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A barn is an agricultural building usually on
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases i ...

farm
s and used for various purposes. In
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, a barn refers to structures that house
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
, including
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
and
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
s, as well as equipment and fodder, and often grain.Allen G. Noble, ''Traditional Buildings: A Global Survey of Structural Forms and Cultural Functions'' (New York: Tauris, 2007), 30. As a result, the term barn is often qualified e.g. tobacco barn, dairy barn, cow house, sheep barn, potato barn. In the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
, the term barn is restricted mainly to storage structures for unthreshed cereals and
fodder Fodder (), also called provender (), is any agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise ...

fodder
, the terms byre or shippon being applied to
cow Cow Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most common type of large domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the ...

cow
shelters, whereas horses are kept in buildings known as
stables A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reprod ...

stables
. In mainland Europe, however, barns were often part of integrated structures known as
byre-dwelling A byre-dwelling (" byre"+ "dwelling") is a farmhouse in which the living quarters are combined with the livestock and/or grain barn under the same roof. This kind of construction is found in archaeological sites in northwestern Europe from the Bro ...
s (or
housebarn A housebarn (also house-barn or house barn) is a building that is a combination of a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in on ...
s in US literature). In addition, barns may be used for equipment storage, as a covered workplace, and for activities such as
threshing An animal-powered thresher Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips releas ...

threshing
.


Etymology

The word ''barn'' comes from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
'', for barley (or grain in general), and , for a storage place—thus, a storehouse for barley. The word , also spelled ''bern'' and ''bearn'', is attested to at least sixty times in
homilies A homily is a commentary that follows a reading of scripture. It is more importantly moral and hortatory. In Catholic Church, Catholic, Anglican Communion, Anglican, Lutheranism, Lutheran, and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a homily is usually given du ...

homilies
and other
Old English prose Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya, Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire, England *Old Street station, a railway and tube station in London (station code OLD) *OLD, IATA code for Old Town Municipal Airport and Seaplane Base, Old Town, Main ...
. The related words ''bere-tun'' and ''bere-flor'' both meant
threshing An animal-powered thresher Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips releas ...

threshing
floor. ''Bere-tun'' also meant
granary A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–126 ...

granary
; the literal translation of ''bere-tun'' is "grain enclosure". While the only literary attestation of ''bere-hus'' (also granary) comes from the ''Dialogi'' of
Gregory the Great Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the bishop of Rome from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregoria ...
, there are four known mentions of ''bere-tun'' and two of ''bere-flor''. ''A Thesaurus of Old English'' lists and ("meal-store house") as synonyms for barn.


History

The modern barn largely developed from the three
aisle , Bristol Bristol () is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in England. With a population of 463,400, it is the most populous city in South West England. The wider Bristol Built-up Ar ...

aisle
d medieval barn, commonly known as
tithe barn A tithe barn was a type of Barn (building), barn used in much of northern Europe in the Middle Ages for storing rents and tithes. Farmers were required to give one-tenth of their produce to the established church. Tithe barns were usually associ ...
or monastic barn. This, in turn, originated in a 12th-century building tradition, also applied in
hall In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archi ...

hall
s and ecclesiastical buildings. In the 15th century several thousands of these huge barns were to be found in Western Europe. In the course of time, its construction method was adopted by normal farms and it gradually spread to simpler buildings and other rural areas. As a rule, the aisled barn had large entrance doors and a passage corridor for loaded wagons. The storage floors between the central posts or in the aisles were known as
bays A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf (geography), gulf, sea, sound (geography), sound, or bight (geogr ...
or mows (from Middle French ''moye''). The main types were large barns with sideway passages, compact barns with a central entrance and smaller barns with a transverse passage. The latter also spread to Eastern Europe. Whenever stone walls were applied, the aisled
timber frame Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems an ...
often gave way to single-naved buildings. A special type were
byre-dwelling A byre-dwelling (" byre"+ "dwelling") is a farmhouse in which the living quarters are combined with the livestock and/or grain barn under the same roof. This kind of construction is found in archaeological sites in northwestern Europe from the Bro ...
s, which included living quarters, byres and stables, such as the
Frisian farmhouse A typical Frisian Head-Neck-Body farmhouse A "Head-Neck-Body farmhouse" ( nl, kop-hals-rompboerderij) or Head-Neck-Rump farmhouse is a typical Frisian farmhouse A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary quarters in a rural A rura ...
or
Gulf house A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean ...
and the
Black Forest house The Black Forest houseDickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, p. 154. . (german: Schwarzwaldhaus) is a byre-dwelling that is found mainly in the central and southern parts of the Blac ...
. Not all, however, evolved from the medieval barn. Other types descended from the prehistoric
longhouse A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America. Many were built from timber Lumber, also known as timber, ...

