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Wrigley Field is a
baseball park A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere ...
located on the North Side of
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivisio ...

Chicago
, Illinois. It is the home of the
Chicago Cubs The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. The team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located ...
, one of the city's two
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball: 15 teams in the National L ...
(MLB) franchises. It first opened in 1914 as Weeghman Park for
Charles Weeghman Charles Henry Weeghman (March 8, 1874 – November 1, 1938) was an American restaurant entrepreneur and sports executive. Beginning in 1901, he began opening quick-service lunch counters throughout downtown Chicago. After failing to acquire the S ...
's
Chicago Whales The Chicago Whales were a professional baseball team based in Chicago. They played in the Federal League, a short-lived "third Major League", in 1914 and 1915. They originally lacked a formal nickname, and were known simply as the "Chicago Federals ...
of the
Federal League The Federal League of Base Ball Clubs, known simply as the Federal League, was an American professional baseball league that played its first season in 1913 and operated as a "third major league", in competition with the established National ...
, which folded after the 1915 baseball season. The Cubs played their first home game at the park on April 20,
1916 Events Below, the events of the First World War have the "WWI" prefix. January * January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion, using blood that had been stored and cooled. * Janu ...
, defeating the
Cincinnati Reds The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. They were a charter member of the American Associa ...
with a score of 7–6 in 11 innings. Chewing gum magnate William Wrigley Jr. of the
Wrigley Company The Wrigley Building, former HQ The Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, known as the Wrigley Company, is an American chewing gum (Wrigley's gum) company, based in the Global Innovation Center (GIC) in Goose Island, Chicago, Illinois. It is wholly owned by Ma ...
acquired the Cubs in
1921 Events January * January – E. W. Scripps and William Emerson Ritter found ''Science Service'', later renamed Society for Science & the Public, in the United States, with the goal of keeping the public informed of scientific developm ...
. It was named Cubs Park from
1920 Events January * January 1 – Polish–Soviet War in 1920: The Russian Red Army increases troops along the Polish border from 4 divisions to 20. * January 2 – First Red Scare in the United States: The second of the Palmer Raids t ...
to
1926 Events January * January 1 ** The Rhine River floods; 50,000 are forced to evacuate their homes in Cologne. ** Ireland's first regular radio service, 2RN (later ''Radio Éireann''), begins broadcasting. * January 3 – Theodoros Pangalos ...
, before being renamed Wrigley Field in
1927 Events January * January 1 ** The Cristero War erupts in Mexico, when Catholic rebels attack the government, which had placed heavy restrictions on the Catholic Church. ** The British Broadcasting ''Company'' becomes the British Broadcasting ...
. In the North Side community area of Lakeview in the
Wrigleyville
Wrigleyville
neighborhood, Wrigley Field is on an irregular block bounded by
Clark Clark is an English language surname, ultimately derived from the Latin with historical links to England and Ireland ''clericus'' meaning "scribe", "secretary" or a scholar within a religious order, referring to someone who was educated. ''Clark'' ...
and Addison streets to the west and south, and Waveland and Sheffield avenues to the north and east. Wrigley Field is nicknamed "The Friendly Confines", a phrase popularized by "Mr. Cub",
Hall of Fame A hall, wall, or walk of fame is a list of individuals, achievements, or animals, usually chosen by a group of electors, to mark their fame in their field. In some cases, these halls of fame consist of actual halls or museums that enshrine the h ...

Hall of Fame
shortstop and first baseman
Ernie Banks Ernest Banks (January 31, 1931 – January 23, 2015), nicknamed "Mr. Cub" and "Mr. Sunshine", was an American professional baseball player who starred in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a shortstop and first baseman for the Chicago Cubs between 1 ...
. The oldest park in the
National League The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest extant professional team s ...
, the current
seating capacity#REDIRECT Seating capacity#REDIRECT Seating capacity {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
is 41,649; it is the second-oldest in the majors after Fenway Park (1912), and the only remaining Federal League park. The park was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2020. Wrigley Field is known for its ivy-covered brick outfield wall, the unusual wind patterns off Lake Michigan, the iconic red marquee over the main entrance, the hand-turned scoreboard, its location in a primarily residential neighborhood with no parking lots and views from the rooftops behind the outfield, and for being the last Major League park to have lights installed for night games, in 1988 Chicago Cubs season, 1988. Between 1921 Chicago Bears season, 1921 and 1970 Chicago Bears season, 1970, it was the home of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League, and was also the home of the Chicago Cardinals (now Arizona Cardinals) of the National Football League from 1931 to 1938. The elevation of its playing field is above sea level.


