-Germani ...
terminology, the term is used similarly as
biotope A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants a ...

biotope
(a concrete geographical unit), while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology—irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name—and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome" (biomes determined by climate zone, altitude or soil).Walter, H. & Breckle, S-W. (2002). ''Walter's Vegetation of the Earth: The Ecological Systems of the Geo-Biosphere''. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 86

.
In Brazilian literature, the term "biome" is sometimes used as synonym of "
biogeographic province This page features a list of biogeographic Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit ...
", an area based on species composition (the term "
floristic province A phytochorion, in phytogeography, is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species. Adjacent phytochoria do not usually have a sharp boundary, but rather a soft one, a transitional area in which many species from both re ...
" being used when plant species are considered), or also as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, and of a certain vegetation form. Both include many biomes in fact.


Classifications

To divide the world into a few ecological zones is difficult, notably because of the small-scale variations that exist everywhere on earth and because of the gradual changeover from one biome to the other. Their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them. A 1978 study on North American grasslands found a positive logistic correlation between
evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of water evaporation and transpiration from a surface area to the Atmosphere of Earth, atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and ...

evapotranspiration
in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr. The general results from the study were that precipitation and water use led to above-ground primary production, while and temperature lead to below-ground primary production (roots), and temperature and water lead to cool and warm season growth habit. These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge's bioclassification scheme (see below), which were then later simplified by Whittaker. The number of classification schemes and the variety of determinants used in those schemes, however, should be taken as strong indicators that biomes do not fit perfectly into the classification schemes created.


Holdridge (1947, 1964) life zones

Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and
rainfall Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: cohesion, Van der Waals force">Cohesion_(chemistry).html" ;"title="surface tension, Cohesion (chemistry)">cohesion, ...

rainfall
on
vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular re ...

vegetation
under the assumption that these two factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat. Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called "humidity provinces", which are clearly visible in his diagram. While this scheme largely ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important.


Allee (1949) biome-types

The principal biome-types by Allee (1949): *
Tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

Tundra
*
Taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (d ...

Taiga
* Deciduous forest * Grasslands *
Desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

Desert
* High plateaus * Tropical forest * Minor terrestrial biomes


Kendeigh (1961) biomes

The principal biomes of the world by Kendeigh (1961): * Terrestrial **
Temperate deciduous forest #REDIRECT Temperate deciduous forest#REDIRECT Temperate deciduous forestTemperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are a variety of temperate forest 'dominated' by trees that lose their leaves each year. They are found in areas with warm ...
**
Coniferous Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They ...

Coniferous
forest **
Woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plu ...

Woodland
**
Chaparral Chaparral ( ) is a shrubland Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominance (ecology), dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, Herbaceous plant, herbs, and geophytes. Shrublan ...

Chaparral
**
Tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

Tundra
**
Grassland Grasslands are areas where the vegetation Vegetation is an assemblage of species and the they provide. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular , life forms, structure, extent, or any other specific or geographic ...

Grassland
**
Desert A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of ...

Desert
** Tropical
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
**
Tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...

Tropical
forest * Marine ** Oceanic plankton and
nekton Nekton or necton (from the ) refers to the actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water. The term was proposed by German biologist Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a Germ ...
** Balanoid-gastropod-
thallophyte Thallophytes (Thallophyta or Thallobionta) are a polyphyletic group of non-motile organisms traditionally described as "thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or "lower plants". They form an abandoned phylum, division of kingdom Plantae that ...
**
Pelecypod Bivalvia (), in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class (biology), class of marine and freshwater Mollusca, molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged p ...
-annelid **
Coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a ver ...

Coral
reef


Whittaker (1962, 1970, 1975) biome-types

Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature. His scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridge's; more readily accessible, but missing Holdridge's greater specificity. Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling. He had previously compiled a review of biome classifications.


Key definitions for understanding Whittaker's scheme

*
Physiognomy Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις '' physis'' meaning "nature" and '' gnomon'' meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the practice of assessing a person's character or personality from their outer appearance—especially the face. The term ...