longhouse
or other building traditions. One of the latter was the Low German (hall) house, in which the harvest was stored in the attic. In many cases, the New World colonial barn evolved from the Low German house, which was transformed to a real barn by first generation colonists from the Netherlands and Germany.


Construction

In the
Yorkshire Dales The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines The Pennines (), also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a more-or-less continuous range of hills and mountains running between three regions of Northern England North ...
, England, barns, known locally as cowhouses were built from double stone walls with truffs or throughstones acting as wall ties. In the U.S., older barns were built from
timbers Lumber, also known as timber, is wood that has been processed into Beam (structure), beams and plank (wood), planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. Lu ...
hewn from trees on the farm and built as a log crib barn or
timber frame Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems an ...
, although stone barns were sometimes built in areas where stone was a cheaper building material. In the mid to late 19th century in the U.S. barn framing methods began to shift away from traditional timber framing to "truss framed" or "plank framed" buildings. Truss or plank framed barns reduced the number of timbers instead using dimensional lumber for the rafters, joists, and sometimes the trusses. The joints began to become bolted or nailed instead of being mortised and tenoned. The inventor and patentee of the Jennings Barn claimed his design used less lumber, less work, less time, and less cost to build and were durable and provided more room for hay storage. Mechanization on the farm, better transportation infrastructure, and new technology like a hay fork mounted on a track contributed to a need for larger, more open barns, sawmills using steam power could produce smaller pieces of lumber affordably, and machine cut nails were much less expensive than hand-made (wrought) nails. Concrete block began to be used for barns in the early 20th century in the U.S. Modern barns are more typically steel buildings. From about 1900 to 1940, many large
dairy A dairy is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profi ...

dairy
barns were built in northern USA. These commonly have
gambrel A gambrel or gambrel roof is a usually symmetrical two-sided roof with two slopes on each side. (The usual architectural term in eighteenth-century England and North America was "Dutch roof".) The upper slope is positioned at a shallow angle, w ...

gambrel
or hip roofs to maximize the size of the hay
loft A loft is a building's upper storey A storey (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone subst ...

loft
above the dairy roof, and have become associated in the popular image of a
dairy farm Dairy Farm International Holdings Limited is a Hong Kong retail company with its legal base in Bermuda. A member of the Jardine Matheson, Jardine Matheson Group, it is a major pan-Asian retailer involved in the processing and wholesaling of food ...

dairy farm
. The barns that were common to the wheatbelt held large numbers of pulling horses such as Clydesdales or
Percheron The Percheron is a breed of draft horse that originated in the Huisne river valley in western France, part of the former Perche province from which the breed takes its name. Usually gray (horse), gray or black (horse), black in color, Perch ...

Percheron
s. These large wooden barns, especially when filled with
hay Hay is grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or ...

hay
, could make spectacular fires that were usually total losses for the farmers. With the advent of balers it became possible to store hay and
straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity ...

straw
outdoors in stacks surrounded by a plowed fireguard. Many barns in the northern United States are painted
barn red in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–1269, it was restored in the 1980s by the Coggeshall ...
with a white trim. One possible reason for this is that
ferric oxide Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound In chemistry, an inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks carbon–hydrogen bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound. However, the distinction is ...