History

Baseball executive
Charles Weeghman Charles Henry Weeghman (March 8, 1874 – November 1, 1938) was an American restaurant entrepreneur and sports executive. Beginning in 1901, he began opening quick-service lunch counters throughout downtown Chicago. After failing to acquire the S ...
hired his architect Zachary Taylor Davis to design the park, which was ready for baseball by the date of the home opener on April 23, 1914. The original tenants, the
Chicago Whales The Chicago Whales were a professional baseball team based in Chicago. They played in the Federal League, a short-lived "third Major League", in 1914 and 1915. They originally lacked a formal nickname, and were known simply as the "Chicago Federals ...
(also called the Chi-Feds) came in second in the Federal League rankings in 1914 and won the league championship in 1915. In late 1915, Weeghman's Federal League folded. The resourceful Weeghman formed a syndicate including the chewing gum manufacturer William Wrigley Jr. to buy the Chicago Cubs from Charles P. Taft for about $500,000. Weeghman immediately moved the Cubs from the dilapidated West Side Park, West Side Grounds to his two-year-old park. In 1918, Wrigley acquired the controlling interest in the club. In November 1926, he renamed the park "Wrigley Field". In 1927, an upper deck was added, and in 1937, Bill Veeck, the son of the club president, planted ivy vines against the outfield walls after seeing the ivy planted at Bush Stadium, Perry Stadium, Indianapolis.


Renovation

The Thomas S. Ricketts, Ricketts family aggressively pursued a Wrigley Field renovation since buying the team and the stadium in 2009. During the annual Cubs Convention in January 2013 the family revealed the 1060 Project, which called for a $575-million, privately funded rehabilitation of the stadium that was to be completed over the course of five years. The proposal was vast, and included planned improvements to, among other things, the stadium's façade, infrastructure, restrooms, concourses, suites, press box, moving the bullpens and clubhouses, as well as the addition of restaurants, patio areas, Batting cage, batting tunnels, a jumbotron, and an adjacent hotel, plaza, and office-retail complex. After months of negotiations between the team, local Alderman Tom Tunney, and Chicago mayor of Chicago, Mayor Rahm Emanuel, the plan obtained the endorsements of both the city's Commission on Chicago Landmarks, Landmarks Commission and Chicago Plan Commission, Plan Commission before receiving final approval by the Chicago City Council in July 2013. To help fund the project, the team planned to more than double the amount of advertising signage in and around the stadium to about , including additional signage to be placed beyond the outfield walls – a move that was opposed by many owners of Wrigley Rooftops, the rooftop clubs that surround the stadium who worried that such signage would obstruct their sightlines. Before work on the project began, the team wanted the rooftop owners to agree not to pursue legal action challenging the construction and continued to negotiate privately with them – offering to reduce the size and number of signs to be built – in order to gain their assent. The team could not come to terms with the rooftop owners who had a lease agreement with the team until 2023 in exchange for paying 17% of the gross revenues. In May 2014 the Cubs announced they would pursue the original 2013 plan to modify the park. Over the course of the next three years, the Ricketts family began to purchase many of the rooftop locations.