Physiognomy
: the apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of ecological communities or species. * Biome: a grouping of terrestrial ecosystems on a given continent that is similar in vegetation structure, physiognomy, features of the environment and characteristics of their animal communities. *
Formation Formation may refer to: Linguistics * Back-formation, the process of creating a new lexeme by removing or affixes * Word formation, the creation of a new word by adding affixes Mathematics and science * Cave formation or speleothem, a secondary m ...
: a major kind of community of plants on a given continent. * Biome-type: grouping of convergent biomes or formations of different continents, defined by physiognomy. * Formation-type: a grouping of convergent formations. Whittaker's distinction between biome and formation can be simplified: formation is used when applied to
plant communitiesA plant community is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation type Vegetation classification is the ...
only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittaker's convention of biome-type or formation-type is a broader method to categorize similar communities.Whittaker, Robert H. Communities and Ecosystems. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, Inc., 1975.


Whittaker's parameters for classifying biome-types

Whittaker used what he called "gradient analysis" of ecocline patterns to relate communities to climate on a worldwide scale. Whittaker considered four main ecoclines in the terrestrial realm. # Intertidal levels: The wetness gradient of areas that are exposed to alternating water and dryness with intensities that vary by location from high to low tide # Climatic moisture gradient # Temperature gradient by altitude # Temperature gradient by latitude Along these gradients, Whittaker noted several trends that allowed him to qualitatively establish biome-types: * The gradient runs from favorable to the extreme, with corresponding changes in productivity. * Changes in physiognomic complexity vary with how favorable of an environment exists (decreasing community structure and reduction of stratal differentiation as the environment becomes less favorable). * Trends in the diversity of structure follow trends in species diversity; alpha and beta species diversities decrease from favorable to extreme environments. * Each growth-form (i.e. grasses, shrubs, etc.) has its characteristic place of maximum importance along the ecoclines. * The same growth forms may be dominant in similar environments in widely different parts of the world. Whittaker summed the effects of gradients (3) and (4) to get an overall temperature gradient and combined this with a gradient (2), the moisture gradient, to express the above conclusions in what is known as the Whittaker classification scheme. The scheme graphs average annual precipitation (x-axis) versus average annual temperature (y-axis) to classify biome-types.


Biome-types

# Tropical rainforest # Tropical seasonal rainforest #* deciduous #* semideciduous # Temperate giant rainforest # Montane rainforest # Temperate deciduous forest # Temperate evergreen forest #* needleleaf #* sclerophyll # Subarctic-subalpin needle-leaved forests (taiga) # Elfin woodland # Thorn forests and woodlands # Thorn scrub # Temperate woodland # Temperate shrublands #* deciduous #* heath #* sclerophyll #* subalpine-needleleaf #* subalpine-broadleaf # Savanna # Temperate grassland # Alpine grasslands # Tundra # Tropical desert # Warm-temperate desert # Cool temperate desert scrub # Arctic-alpine desert # Bog # Tropical fresh-water swamp forest # Temperate fresh-water swamp forest # Mangrove swamp # Salt marsh # Wetland


Goodall (1974–) ecosystem types

The multiauthored series ''Ecosystems of the world'', edited by David W. Goodall, provides a comprehensive coverage of the major "ecosystem types or biomes" on earth:


Walter (1976, 2002) zonobiomes

The eponymously-named
Heinrich WalterHeinrich Karl Walter (21 October 1898 – 15 October 1989) was a German-Russian botanist Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic ent ...
classification scheme considers the seasonality of temperature and precipitation. The system, also assessing precipitation and temperature, finds nine major biome types, with the important climate traits and
vegetation type Vegetation classification is the process of classifying and mapping the vegetation over an area of the earth's surface. Vegetation classification is often performed by state based agencies as part of land use, resource and environmental management. ...
s. The boundaries of each biome correlate to the conditions of moisture and cold stress that are strong determinants of plant form, and therefore the vegetation that defines the region. Extreme conditions, such as flooding in a swamp, can create different kinds of communities within the same biome.


Schultz (1988) ecozones

Schultz (1988) defined nine ecozones (note that his concept of ecozone is more similar to the concept of biome used in this article than to the concept of ecozone of BBC):Schultz, J. ''Die Ökozonen der Erde'', 1st ed., Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1988, 488 pp.; 2nd ed., 1995, 535 pp.; 3rd ed., 2002. Transl.: ''The Ecozones of the World: The Ecological Divisions of the Geosphere''. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995; 2nd ed., 2005

# polar/subpolar zone # boreal zone # humid mid-latitudes # arid mid-latitudes # tropical/subtropical arid lands # Mediterranean-type subtropics # seasonal tropics # humid subtropics # humid tropics