ferric oxide
, which is used to create red paint, was the cheapest and most readily available chemical for farmers in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
and nearby areas. Another possible reason is that ferric oxide acts a preservative and so painting a barn with it would help to protect the structure. The custom of painting barns in red with white trim is widely spread in
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
. Especially in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
the
Falu red Image:Keittomaalilla maalattu hirsitalo Äänekoskella.jpg, A traditional Finnish falu red log house in Äänekoski, Central Finland Falu red or falun red ( ; sv, falu rödfärg, ) is a dye that is used in a deep red paint, well known for its use o ...
with white trims is the traditional colouring of most wooden buildings. With the popularity of tractors following
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
many barns were taken down or replaced with modern
Quonset hut A Quonset hut is a lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated galvanized steel ) in Kilburn, London Corrugated galvanised iron, or steel colloquially corrugated iron (near universal), wriggly tin (taken from UK military slang), pai ...
s made of plywood or
galvanized Galvanization or galvanizing ( also spelled galvanisation or galvanising) is the process of applying a protective zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal ...
steel. Beef ranches and dairies began building smaller loftless barns often of Quonset huts or of steel walls on a treated wood frame (old telephone or power poles). By the 1960s it was found that cattle receive sufficient shelter from trees or wind fences (usually wooden slabs 20% open).


Gallery of barns with different wall building materials

File:Scheune Langes Mühle.jpg, Half-timbered barn with brick infill.
Uetersen Uetersen (, formerly known as ''Ütersen (Holstein)'') is a town in the Pinneberg (district), district of Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated approximately south of Elmshorn, and northwest of Hamburg at the small Pinnau Riv ...
, Germany. This barn's proportions resemble a Low German house. File:Ysgubor Stryd Lydan, Sain Ffagan.jpg, Half-timbered with wattle-work walls for ventilation. Stryd Lydan Barn, originally at Llannerch Banna, Flintshire, North Wales. Re-erected at the St Fagans National History Museum,
Cardiff Cardiff (; cy, Caerdydd ) is the capital city of Wales and a Local government in Wales, county. Officially known as the City and County of Cardiff, it is the United Kingdom's eleventh-largest city and the main commercial centre of Wales. Cardi ...

Cardiff
, Wales in 1951. File:Exterieur OVERZICHT - Ruurlo - 20264854 - RCE.jpg, Wattle work walls in a sheep barn in
Ruurlo Ruurlo is a town and former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to whi ...
, Netherlands. File:2011-10-27 Baudenkmal Rödinghausen 98.jpg, Half-timbered barn walls with stone infill. Rödinghausen, Germany. File:Orajärvi in summer.jpg, A barn in village of Sodankylä,
Lapland Lapland may refer to: Places *Lapland or Sápmi, an ethno-cultural region stretching over northern Fennoscandia (parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia) **Lapland (Finland) (''Lappi''/''Lappland''), a Finnish region ***Lapland (former provi ...
, Finland. File:Matsalu metsas.jpg, Old hay barn at the end of Suitsu hiking trail at the
Matsalu National Park Matsalu National Park (previously Matsalu Nature Reserve, et, Matsalu rahvuspark, often just Matsalu) is a nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve ...
in
Pärnu County Pärnu () is the fourth largest city in Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finla ...
, Estonia. File:Surikow;s barn.JPG, A barn (ovin) in the museum-estate of Surikov.
Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk ( ; rus, Красноя́рск, a=Ru-Красноярск2.ogg, r=Krasnojársk, p=krəsnɐˈjarsk) is the largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is situated alo ...

Krasnoyarsk
, Russia. File:Овин в Витославлицах.jpg, A barn (ovin) from Vakhonkino village, Kaduysky raion,
Vologda oblast Vologda Oblast ( rus, Вологодская область, p=vəlɐˈɡotskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ, r=Vologodskaya oblast) is a of (an ). Its is . The Oblast has a population of 1,202,444 (). The largest city is , the home of the metallurgical ...
, Russia. Vitoslavlitsy museum,
Veliky Novgorod Veliky Novgorod ( rus, links=yes, Великий Новгород, p=vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnovɡərət), also known as just Novgorod (russian: Новгород, lit=newtown, links=yes), is the largest city and administrative centerAn administrati ...
. File:2011-10-27 Rödinghausen. Baudenkmal. Hansastraße (4).jpg, Half-timbered wall with
wattle and daub Wattle and daub is a composite material, composite building method used for making walls and buildings, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle (construction), wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combinatio ...