Ongoing renovation

The "1060 Project – Phase One" started Monday, September 29, 2014. During the off-season, the bleachers in both outfields were expanded and the stadium's footprint was extended further onto both Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. A Jumbotron scoreboard was added to the left field bleachers. It is topped with a sign advertising Wintrust Financial, a Rosemont, Illinois, Rosemont-based bank and a Cubs Legacy Partner; the "W" in Wintrust flashes after every Cubs win. A video scoreboard was also added in the right field bleachers, and the parking lots along Clark Street were excavated for underground players' locker rooms and lounges. After the close of the extended 2015 season, work began on "Phase Two" of the project. The area just west of the stadium was converted into an underground players locker room and strength/conditioning/training and hydrotherapy sections, players lounges, a media center, and team offices. The previous clubhouse space was utilized to enlarge the dugout and add two underground batting cages, an auditorium, and more team office space. A new "Third Base Club" next to the batting tunnels and a "Home Plate Club" was introduced behind home plate, and a new concessions preparation and staging area was constructed below the new Triangle Plaza. All seats from the left field foul pole to the main gate were replaced. An upper-deck exposed concourse was added along the south and west roof-line of right field. Bathroom facilities and concessions were improved throughout the park. Exterior renovations of the park seek to restore design elements present before the 1960s. These details include ornamental muted-green grill-work and red terra cotta roofing. Phase Three of the 1060 Project was completed before the start of the 2017 season. The left and right field bullpens were relocated to enclosed areas under the bleachers, the brick walls were extended toward the field and new seating was added in the vacated bullpen areas. A visiting team "batting tunnel" was added. Partial façade replacement and concourse restoration was completed along Addison Street along with structural improvements to the right field bleachers. The outfield turf was replaced just weeks before the start of the season. The Cubs Plaza building just to the west of Wrigley was finalized and the ''Park at Wrigley'', the area above Cubs players dressing rooms, was in use for fans before and during games. Construction of Hotel Zachary along the west side of Clark Street was ongoing. The fourth phase of improvements began at the conclusion of the 2017 season. The dugouts have been moved further down the left and right field foul lines to make room for two of the four new luxury clubs. The seating area behind home plate was reconstructed to locate another of the new clubs. The final upper level club is planned for the 2019 season. The Hotel Zachary, just across Clark Street, was open for business in time for the Cubs first home game on April 9, 2018.


National Historic Landmark

Near the start of the renovations, the Ricketts applied for National Historic Landmark status for Wrigley Field in 2013. A similar plan had been successfully pursued by the owners of Fenway Park in Boston. To achieve landmark status, the renovations had to respect and reflect the historic character of the stadium. The benefit to the owners is that landmark status allows them to claim tax credits for the renovation. National landmark status was awarded in 2020, with the U.S. Secretary of the Interior commenting that, "the historical significance of Wrigley Field is interwoven into our nation's story and a key part of what has become America's beloved pastime for over a century".


Firsts since renovation

On May 26, 2015, Cubs rookie third baseman Kris Bryant was the first to hit the new left field videoscreen with his home run. On October 13, the Cubs clinched a playoff series at home in Wrigley Field for the first time in franchise history with a 6–4 victory in game four of the 2015 National League Division Series, 2015 NLDS. After Anthony Rizzo hit what would be the game-winning and series winning home run in the 6th inning, Kyle Schwarber's 7th inning home run ball landed on top of the right field scoreboard. The ball was left in place, encased in clear Plexiglas to protect it from the elements. The ball was removed in 2016.


100th Anniversary

During the 2014 Chicago Cubs season, 2014 season, the Cubs celebrated the centennial of Wrigley Field throughout the season. Each decade was represented during ten homestands throughout the season. The April 23rd game, the 100th Anniversary, featured the Cubs playing the 2014 Arizona Diamondbacks season, Arizona Diamondbacks in a throw back game. Each team represented one of the teams which played in the inaugural game at the stadium. The Cubs wore the uniforms of the Chicago Whales (Federals), the original occupants of the stadium, and the Diamondbacks wore uniforms representing the Kansas City Packers, whom the Federals played on April 23, 1914.


Features

Wrigley Field follows the Baseball park#Jewel box ballparks, jewel box ballpark design that was popular in the early part of the 20th century. The two recessed wall areas, or "''wells''", located both in left and right field, give those areas a little more length than if the wall were to follow the contour from center field. It is also in those wells, when cross winds are blowing, that balls have a habit of bouncing in all directions. In addition, there is a long chain-link fence strip running the entire length of the outfield wall, the base of which is about two feet down from the top of the wall and the top of which projects out at an angle, primarily used to keep fans from falling out of the bleacher area and onto the field of play, which is about seven to ten feet below the top of the wall. Called "''The basket''", by players and fans alike, the rules of the field state that any ball landing within the basket is ruled a home run, making the distance to hit a home run in Wrigley Field actually shorter than the location of the outfield wall.


