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In
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
, the ablative case (pronounced ; sometimes
abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for example, the word ''abbrevia ...
) is a
grammatical case Grammatical case is a term regarding a manner of categorizing s, s, s, s, and s according to their traditionally corresponding s within a given , , or . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, s, participles, prepositions, numerals, art ...
for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in the
grammars In linguistics, the grammar of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The term can also refer to the study of such constraint ...
of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses. The word "ablative" derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''ablatus'', the (irregular) perfect, passive participle of ''auferre'' "to carry away". The ablative case is found in ancient languages such as
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
, as well as modern languages like
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
,
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
,
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, Turkmen,
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
,
Uzbek
Uzbek
, Kazakh,
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
, and
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
. There is no ablative case in modern
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...

Germanic languages
such as
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. There ''was'' an ablative case in the early stages of
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
, but it quickly fell into disuse by the
classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
.


Indo-European languages


Latin

The ablative case in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
(''cāsus ablātīvus'') appears in various grammatical constructions, including following various prepositions, in an
ablative absolute Latin syntax is the part of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...

ablative absolute
clause, and adverbially. The Latin ablative case was derived from three
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
cases: ablative (from), instrumental (with), and locative (in/at).


Greek

In
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
, there was an ablative case which was used in the Homeric, pre-Mycenaean, and Mycenean periods. It fell into disuse during the
classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
and thereafter with some of its functions taken by the
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
and others by the
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
; the genitive had functions belonging to the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
genitive and ablative cases. The genitive case with the prepositions "away from" and "out of" is an example.


German

German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
does not have an ablative case (but exceptionally, Latin ablative case-forms were used from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century after some
prepositions Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a part of speech, class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark vari ...
, for example after ''von'' in ''von dem Nomine'': ablative of the Latin loanword ''Nomen''). Grammarians at that time, such as
Justus Georg Schottel Justus Georg Schottelius (Latinized ''Justus-Georgius Schottelius''; born 23 June 1612 in Einbeck, died 25 October 1676 in Wolfenbüttel) was a leading figure of the German Baroque, best known for his publications on German grammar, language theory ...

Justus Georg Schottel
,
Kaspar von Stieler Kaspar von Stieler, also called Caspar Stieler (2 August 1632 – 24 June 1707), was a soldier-poet and later a linguist. He expressed the feelings of the soldiers of the Thirty Years War The Thirty Years' War (, ) was a conflict fought pri ...
("der Spate"), Johann Balthasar von Antesperg and
Johann Christoph Gottsched Johann Christoph Gottsched (2 February 1700 – 12 December 1766) was a German philosopher, author, and critic. For about thirty years, he exercised an almost undisputed literary dictatorship in Germany. But by his later years, his name had become ...

Johann Christoph Gottsched
, listed an ablative case (as the sixth case after nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and vocative) for German words. They arbitrarily considered the dative case after some prepositions to be an ablative, as in ("from the man" or "of the man") and ("with the man"), while they considered the dative case after other prepositions or without a preposition, as in , to be a dative.


Albanian

The ablative case is found in
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
; it is the fifth case, ''rasa rrjedhore''.


Sanskrit

In
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
, the ablative case is the fifth case (''pañcamī'') and has a similar function to that in Latin. Sanskrit nouns in the ablative often refer to a subject "out of" which or "from" whom something (an action, an object) has arisen or occurred: ''pátram taróḥ pátati'' "the leaf falls from the tree". It is also used for nouns in several other senses, as for actions occurring "because of" or "without" a certain noun, indicating distance or direction. When it appears with a comparative adjective, (''śreṣṭhatamam,'' "the best"), the ablative is used to refer to what the adjective is comparing: "better than X".


Armenian

The modern
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
ablative has different markers for each main dialect, both originating from
Classical Armenian Classical Armenian (, in Eastern Armenian Eastern Armenian ( ''arevelahayeren'') is one of the two standard language, standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian. The two standards form a pluricentric language. ...
. The
Western Armenian Western Armenian ( Classical spelling: , ) is one of the two standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technical standard is an established norm or requirement for ...
affix -է ''-ē'' (definite -էն ''-ēn'') derives from the classical singular; the
Eastern Armenian Eastern Armenian ( ''arevelahayeren'') is one of the two standard language, standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian. The two standards form a pluricentric language. Eastern Armenian is spoken in Armenia, Repub ...
affix -ից ''-ic’'' (both indefinite and definite) derives from the classical plural. For both dialects, those affixes are singular, with the corresponding plurals being -(ն)երէ(ն) and -(ն)երից . The ablative case has several uses. Its principal function is to show "motion away" from a location, point in space or time: It also shows the agent when it is used with the passive voice of the verb: It is also used for comparative statements in colloquial Armenian (including infinitives and participles): Finally, it governs certain postpositions:


Uralic languages


Finnish

In
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
, the ablative case is the sixth of the locative cases with the meaning "from, off, of": ''pöytä – pöydältä'' "table – off from the table". It is an outer locative case, used like the adessive and
allative In grammar, the allative case (; list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ; from Latin language, Latin ''allāt-'', ''afferre'' "to bring to") is a type of locative case, locative grammatical case. The term allative is generally used for the la ...
cases, to denote both being on top of something and "being around the place" (as opposed to the inner locative case, the elative, which means "from out of" or "from the inside of"). With the locative, the receding object was near the other place or object, not inside it. The Finnish ablative is also used in time expressions to indicate times of something happening (''kymmeneltä'' "at ten") as well as with verbs expressing feelings or emotions. The Finnish ablative has the ending ''-lta'' or ''-ltä'', depending on
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
.


Usage

; away from a place: *''katolta'': off the roof *''pöydältä'': off the table *''rannalta'': from the beach *''maalta'': from the land *''mereltä'': from the sea ; from a person, object or other entity: *''häneltä'': from him/her/them ; with the verb ''lähteä'' (stop): *''lähteä tupakalta'': stop smoking (in the sense of putting out the cigarette one is smoking now, lit. 'leave from the tobacco') *''lähteä hippasilta'': stop playing tag (''hippa''=tag, ''olla hippasilla''=playing tag) ; to smell/taste/feel/look/sound like something: *''haisee pahalta'': smells bad *''maistuu hyvältä'': tastes good *''tuntuu kamalalta'': feels awful *''näyttää tyhmältä'': looks stupid *''kuulostaa mukavalta'': sounds nice


Estonian

The ablative case in Estonian is the ninth case and has a similar function to that in Hungarian.


Hungarian

The ablative case in Hungarian is used to describe movement away from, as well as a concept, object, act or event originating from an object, person, location or entity. For example, one walking away from a friend who gave him a gift could say the following: :''a barátomtól jövök'' (I am coming (away) from my friend). :''a barátomtól kaptam egy ajándékot'' (I got a gift from my friend). When used to describe movement away from a location, the case may only refer to movement from ''the general vicinity'' of the location and not from inside of it. Thus, ''a postától jövök'' would mean one had been standing ''next to'' the post office before, not inside the building. When the case is used to refer to the origin of a possible act or event, the act/event may be implied while not explicitly stated, such as : I will defend you from the robber. The application of
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
gives two different suffixes: ''-tól'' and ''-től''. These are applied to back-vowel and front-vowel words, respectively. Huggarian has a narrower
delative caseIn grammar, the delative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ; from Latin ''deferre'' "to bear or bring away or down") is a grammatical case in the Hungarian language which originally expressed the movement from the surface of something ...
, similar to ablative, but more specific: movement off/from a surface of something, with suffixes ''-ról'' and ''-ről''.


Turkic languages


Azerbaijani

The ablative in
Azerbaijani Azerbaijani may refer to: * Something of, or related to Azerbaijan * Azerbaijanis * Azerbaijani language See also

* Azerbaijan (disambiguation) * Azeri (disambiguation) * Azerbaijani cuisine * Culture of Azerbaijan * {{Disambig Language a ...
(') is expressed through the suffixes ''-dan'' or ''-dən'': Ev – evdən
''House – from/off the house'' Aparmaq – aparmaqdan
''To carry – from/off carrying''


Turkish

The ablative in
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
(''-den hali'' or ''ayrılma hali'') is expressed through the suffix ''-den'' (which changes to ''-dan'', ''-ten'' or ''-tan'' to accommodate the
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...
and
voicing Voicing may refer to: * Voicing (music), the distribution of a chord's notes, either in composition or orchestration *The regulation of tone and loudness of an instrument's notes: **Piano_maintenance#Voicing **Voicing (pipe organ) **Plectrum#Voicin ...
harmony): Ev – evden
''House – from/off the house'' At – attan
''Horse – from/off the horse'' Taşımak – taşımaktan
''To carry – from/off carrying'' Ses – sesten
''Sound/volume – from/off sound/volume'' In some situations simple ablative can have a "because of" meaning; in these situations, ablative can be optionally followed by the postposition ''dolayı'' "because of". Yüksek sesten (dolayı) rahatsız oldum. / ''I was uneasy because of high volume. ''


See also

*
Allative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
*
Delative caseIn grammar, the delative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ; from Latin ''deferre'' "to bear or bring away or down") is a grammatical case in the Hungarian language which originally expressed the movement from the surface of something ...
*
Locative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...


Further reading

* *


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Ablative Case Grammatical cases