wattle and daub
infill. Some of the plaster coating survives. Rödinghausen, Germany. File:25104100067 Syke Fuldenriede 4 Scheune.jpg, A rare half-timbered barn with board infill in Syke,
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (st ...
, Germany. File:GrangeBarn.jpg, Grange barn,
Coggeshall Coggeshall ( or ) is a small town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the worl ...
, England. This is a ''studded barn'' so the wall sheathing must be applied horizontally and covered with a siding material in this case clapboards (weatherboards). File:Metylovice, Na kopci, stodola 01.jpg, A type of barn in , Czech Republic with stone piers and an infill of horizontal timbers. File:MBL Olsztynek - 15b. Budynek gospodarczy z Kwietniewa.jpg, Board-on-board siding and half timber-framed barn in
Olsztynek Olsztynek (german: Hohenstein in Ostpreußen) is a town in northern Poland, in Olsztyn County, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. It is the administrative seat of Gmina Olsztynek. It is part of the historic region of Masuria. Geography Olsztynek ...
, north
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
File:HennikerNH BennettFarmBarn.jpg, Timber framed with the sheathing covered in clapboards.
New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the nor ...

New Hampshire
, U.S.A. File:Zicht op doorgang van de schuur - Schoonebeek - 20411613 - RCE.jpg, Rare walls of boards and thatch.
Drenthe Drenthe () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as wel ...

Drenthe
, Netherlands File:Barn end - geograph.org.uk - 1628962.jpg, Gable end of a brick barn with ventilation holes built into the brickwork. File:19th_Century_Fieldstone_Barn_in_Southern_Ontario,_Canada.jpg, 19th-century fieldstone barn near Rockwood, Ontario, Canada. File:Oak Hall Historic District - Irvin Barn.JPG, Limestone walls in the Oak Hall Historic District, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. File:Gable end - geograph.org.uk - 202611.jpg, Stone barns are common in parts of the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, France, and some Mediterranean countries. The projecting stones (which are a type of wall tie) are a style in the Yorkshie Dales, England. File:Abiah Taylor Barn ChesCo PA.jpg, Abidiah Taylor Barn Chester County, Pennsylvania. Part of the Taylor-Cope Historic District. Built in either 1724 (date stone) or 1744 (wooden beam investigation), it is one of the oldest extant barns in the United States. Field stone walls. File:Farm buildings, Ewelme Park - geograph.org.uk - 677140.jpg, The combination of brick quoins with flint walls is common in (mostly older) buildings in this area of the Chilterns, Oxfordshire, England. File:Rudge Farm 3 - geograph.org.uk - 1303923.jpg, A rare wall material is Cob which is similar to adobe.
Devon Devon (, archaically known as Devonshire) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Ch ...

Devon
, England. File:SMBL stodola Jaszczew 1870 p.jpg, Round log barn in the skansen (open-air museum) in
Sanok Sanok (in full the Royal Free City of Sanok - pl, Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok, ua, Cянік ''Sianik'', la, Sanocum, yi, סאניק, ''Sonik'') is a town in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship Subcarpathian Voivodeship or Subcarpathia Pro ...
, Poland File:Hda gammelgård 20101010 (15).jpg, Hewn log barn painted red in
Hedemora Hedemora is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and us ...
, Sweden. File:Dutch barn - geograph.org.uk - 458981.jpg, No walls are a characteristic of what in the United Kingdom is called a Dutch barn. File:Barn opposite Sampson's Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1474507.jpg, Corrugated metal siding File:Barn-227557.jpg, Rustic barn made out of wood.


Uses

In older style North American barns, the upper area was used to store
hay Hay is grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or ...

hay
and sometimes grain. This is called the mow (rhymes with cow) or the
hayloft A hayloft is a space above a barn, stable or cow-shed, traditionally used for storage of hay or other fodder for the animals below. Haylofts were used mainly before the widespread use of very large Baler, hay bales, which allow simpler handling of ...
. A large door at the top of the ends of the barn could be opened up so that hay could be put in the loft. The hay was hoisted into the barn by a system containing
pulley A pulley is a wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On ...

pulley
s and a trolley that ran along a track attached to the top ridge of the barn.
Trap door The trapdoor is a sliding or hinged door in the floor or ceiling. It is traditionally small in size. It was invented to facilitate the hoisting of grain up through mills, however, its list of uses has grown over time. The trapdoor has played a piv ...
s in the floor allowed animal feed to be dropped into the
manger __NOTOC__ A manger or trough is a rack for fodder, or a structure or feeder Feeder may refer to: Technology * Feeder (livestock equipment) * Feeder (beekeeping), any of several devices used in apiculture to supplement or replace natural food so ...
s for the animals. In
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
it is common to find barns attached to the main farmhouse ( connected farm architecture), allowing for chores to be done while sheltering the worker from the weather. In the middle of the twentieth century the large broad roof of barns were sometimes painted with slogans in the United States. Most common of these were the 900 barns painted with ads for Rock City. In the past barns were often used for communal gatherings, such as
barn dance A barn is an agricultural building usually on farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Fami ...
s.