Ivy-covered outfield walls

The ballpark is famous for its outfield walls which are covered by Parthenocissus tricuspidata, ivy. In the first weeks of the baseball season, the ivy has not leafed out, and all that is visible are the vines on which it grows. However, as the baseball season progresses further into spring, the ivy grows thick and green, disguising the hard brick surface of the outfield wall. In the autumn, generally during post-season, the ivy turns red. On April 7, 2013, Total Pro Sports voted Wrigley Field the "Best Place to Catch a Game in 2013," owing the award primarily to its architecture and ivy-coated fields. In 1937, the stadium was renovated and P. K. Wrigley discussed beautification with then Chicago Cubs President William Veeck Sr. Veeck suggested planting ivy on the outfield walls. The ivy was originally English ivy but was later changed to ''Parthenocissus tricuspidata'', commonly called Boston Ivy or Japanese Bittersweet, which can endure the harsh Chicago winters better than its English cousin. Cuttings from the ivy were sold by local vendors. The Chicago Cubs attempted to grow the ivy on the outside of Wrigley Field as well, but the plantings were often stolen so the Cubs abandoned the plans. Following a later change in
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball: 15 teams in the National L ...
(MLB) rules which requires all outfield walls to be padded, Wrigley Field has been grandfather clause, grandfathered into the rules, meaning it is the only MLB stadium without padded walls because of the ivy. In 2004, the ivy was specifically included in Wrigley Field's Landmark Designation by the Chicago City Council. Although the ivy appears to "pad" the bricks, it is of little practical use in this regard. There have been occasions of fielders being injured when slamming into the wall while pursuing a fly ball. Under the ground rules of Wrigley Field, if a baseball gets into the ivy and gets stuck, the batter is awarded a ground rule double. Outfielders often raise their arms up when the ball goes into the ivy, signaling to an umpire to go out and rule on the play. However, if the ball becomes dislodged or the fielder reaches into the vines to try and get the ball, it is considered in play and the runners can advance.


Dimensions

The distances from home plate to various points in the outfield have remained essentially unchanged since the bleachers were remodeled during the 1937 season. They were originally marked by wooden numbers cut from plywood, painted white, and placed in gaps where the ivy was not allowed to grow. Since the early 1980s, the numbers have been painted directly on the bricks, in yellow. Although the power-alley dimensions are relatively cozy, the foul lines are currently the deepest in the major leagues. It is to the notch in the wall just beyond the left field foul pole. The point where the bleacher wall begins to curve inward in left-center field, one of the two "wells", is an unmarked . The front part of the left-center "well" is the closest point in the outfield, about . The marked left-center field distance is . It is closer to true center field than its right-center counterpart is. True center field is unmarked and is about . The center field marker, which is to the right of true center field and in the middle of the quarter-circle defining the center field area, is and is the deepest point in the outfield. Right-center field is , the notch of the right-center "well" is an unmarked , and the right field foul line is . The backstop is listed in media sources as behind home plate. Although that distance is standard, the relatively small foul ground area in general gives an advantage to batters.


