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Ad hoc is a
Latin phrase Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most ...
meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-
generalizable
generalizable
, and not intended to be adapted to other purposes (compare with ''
a priori ''A priori'' and ''a posteriori'' ('from the earlier' and 'from the later', respectively) are Latin phrases used in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaph ...
''). Common examples are ad hoc
committees A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
and commissions created at the national or international level for a specific task. In other fields, the term could refer, for example, to a military unit created under special circumstances (see ''
task force A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. Originally introduced by the United States Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial) ...
''), a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted
network protocol A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules, syntax, semantics and synchronizat ...

network protocol
(e.g.,
ad hoc networkAn ad hoc network refers to technologies that allow network communications on an ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or t ...
), a temporary banding together of geographically-linked franchise locations (of a given national brand) to issue advertising coupons, or a purpose-specific
equation In mathematics, an equation is a statement that asserts the equality (mathematics), equality of two Expression (mathematics), expressions, which are connected by the equals sign "=". The word ''equation'' and its cognates in other languages may h ...

equation
. Ad hoc can also be an adjective describing the temporary, provisional, or improvised methods to deal with a particular problem, the tendency of which has given rise to the noun ''adhocism''.


Styling

Style guides disagree on whether Latin phrases like ad hoc should be italicized. The trend is not to use italics. For example, ''
The Chicago Manual of Style ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' (abbreviated in writing as ''CMOS'' or ''CMS'', or sometimes as ''Chicago'') is a style guide for American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English ...
'' recommends that familiar Latin phrases that are listed in the ''
Webster's Dictionary ''Webster's Dictionary'' is any of the Dictionary, dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized tra ...

Webster's Dictionary
'', including "ad hoc", not be italicized.


Hypothesis

In
science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the u ...

science
and
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such ques ...

philosophy
, ad hoc means the addition of extraneous
hypotheses A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can testable, test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on prev ...
to a
theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research ...

theory
to save it from being
falsified In the philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methodology, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern Demarcation problem, what qualifies a ...
. Ad hoc hypotheses compensate for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Scientists are often
skeptical Skepticism (American English, American and Canadian English) or scepticism (British English, British, Hiberno-English, Irish, Australian English, Australian, and New Zealand English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or m ...
of
scientific theories A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural science, natural world and universe that can be reproducibility, repeatedly tested and verified in accordance with the scientific method, using accepted protocol (science), protocol ...
that rely on frequent, unsupported adjustments to sustain them. Ad hoc hypotheses are often characteristic of
pseudo-scientific Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is often characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or falsifiability, unf ...
subjects such as
homeopathy Homeopathy or homoeopathy is a pseudoscientific system of alternative medicine Alternative medicine is any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) ...
.


In the military

In the military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is suddenly needed for fast action, or from remnants of previous units which have been overrun or otherwise whittled down.


Networking

The term ''ad hoc networking'' typically refers to a system of network elements that combine to form a network requiring little or no planning.


See also

*
Ad hoc testingAd hoc testing is a commonly used term for software testing performed without planning and documentation, but can be applied to early scientific experimental studies. The tests are intended to be run only once, unless a defect is discovered. Ad hoc ...
* ''
Ad infinitum ''Ad infinitum'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
'' * ''
Ad libitum In music, biology, and drama, the phrase ''ad libitum'' (; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome ...
'' *
Democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choo ...

Democracy
*
House rule House rules are unofficial modifications to official game rule with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, P ...
*
Russell's teapot Russell's teapot is an analogy Analogy (from Greek language, Greek ἀναλογία, ''analogia'', "proportion", from ''ana-'' "upon, according to" lso "against", "anew"+ ''logos'' "ratio" lso "word, speech, reckoning" is a cognition, cog ...

Russell's teapot
*
Inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which a body of observations is synthesized to come up with a general principle. Inductive reasoning is distinct from Deductive reasoning, ''deductive'' reasoning. If the premises are correct, the c ...
*
Confirmation bias Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one's prior beliefs or values. People display this bias when they select information that supports their views, ignoring co ...
*
Cherry picking Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position while ignoring a significant portion of related and similar cases or data that ...


References


Further reading

*


External links

* {{Wiktionary-inline, ad hoc, ad hoc Latin words and phrases