Features

A farm may have buildings of varying shapes and sizes used to shelter large and small animals and other uses. The enclosed pens used to shelter large animals are called
stall Stall may refer to: Enclosures * Animal stall, a small enclosure, as for market goods, or for an animal * Restroom stall, an enclosure providing privacy to the user of a single toilet in a public restroom * Market stall, a makeshift or mobile struc ...
s and may be located in the cellar or on the main level depending in the type of barn. Other common areas, or features, of an American barn include: *a tack room (where
bridle A bridle is a piece of equipment used to direct a horse. As defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary'', the "bridle" includes both the that holds a Bit (horse), bit that goes in the mouth of a horse, and the reins that are attached to the bit. ...

bridle
s,
saddle The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider of an animal, fastened to Mammal#Anatomy, an animal's back by a girth (tack), girth. The most common type is the equestrian saddle designed for a Back (horse), horse. However, specialized sad ...

saddle
s, etc. are kept), often set up as a *a feed room, where
animal feed Animal feed is food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that emb ...
is stored – not typically part of a modern barn where feed bales are piled in a stackyard *a drive bay, a wide corridor for animals or machinery *a
silo A silo (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

silo
where fermented grain or hay (called or haylage) is stored. *a milkhouse for dairy barns; an attached structure where the milk is collected and stored prior to shipment *a grain (soy, corn, etc.) bin for dairy barns, found in the mow and usually made of wood with a chute to the ground floor providing access to the grain, making it easier to feed the cows. *modern barns often contain an indoor corral with a squeeze chute for providing
veterinary Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, Preventive medicine, prevention, therapy, treatment or Pall ...
treatment to sick animals. *In North Yorkshie cowhouses would have a muck hole (muck’ole in the local dialect) to allow manure to be deposited outside the barn without the cowhand leaving the building. *In North Yorkshire a cowhouse would have a small door or forking hole (forking’ole in the local dialect) high up on the wall to enable fodder to be 'forked' into the baux or baulks (hayloft). *Some English barns would have a
gin gang , North Yorkshire A gin gang, wheelhouse, roundhouse or horse-engine house, is a structure built to enclose a horse engine, usually circular but sometimes square or octagonal, attached to a threshing barn. Most were built in England in the late 1 ...
, a semi-circular extension added to house a horse engine.


Derivatives

The physics term "
barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–1269, it was restored in the 1980s by the Coggeshall ...
", which is a subatomic unit of area, 10−28 m2, came from experiments with uranium nuclei during World War II, wherein they were described colloquially as "big as a barn", with the measurement officially adopted to maintain security around nuclear weapons research.


Barn idioms

*"He couldn't hit the broad side of a barn" is a popular expression for a person having poor aim when throwing an object or when shooting at something. *To "lock the barn door after the horse has bolted" implies that one has solved a too late to prevent it. * "Were you born/raised in a barn?" is an accusation used differently in various parts of the English-speaking world, but most commonly as a reprimand when someone exhibits poor manners by either using ill-mannered language (particularly if related to
manure Manure is organic matter Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of Carbon compounds, carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial, and aquatic environments. It is m ...

manure
), or leaving doors open. *"Your barn door is open" is used as a
euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the us ...
to remind someone to zip the fly of their
trousers Trousers (British English), slacks, or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, ...

trousers
. *To "barnstorm" is to travel quickly around a large area making frequent public appearances.