Rooftop seats

When the Wrigley Field was constructed in 1914, the buildings along Waveland and Sheffield avenues gave spectators a view of what was going on inside the ballpark, but did not become popular spectator areas until the 1929 World Series. The 1938 World Series brought paying spectators to the rooftops, however, fans typically sat in lawn chairs and brought their own food and beverages. In the mid-1980s, rooftop owners began to organize more formally as businesses, seeking to extract more revenue by updating the rooftops with bleacher-style grandstands. The Sky Box on Sheffield opened in 1993. Back then, it primarily catered to corporate groups. Today, it is complete with a two-tier roof deck, indoor clubhouse, fully staffed bars on three levels, and an elevator. In 1998, the city started requiring rooftop owners to have a license and began to regulate the venues. In 2003, relations between rooftop owners and the Cubs worsened when the team put up a large screen to block the view of the rooftops. The screens exemplified what is known as a spite fence. The Cubs then sued most rooftop businesses that year. The Cubs felt that the rooftops were stealing from the team's product and the rooftop owners were "unjustly enriching themselves." In 2004, the building owners agreed to share a portion of their proceeds with the Cubs. Rooftop owners were required to pay the Cubs 17% of their gross revenue. The agreement lasts until 2023. The Cubs obtained permission from the city to expand the ballpark's own bleachers out over the sidewalks and do some additional construction on the open area of the property to the west, bordered by Clark and Waveland, and to close the remnant of Seminary Avenue that also existed on the property. The rooftop seats are now effectively part of the ballpark's seating area, although they are not included in the seating capacity figure. In July 2016, R. Marc Hamid, a former rooftop owner was convicted on nine counts of mail fraud and illegal bank structuring. Hamid had been under reporting attendance at the Sky Box on Sheffield from 2008 to 2011. Over those years, Hamid covered up more than $1 million in revenue while also avoiding hundreds of thousands of dollars in taxes and royalties that violated the agreement rooftop owners had with the Cubs. In January 2017, Hamid was sentenced to 18 months in federal prison. The owners threatened suit in 2013 when the team announced plans to renovate the ball field and potentially disrupt the sight lines. When the rooftop owners did not agree to a scaled down plan for renovations of Wrigley, the Cubs owners announced, in May 2014, their intentions to implement the original 2013 plan for renovations even if it meant battling the issue in court. Cubs owner Ricketts said Wrigley has "the worst player facilities in Major League Baseball...I am saying it is the time to invest in Wrigley Field and do the things that our competitors do." By the end of the 2016 season, the Ricketts family had acquired 10 of the rooftop locations and have a financial stake in an 11th. Some of the rooftops became legendary in their own right. The Lakeview Baseball Club, which sits across Sheffield Avenue (right-field) from the stadium displayed a sign that read, "Eamus Catuli!" (roughly Latin for "Let's Go Cubs!"—''catuli'' translating to "wikt:whelp, whelps", the nearest Latin equivalent), flanked by a counter indicating the Cubs' long legacy of futility. The counter was labeled "AC", for "Anno Catulorum", or "In the Year of the Cubs". Prior to the team's 2016 championship, it read AC0871108, with the first two digits indicating the number of years since the Cubs' last division championship as of the end of the previous season (2008 Chicago Cubs season, 2008), the next two digits indicating the number of years since the Cubs won the National League Pennant (1945 Chicago Cubs season, 1945), and the last three digits indicating the number of years since their last World Series win (). After winning the World Series in 2016, the sign was updated to AC0000000.


Seating capacity


Attendance records

*41,688 – July 12, 2015 high mark after Wrigley Field renovations, bleacher renovation *42,411 – Games 3 & 4 of the 2015 NLDS *42,445 - Game 3 of the 2017 NLDS


Unusual wind patterns

In April and May, the wind often comes off Lake Michigan (less than a mile to the east), which means a northeast wind "blowing in" to knock down potential home runs and turn them into outs. In the summer, however, or on any warm and breezy day, the wind often comes from the south and the southwest, which means the wind is "blowing out" and has the potential to turn normally harmless fly balls into home runs. A third variety is the cross-wind, which typically runs from the left field corner to the right field corner and causes all sorts of havoc. Depending on the direction of the wind, Wrigley can either be one of the friendliest parks in the major leagues for pitchers or among the worst. This makes Wrigley one of the most unpredictable parks in the Major Leagues. Many Cubs fans check their nearest flag before heading to the park on game days for an indication of what the game might be like; this is less of a factor for night games, however, because the wind does not blow as hard after the sun goes down. With the wind blowing ''in'', pitchers can dominate and no-hitters have resulted. The last two by a Cubs pitcher occurred near the beginning and the end of the 1972 season, by Burt Hooton and Milt Pappas respectively; not until Cole Hamels of the Philadelphia Phillies no-hit the Cubs in 2015 would another no-hitter be pitched at Wrigley. In the seventh inning of Ken Holtzman's first no-hitter, on August 19, 1969, Hank Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hit a ball that looked headed for the bleachers, but the wind caught it just enough for left fielder Billy Williams (left fielder), Billy Williams to leap up and snare it. With the wind blowing ''out'', some true tape-measure home runs have been hit by well-muscled batters. Sammy Sosa and Dave Kingman, Dave "Kong" Kingman broke windows in the apartment buildings across Waveland Avenue several times. Glenallen Hill put one on a rooftop. Batters have occasionally slugged it into, or to the side of, the first row or two of the "upper deck" of the center field bleachers. Sosa hit the roof of the center field camera booth on the fly during the 2003 National League Championship Series, NLCS against the Florida Marlins, some away. But the longest blast was probably hit by Dave Kingman on a very windy day in 1976 while with the Mets. According to local legend, that day, Kingman launched a bomb that landed on the third porch roof on the east (center field) side of Kenmore Avenue, some 550 feet away. No batter has ever hit the center field scoreboard. However, it has been hit by a golf ball hit by Sam Snead using a two iron. No matter the weather, many fans congregate during batting practice and games on Waveland Avenue, behind left field, and Sheffield Avenue, behind right field, for a chance to catch a home run ball.