Bailey (1989) ecoregions

Robert Bailey (geographer), Robert G. Bailey nearly developed a
biogeographical Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often define ...

biogeographical
classification system of
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
s for the United States in a map published in 1976. He subsequently expanded the system to include the rest of North America in 1981, and the world in 1989. The Bailey system, based on climate, is divided into seven domains (polar, humid temperate, dry, humid, and humid tropical), with further divisions based on other climate characteristics (subarctic, warm temperate, hot temperate, and subtropical; marine and continental; lowland and mountain). * 100 Polar Domain ** 120
Tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

Tundra
Division (Köppen: Ft) ** M120 Tundra Division – Mountain Provinces ** 130 Subarctic Division (Köppen: ) ** M130 Subarctic Division – Mountain Provinces * 200 Humid Temperate Domain ** 210 Warm Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dcb) ** M210 Warm Continental Division – Mountain Provinces ** 220 Hot Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dca) ** M220 Hot Continental Division – Mountain Provinces ** 230 Subtropical Division (Köppen: portion of Cf) ** M230 Subtropical Division – Mountain Provinces ** 240 Marine Division (Köppen: Do) ** M240 Marine Division – Mountain Provinces ** 250 Prairie Division (Köppen: arid portions of Cf, Dca, Dcb) ** 260 Mediterranean Division (Köppen: Cs) ** M260 Mediterranean Division – Mountain Provinces * 300 Dry Domain ** 310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division ** M310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division – Mountain Provinces ** 320 Tropical/Subtropical Desert Division ** 330 Temperate Steppe Division ** 340 Temperate Desert Division * 400 Humid Tropical Domain ** 410 Savanna Division ** 420 Rainforest Division


Olson & Dinerstein (1998) biomes for WWF / Global 200

A team of biologists convened by the
World Wildlife Fund In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been conceptualized differently in different fields. Some conceptions see the worl ...
(WWF) developed a scheme that divided the world's land area into
biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
s (called "ecozones" in a BBC scheme), and these into
ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

ecoregions
(Olson & Dinerstein, 1998, etc.). Each ecoregion is characterized by a main biome (also called major habitat type).Olson, D. M. & E. Dinerstein (1998). The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth’s most biologically valuable ecoregions. ''Conservation Biol.'' 12:502–515

.
Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V. N., Underwood, E. C., D'Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Hedao, P., Kassem, K. R. (2001). Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. ''Bioscience'' 51(11):933–938

.
This classification is used to define the
Global 200 The Global 200 is the list of ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an and geographically defined area that is smaller than a , which in turn is smaller than a . Ecoregions cover relatively large areas o ...
list of
ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
s identified by the WWF as priorities for conservation. For the
terrestrial ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including hu ...
, there is a specific EcoID, format XXnnNN (XX is the
biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
, nn is the biome number, NN is the individual number).


Biogeographic realms (terrestrial and freshwater)

* NA:
Nearctic The Nearctic realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Image:Ecozone Nearctic.svg, 400px, The Nearctic realm The Nearctic realm covers most of North America, including Greenland, Central Florida, and t ...
* PA:
Palearctic The Palearctic or Palaearctic is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across all of Eurasia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, and North Africa. The realm consists of several bioregions: the Euro-Siberi ...
* AT:
Afrotropic The Afrotropical realm is one of Earth's eight biogeographic realms. It includes Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square&nbs ...
* IM:
Indomalaya The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms. It extends across most of South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology Th ...
* AA:
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...
* NT:
Neotropic The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting Earth's land surface. Physically, it includes the tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the T ...
* OC:
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
* AN:
Antarctic The Antarctic (US English or , UK English or and or ) is a around 's , opposite the region around the . The Antarctic comprises the continent of , the and other located on the or south of the . The Antarctic region includes the , wa ...
The applicability of the realms scheme above - based on Udvardy (1975)—to most freshwater taxa is unresolved.Abell, R., M. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. Contreras-Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, E. Armijo, J. Higgins, T. J. Heibel, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopez, R. E. d. Reis, J. G. Lundberg, M. H. Sabaj Perez, and P. Petry. (2008). Freshwater ecoregions of the world: A new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. ''BioScience'' 58:403–414

.