Types

Barns have been classified by their
function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
, structure, location, or other features. Sometimes the same building falls into multiple categories. * Apple barn or fruit barn – for the storage of fruit crops *Bank barn – A multilevel building built into a banking so the upper floor is accessible to a wagon, sometimes accessed by a bridge or ramp. *Bastle house - a defensive structure to guard against border reivers with accommodation on the lower floor for livestock. * Bridge barn or covered bridge barn – general terms for barns accessed by a bridge rather than a ramp. *Boô – A sheep-barn and dwelling in the Netherlands, seasonal or sometimes year round. *Pennsylvania barn (U.S.) of which there are sub-categories such as ''standard'' and ''sweitzer'' types. Also known as ''forebay'' or ''porch barns''. *Cantilever barn – a type of log crib barn with cantilevered upper floors which developed in Appalachia (U.S.A.) *Combination barn — found throughout England, especially in areas of pastoral farming and the standard barn type in America. This general term means the barns were used for both crop storage and as a byre to house animals. *Crib barn – Horizontal log structures with up to four cribs (assemblies of crossing timbers) found primarily in the southern U.S.A. *Drying barns for drying crops in Finland and Sweden are called ''riihi'' and ''ria'', respectively. *Dutch barn, New World Dutch Barn – A barn type in the U.S. Also see ''Dutch barn (U.K.)'' in Other farm buildings section below. *New England barn - a common style of barn found in rural New England and in the U.S. *English barn (U.S.), also called a Yankee or Connecticut barn – A widespread barn type in the U.S. *Granary — to store grain after it is threshed, some barns contain a room called a granary, some barns like a rice barn blur the line between a barn and granary. *Gothic arch barn, has profile shaped as a Gothic arch, which became feasible to be formed by laminated members *Ground stable barn, a barn with space for livestock at ground level *Housebarn, also called a
byre-dwelling A byre-dwelling (" byre"+ "dwelling") is a farmhouse in which the living quarters are combined with the livestock and/or grain barn under the same roof. This kind of construction is found in archaeological sites in northwestern Europe from the Bro ...
– A combined living space and barn, relatively common in old Europe but rare in North America. Also,
longhouse A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America. Many were built from timber Lumber, also known as timber, ...

longhouse
s were housebarns. *Pole barn — a simple structure that consists of poles embedded in the ground to support a roof, with or without exterior walls. The pole barn lacks a conventional foundation, thus greatly reducing construction costs. Traditionally used to house livestock, hay or equipment. *Potato barn or potato house– A semi-subterranean or two story building for storage of potatoes or sweet potatoes. *Prairie barn – A general term for barns in the Western U.S. *Rice barn and the related winnowing barn *Round barn, built in a round shape the term often is generalized to the include Polygonal Barn (disambiguation), polygonal barn and Octagon barn (disambiguation), octagonal barn *Swing beam barn – A rare barn type in part of the U.S. designed for threshing with animals walking around a pole held by a ''swing beam'' inside the barn. *Tobacco barn – for drying of tobacco leaves *Tithe barn — a type of barn used in much of northern Europe in the Middle Ages for storing the tithes — a tenth of the farm's produce which had to be given to the church *Threshing barn — built with a threshing floor for the processing and storage of cereals, to keep them in dry conditions. Characterised by large double doors in the centre of one side, a smaller one on the other, and storage for cereal harvest or unprocessed on either side. In England the grain was beaten from the crop by flails and then separated from the husks by winnowing between these doors. The design of these typically remained unchanged between the 12th and 19th centuries. The large doors allow for a horse wagon to be driven through; the smaller ones allow for the sorting of sheep and other stock in the spring and summer.


Other farm buildings often associated with barns

*Carriage house — cart shed * Dutch barn (U.K.) — an open sided structure for hay storage. The type with a movable roof is called a hay barrack in the U.S or a ''hooiberg'' (''kapberg'') in the Netherlands. * A corn crib —a well ventilated storage space for dried ears of maize (corn). * A
granary A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–126 ...

granary
or hórreo — a storage space for threshing, threshed grains, sometimes within a barn or as a separate building. * Linhay (linny, linney, linnies) — A shed, often with a lean-to roof but may be a circular linhay to store hay on the first floor with either cattle on the ground floor (cattle linhay), or farm machinery (cart linhay). Characterised by an open front with regularly spaced posts or pillars. * Milk room or milk house — to store milk. *Oast houses — an outbuilding used for drying hops as part of the brewing process. * Shelter sheds — open-fronted structures for stock * Shippon — a shed which houses oxen and
cattle Cattle, taurine cattle, Eurasian cattle, or European cattle (''Bos taurus'' or ''Bos primigenius taurus'') are large domestication, domesticated Cloven hoof, cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae ...

cattle
. Has
fodder Fodder (), also called provender (), is any agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise ...

fodder
storage above, regularly spaced doors on the yard side, a pitching door or window on the first floor. * Stable — Usually for housing horses.