Hand-turned scoreboard

Along with Fenway Park's scoreboard and Minute Maid Park & Oracle Park's out of town scoreboards, Wrigley is one of the last parks to maintain a hand-turned scoreboard. Unlike the home of the Red Sox, the scoreboard at Wrigley is mounted above the centerfield bleachers, rather than at ground level, making it harder to hit during play. No players have hit the current scoreboard, although at least three have come close: Roberto Clemente to the left side, on May 17, 1959; and Bill Nicholson (baseball), Bill Nicholson and Eddie Mathews to the right, on August 22, 1942, and April 22, 1953, respectively.Sherman, Ed (May 3, 1989)
of the Tape"
''The Chicago Tribune''. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
The scoreboard was installed in 1937, when Bill Veeck installed the new bleachers. The scoreboard has remained in place ever since, and it has only seen minor modifications. The clock was added in 1941, a fifth row of scores was added to each side in 1961; by 1969, a sixth. A set of light stands facing onto the scoreboard was added in 1988 with the introduction of night games. The centerfield bleacher scoreboard is still manually operated, with scores coming in through a computer (a ticker tape machine was used in the past); a number turner watches the score changes closely and updates scores by manually replacing the numbers from within the scoreboard. The scoreboard is made of sheet steel. The numbers that are placed into the inning windows are also steel, painted forest green, and numbered with white numerals. The box for the game playing at Wrigley uses yellow numerals for the current inning. The clock, which sits at the top center of the scoreboard, has never lost time in its -year existence. Standing over the clock are three flagpoles, one for each division in the
National League The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest extant professional team s ...
. There are 15 flags, one for each National League team, and their order on the flagpoles reflects the current standings. The entrance to the scoreboard is a trap-door on the bottom. On the reverse of the scoreboard, visible from the Chicago Transit Authority, CTA elevated trains, is a blue pennant, with the words "''Chicago Cubs''", in white outlined in red neon. The scoreboard was extensively rehabilitated for the 2010 season. In 2010, the Cubs considered adding a video screen to the stadium, but the hand-turned scoreboard cannot be moved due to the park's landmark status. The landmark status also prohibits even simple facelifts such as adding two more games on either side (there are 15 teams in both the National and American Leagues) of the 12-game, 24-team scoreboard (reflecting MLB from 1969 to 1976), so up to three games (1 NL, 1 AL, and the interleague) each day cannot be posted. Those games may eventually be part of the auxiliary video board currently on the right field that may also be added in left field. Most Cubs players support the concept of a video board, and work on two additional scoreboards began at the end of the 2014 season. It was announced March 21, 2013, that Alderman Tom Tunney wanted to demolish the scoreboard to clear the view for nearby residents, who watch games from their rooftops. "Demolishing the landmark old scoreboard has never been part of any plan discussed or envisioned by the Ricketts family," said Dennis Culloton, a spokesman for Thomas S. Ricketts, Tom Ricketts, the Cubs chairman. To date, there is a third generation scoreboard operator whose grandfather began working in the hand-turned scoreboard at its inception.