Biogeographic realms (marine)

*
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
*
Temperate Northern Atlantic The Temperate Northern Atlantic is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate and subtropical waters of the North Atlantic Ocean and connecting seas, including the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea co ...
*
Temperate Northern Pacific The Temperate Northern Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate waters of the northern Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arcti ...
*
Tropical Atlantic The Tropical Atlantic realm is one of twelve marine realms that cover the world's coastal seas and continental shelf, continental shelves. The Tropical Atlantic covers both sides of the Atlantic. In the western Atlantic, it extends from Bermuda, ...
*
Western Indo-Pacific The Western Indo-Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the eastern and central Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the ...
*
Central Indo-Pacific The Central Indo-Pacific is a biogeographic region of Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean i ...
*
Eastern Indo-Pacific The Eastern Indo-Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters around island groups in the central Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends f ...
*
Tropical Eastern Pacific The Tropical Eastern Pacific is one of the twelve marine realms that cover the shallow oceans of the world. The Tropical Eastern Pacific extends along the Pacific Coast of the Americas, from the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula in the ...
*
Temperate South America Temperate South America is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate and subtropical waters of South America, including both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the continent and adjacent islands. It also includes the rem ...
*
Temperate Southern Africa Temperate Southern Africa is a biogeography, biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate waters of southern Africa, where the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean meet. It includes the coast of South Africa and Namibia, and reache ...
*
Temperate Australasia Temperate Australasia is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate and subtropical waters of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the ...
*
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or ...

Southern Ocean
Spalding, M. D. et al. (2007). Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. ''BioScience'' 57: 573–583

.


Biomes (terrestrial)

#
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forest, is a tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the North ...
(tropical and subtropical, humid) #
Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests The tropics are the region of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% ...
(tropical and subtropical, semihumid) #
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a tropical forest habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that works in th ...
(tropical and subtropical, semihumid) #
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, a ...
(temperate, humid) #
Temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome A biome is a collection of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological ...
(temperate, humid to semihumid) #
Boreal forests/taiga Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic languages, Mongolic and Turkic languages, Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by pinophyta, coniferous ...

Boreal forests/taiga
(subarctic, humid) #
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial biome A biome is a collection of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continen ...
(tropical and subtropical, semiarid) #
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961 that works in the field ...
(temperate, semiarid) #
Flooded grasslands and savannas Flooded grasslands and savannas is a terrestrial biome A biome is a collection of flora, plants and fauna, animals that have common characteristics for the natural environment, environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of co ...
(temperate to tropical, fresh or brackish water inundated) #
Montane grasslands and shrublands Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome A biome is a collection of plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy i ...
(alpine or montane climate) #
Tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

Tundra
(Arctic) #
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The biome is generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform. Summers are typically hot in ...
or
sclerophyll forest in South Africa Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaf, leaves, short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight. The word comes from the Greek ''sklēros'' ...
s (temperate warm, semihumid to semiarid with winter rainfall) #
Deserts and xeric shrublands Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Deserts and xeric (ancient Greek xērós, “dry") shrublands form the largest terrestrial biome, covering 19% of Earth's land surface area. Ecoregions in this ha ...
(temperate to tropical, arid) #
Mangrove A mangrove is a shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Pl ...

Mangrove
(subtropical and tropical, salt water inundated)


Biomes (freshwater)

According to the WWF, the following are classified as
freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...
biomes: * Large
lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable ove ...

lake
s * Large
river deltas A river delta is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Lan ...
* Polar
freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...
s * Montane
freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...
s * Temperate coastal rivers * Temperate floodplain rivers and
wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles ...

wetland
s * Temperate upland rivers * Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers * Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and
wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles ...

wetland
s * Tropical and subtropical upland rivers * Xeric freshwaters and
endorheic basin An endorheic basin (; also spelled endoreic basin or endorreic basin) is a drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheri ...
s *
Oceanic islands upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Saranac_Lake.jpg.html" ;"title="Great Britain">Ireland (l ...


Biomes (marine)

Biomes of the coastal and
continental shelf A continental shelf is a portion of a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth descriptio ...

continental shelf
areas (
neritic zone The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth. From the point of view of marine biology it forms a relatively stable and well-illuminated environment for marine ...
): * Polar * Temperate shelves and sea * Temperate
upwelling Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. Winds are commonly classified by their scale (spatial), spatial ...

upwelling
* Tropical
upwelling Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. Winds are commonly classified by their scale (spatial), spatial ...

upwelling
*


Summary of the scheme

*
Biosphere The biosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
**
Biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
s (terrestrial) (8) ***
Ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

Ecoregions
(867), each characterized by a main biome type (14) ****
Ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
(
biotope A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants a ...

biotope
s) *
Biosphere The biosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
**
Biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
s (freshwater) (8) ***
Ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

Ecoregions
(426), each characterized by a main biome type (12) ****
Ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
(biotopes) *
Biosphere The biosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
** Biogeographic realms (marine) (12) *** () (62) ****
Ecoregions An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...