Historic farm buildings

Old farm buildings of the countryside contribute to the landscape, and help define the history of the location, i.e. how farming took place in the past, and how the area has been settled throughout the ages. They also can show the agricultural methods, building materials, and skills that were used. Most were built with materials reflecting the local geology of the area. Building methods include earth walling and thatching. Buildings in stone and brick, roofed with tile or slate, increasingly replaced buildings in clay, timber and thatch from the later 18th century. Metal roofs started to be used from the 1850s. The arrival of canals and railways brought about transportation of building materials over greater distances. Clues determining their age and historical use can be found from old maps, sale documents, estate plans, and from a visual inspection of the building itself, noting (for example) reused timbers, former floors, partitions, doors and windows. The arrangement of the buildings within the farmstead can also yield valuable information on the historical farm usage and landscape value. Linear farmsteads were typical of small farms, where there was an advantage to having cattle and fodder within one building, due to the colder climate. Dispersed clusters of unplanned groups were more widespread. Loose courtyard plans built around a yard were associated with bigger farms, whereas carefully laid out courtyard plans designed to minimize waste and labour were built in the latter part of the 18th century. The barns are typically the oldest and biggest buildings to be found on the farm. Many barns were converted into cow houses and fodder processing and storage buildings after the 1880s. Many barns had owl holes to allow for access by barn owls, encouraged to aid vermin control. The stable is typically the second-oldest building type on the farm. They were well built and placed near the house due to the value that the
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
s had as draught animals Modern granaries were built from the 18th century. Complete granary interiors, with plastered walls and wooden partitioning to grain bins, are very rare. Longhouses are an ancient building where people and animals used the same entrance. These can still be seen, for example, in North Germany, where the Low Saxon house occurs. Few interiors of the 19th century cow houses have survived unaltered due to dairy-hygiene regulations in many countries. Old farm buildings may show the following signs of deterioration: rotting in timber-framed constructions due to damp, cracks in the masonry from movement of the walls, e.g. ground movement, roofing problems (e.g. outward thrust of it, deterioration of purlins and gable ends), Foundation (engineering), foundation problems, penetration of tree roots; lime mortar being washed away due to inadequate weather-protection. Walls made of cob (material), cob, earth mortars or walls with rubble cores are all highly vulnerable to water penetration, and replacement or covering of breathable materials with cement or damp-proofing materials may trap moisture within the walls.How to deal with damp produced by the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings gives useful guidance In England and Wales some of these historical buildings have been given "listed building" status, which provides them some degree of archaeological protection. Some grant schemes are available to restore Historic Farmland buildings, for example Natural England's Environmental Stewardship, Countryside Stewardship and Environmentally Sensitive Areas Schemes.


See also

*Barn Church, Kew *Conversion (barn), Barn conversion *Barn raising *Barnyard *Car barn *Farmhouse *Functionally classified barn *Gambrel roof *Gin gang or round house — an extension to a
threshing An animal-powered thresher Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips releas ...

threshing
barn. It contained a
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
driven engine, used to power a threshing machine. Sometimes called a wheel house. Water power and wind power were also used to drive the machine, and by the 1850s portable steam engine machines were used. Horse-engines, original threshing or winnowing machines are exceptionally rare. *Goat tower *Hayrack *Historic Barns of Connecticut *National Barn Dance *Dairy *Dovecote — built to house pigeons, which provided variety to the diets of high-status households and a rich source of manure. Examples survive from the medieval period. *Scaffold (barn) *Shed *The Wonderful Barn *Treppenspeicher *Barn dance *Ovinnik


References


External links


Dairy Barn Historywww.thebarnjournal.orgNational Barn AllianceBarn Again! programTimber Framers Guild
*:es:Borda (edificio), The Spanish borda (borde) is a type of barn or housebarn
Excellent paper on historic barns, focus on Ohio, USABarn types and information from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
{{Authority control Barns, Agricultural buildings Vernacular architecture