Main entry marquee

Directly over the main entrance to the stadium stands the most familiar icon of the exterior of the ballpark: a large red art deco-style marquee (sign), marquee, with "''Wrigley Field, Home of Chicago Cubs''" painted in white. The marquee was installed around 1934. It was originally painted blue, and had changeable letters—similar to the scoreboard—to announce upcoming games. It read "Home of the Cubs", a legend that was replaced with "Home of Chicago Cubs" by 1939. (In years when the Bears played there, the sign was changed appropriately during football season.) On March 23, 1960, the Cubs repainted it red. In 1982, a two-line announcement board was replaced with an electronic LED message board and a backlit advertising panel was added below (this is now solid red). The marquee uses red neon lights at night, showing the familiar "''Wrigley Field''" in red, with the rest of the sign is in darkness. A Budweiser Beer slogan was on the lower panel in the early 1980s about the time when the team added the LED signage. Past and present owners of the park have used the marquee in some way as the park's trademark of sorts: the Chicago Transit Authority, CTA Addison street platform that serves Wrigley Field uses an image of the marquee, painted on walls to announce the destination. The marquee was painted purple and featured an Allstate Insurance logo for the Northwestern Wildcats football, Northwestern Wildcats who played as the home team against the Illinois Fighting Illini football, Illinois Fighting Illini in a Big Ten football game in November 2010. In 2015, a Toyota emblem was placed on the lower panel just below the LED sign on the marquee; previously, the area was used for logos of transient corporate sponsors and team initiatives. Toyota is one of the team's "Legacy Partners" and beginning with the 2016 season will display other signage in and around the park, including branding on all Wrigley Field parking lots. The marquee was temporarily removed and restored for the 2016 season, including new paint, a new LED display board, and new neon lights. The back of the sign was given a new green paint job as well, which can now be seen from inside the terrace level.


Lights

The Cubs were a hold-out against night games for decades, not installing lights at Wrigley until 1988 (after baseball officials announced that the park would be prohibited from hosting any future post-season games without lights). Before then, all games at Wrigley were played during the day. Night games are still limited in number by agreement with the city council. In 1942, then-owner Philip K. Wrigley had planned to install lights, but instead, the lights and stands were scrapped for the World War II effort. In the late 1980s, however, Cubs management insisted that the team was in danger of leaving Wrigley if lights weren't installed, and Major League Baseball threatened to make the Cubs play postseason "home" games at Busch Memorial Stadium, Busch Stadium in St. Louis. The 1984 World Series was scheduled to start in the
National League The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest extant professional team s ...
park. But Major League Baseball actually had a contingency plan to instead start the World Series in the American League park in the event that the 1984 Chicago Cubs season, Chicago Cubs won the 1984 National League Championship Series, NLCS against the 1984 San Diego Padres season, San Diego Padres. This would have allowed the Wrigley Field-hosted (i.e. daytime) games to be held over the weekend. In return, only one prime time game (Game 3 on Friday) would have been lost. Wrigley Field wouldn't have lights installed until 1988 Chicago Cubs season, four years later. To put things in proper perspective, had the Cubs advanced to the Series instead of the Padres, the 1984 Detroit Tigers season, Detroit Tigers would have hosted Games 1–2, and 6–7 (on Tuesday and Wednesday nights), while the Cubs would have hosted Games 3–5 (on Friday, Saturday and Sunday), with all three games in Chicago starting no later than 1:30 p.m. Central Time zone, Central Time. Since the Padres wound up winning the 1984 NLCS, these plans proved moot. After 5,687 consecutive day games played by the Cubs at Wrigley, the lights were finally lit on August 8, 1988, for a game with the Philadelphia Phillies. That game was rained out after 3½ innings, and the first official night game took place the following evening against the New York Mets, a game which the Cubs won 6–4. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League's first All-Star Game during the 1943 midseason, was played under temporary lights at Wrigley Field, between two teams composed of South Bend Blue Sox and Rockford Peaches players versus Kenosha Comets and Racine Belles players. It was also the first night game ever played in the historic ballpark (July 1, 1943).


Stadium usage


Baseball

Weeghman Park's first tenant was the
Federal League The Federal League of Base Ball Clubs, known simply as the Federal League, was an American professional baseball league that played its first season in 1913 and operated as a "third major league", in competition with the established National ...
team, the
Chicago Whales The Chicago Whales were a professional baseball team based in Chicago. They played in the Federal League, a short-lived "third Major League", in 1914 and 1915. They originally lacked a formal nickname, and were known simply as the "Chicago Federals ...
, from 1914 to 1915. Weeghman Park / Cubs Park / Wrigley Field has served as the home baseball park for
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball: 15 teams in the National L ...
's Chicago Cubs franchise since 1916.


