StructureThe layers of the basal lamina ("BL") and those of the basement membrane ("BM") are described below: composed of type VII collagen extend from the basal lamina into the underlying reticular lamina and loop around collagen bundles. Although found beneath all basal laminae, they are especially numerous in cells of the skin. These layers should not be confused with the , which is found outside the basal lamina.
Basement membraneThe basement membrane is visible under light microscopy. Electron microscopy shows that the basement membrane consists of three layers: the (electron-lucent), (electron-dense), and lamina fibroreticularis (electron-lucent). The lamina densa was formerly known as the basal lamina. The terms basal lamina and basement membrane were often used interchangeably, until it was realised that all three layers seen with the electron microscope represent the single layer seen with the light microscope. This has led to considerable terminological confusion and, if used, the term basal lamina should be confined to its meaning as lamina densa. Some theorize that the lamina lucida is an artifact created when preparing the tissue, and that the lamina lucida is therefore equal to the lamina densa . The term "basal lamina" is usually used with , while the term "basement membrane" is usually used with . Examples of basement membranes include: * * * * The glomerular basement membrane is a special case, consisting of a fusion of the and endothelial basal laminas, and lacking a lamina reticularis. Thus, it consists of an especially thick lamina densa, and two layers of lamina lucida / rara (one from each cell type) on either side of the lamina densa. These two layers are often referred to as lamina rara externa and lamina rara interna.
FunctionThe basal lamina is made and maintained by the cells that sit on it. It acts as a point of attachment for cells. However, it can also have other function such as a permeability barrier in the glomerulus (urine production). Some of the matrix molecules (of the basal lamina) mediate synaptic adhesion in neuromuscular synapses (citation: dited byBradley G. Klein. Cunningham's Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. St. Louis, Mo. :Elsevier/Saunders, 2013. Print.-page61). is a genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the COL4A3/4/5 genes. These genes are important in collagen IV synthesis and basement membrane formation. In individuals with this syndrome the basement membrane in structures such as the glomerulus, ears, and eyes does not function properly, causing symptoms such as blood in the urine, loss of hearing, and vision problems.
See also* * * * * *