Ecoregions
(232), each characterized by a main biome type (5) *****
Ecosystems An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syste ...
(biotopes) Example: *
Biosphere The biosphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
**
Biogeographic realm A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeography, biogeographic division of Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial animal, terrestrial organisms. They are subdivided into ecoregions, which are classif ...
:
Palearctic The Palearctic or Palaearctic is the largest of the eight biogeographic realms of the Earth. It stretches across all of Eurasia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, and North Africa. The realm consists of several bioregions: the Euro-Siberi ...

Palearctic
***
Ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including h ...
: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (PA0418); biome type:
temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, a ...
****
Ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

Ecosystem
:
Orjen Orjen (Serbian Cyrillic The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two a ...

Orjen
, vegetation belt between 1,100–1,450 m, Oromediterranean zone, nemoral zone (temperate zone) *****
Biotope A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants a ...

Biotope
: ''Oreoherzogio-Abietetum illyricae'' Fuk. ( Plant list) ****** Plant: Silver fir (''Abies alba'')


Other biomes


Marine biomes

Pruvot (1896) zones or "systems": * Littoral, Littoral zone * Pelagic zone * Abyssal zone Longhurst code, Longhurst (1998) biomes: * Coastal * Polar * Trade wind * Westerly Other marine habitat types (not covered yet by the Global 200/WWF scheme): * Open sea * Deep sea * Hydrothermal vents * Cold seeps * Benthic zone * Pelagic zone (trades and westerlies) * Abyssal * Hadal (ocean trench) * Littoral zone, Littoral/Intertidal zone * Salt marsh * Estuary, Estuaries * Coastal lagoons/Atoll lagoons * Kelp forest * Pack ice


Anthropogenic biomes

Humans have altered global patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. As a result, vegetation forms predicted by conventional biome systems can no longer be observed across much of Earth's land surface as they have been replaced by crop and rangelands or cities. Anthropogenic biomes provide an alternative view of the terrestrial biosphere based on global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems, including agriculture, human settlements, urbanization, forestry and other land use, uses of land. Anthropogenic biomes offer a way to recognize the irreversible coupling of human and ecological systems at global scales and manage Earth's biosphere and anthropogenic biomes. Major anthropogenic biomes: * Dense settlements * Croplands * Rangelands * Forested * Indoor


Microbial biomes


Endolithic biomes

The endolithic biome, consisting entirely of microscopic life in rock porosity, pores and cracks, kilometers beneath the surface, has only recently been discovered, and does not fit well into most classification schemes.


See also

* * * * *


References


External links

*
Biomes of the world (Missouri Botanic Garden)

Global Currents and Terrestrial Biomes Map

WorldBiomes.com
is a site covering the 5 principal world biome types: aquatic, desert, forest, grasslands, and tundra. * UWSP's online textbook ''The Physical Environment'': 

* Panda.org'
Habitats
nbsp;– describes the 14 major terrestrial habitats, 7 major freshwater habitats, and 5 major marine habitats. * Panda.org'
Habitats Simplified
nbsp;– provides simplified explanations for 10 major terrestrial and aquatic habitat types. * UCMP Berkeley'
The World's Biomes
nbsp;– provides lists of characteristics for some biomes and measurements of climate statistics. * Gale/Cengage has an excellen

of terrestrial, aquatic, and man-made biomes with a particular focus on trees native to each, and has detailed descriptions of desert, rain forest, and wetland biomes.
Islands Of Wildness, The Natural Lands Of North America by Jim Bones, a video about continental biomes and climate change.

Dreams Of The Earth, Love Songs For A Troubled Planet by Jim Bones, a poetic video about the North American Biomes and climate change.
* NASA's Earth Observator
Mission: Biomes
gives an wikt:exemplar, exemplar of each biome that is described in detail and provides scientific measurements of the
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
statistics that define each biome. {{Authority control Biomes, Habitats