Football

The Chicago Bears of the National Football League played at Wrigley Field from 1921 to 1970 before relocating to Soldier Field. The team had transferred from Decatur, and retained the name "Chicago Staleys, Staleys" for the 1921 season. They renamed themselves the "Bears" in order to identify with the baseball team, a common practice in the NFL in those days. Wrigley Field once held the record for the most NFL games played in a single stadium with 365 regular season NFL games, but this record was surpassed in September 2003 by Giants Stadium in New Jersey, thanks to its dual-occupancy by the New York Giants and New York Jets. The game played between the Jets and 2003 Miami Dolphins season, Miami Dolphins on September 14, 2003 was the 366th regular season NFL game at Giants Stadium breaking Wrigley's regular season record. The 50 seasons the Bears spent at Wrigley Field had been an NFL record until 2006 when Lambeau Field duplicated this feat by hosting the Green Bay Packers for the 50th season, and broke it in 2007 NFL season, 2007. Initially the Bears worked with the stands that were there. Eventually they acquired a large, portable bleacher section that spanned the right and center field areas and covered most of the existing bleacher seating and part of the right field corner seating. This "East Stand" raised Wrigley's football capacity to about 47,000, or a net gain of perhaps 9,000 seats over normal capacity. After the Bears left, this structure would live on for several years as the "North Stand" at Soldier Field, until it was replaced by permanent seating. The football field ran north-to-south, i.e. from left field to the foul side of first base. The remodeling of the bleachers made for a very tight fit for the gridiron. In fact, the corner of the south end zone was literally in the visiting baseball team's dugout, which was filled with pads for safety, and required a special ground rule that sliced off that corner of the end zone. The end zone was also shorter than the north, as the south end zone was eight yards, compared to the regulation 10 yards. One corner of the north end line ran just inches short of the left field wall. There is a legend that Bronko Nagurski, the great Bears fullback, steamrolled through the line, head down, and ran all the way through that end zone, smacking his leather-helmeted head on the bricks. He went back to the bench and told Coach "Papa Bear" George Halas, "That last guy gave me quite a lick!" That kind of incident prompted the Bears to hang some padding in front of the wall. The Bears are second only to the Packers in total NFL championships, and all but one of those (their only Super Bowl championship) came during their tenure at Wrigley. After a half-century, they found themselves compelled to move, because the NFL wanted every one of its stadiums to seat at least 50,000 as a result of the AFL–NFL merger. The Bears had one experimental game at Dyche Stadium (now Ryan Field (stadium), Ryan Field) on the Northwestern University campus in 1970, but otherwise continued at Wrigley until their transfer to the lakefront ended their five-decades run on the north side. One remnant of the Bears' time at Wrigley was uncovered during the off-season 2007–2008 rebuilding of the playing field: the foundations for the goal posts. Five NFL championship games were played at Wrigley Field; 1933 NFL Championship Game, 1933, 1937 NFL Championship Game, 1937, 1941 NFL Championship Game, 1941, 1943 NFL Championship Game, 1943 and 1963 NFL Championship Game, 1963. Coupled with the Chicago Bears, the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League called Wrigley Field home from 1931-1938. Born on the South Side of Chicago, the Cardinals also played their home games at Normal Park, Comiskey Park, and Soldier Field. The Northwestern Wildcats football, Northwestern Wildcats and the Illinois Fighting Illini football, Illinois Fighting Illini played a college football game at Wrigley Field on November 20, 2010. It was the first football game at Wrigley Field since 1970 and the first collegiate football game at Wrigley Field since 1938 when the DePaul Blue Demons played its regular games at Wrigley. The field used an east–west field configuration (third base to right field). In order to keep the playing field at regulation size, the safety clearances for each end zone to the walls in the field were considerably less than normal. In particular, the east (right field) end zone came under scrutiny as its end zone was wedged extremely close to the right field wall (as close as one foot in some areas), forcing the goal posts to be hung from the right field wall in order to fit. Despite extra padding provided in these locations, it was decided that all offensive plays for both teams play to the west end zone, where there was more safety clearance. The east end zone could still be used on defensive and special teams touchdowns, as well as defensive safeties; and, in fact, there was one interception run back for an eastbound touchdown. Big Ten Commissioner Jim Delany said that as late as three days before the game, he had only been apprised that the situation wasn't "anything other than tight." When he had a chance to fully vet the situation, however, he concluded that the space surrounding the east end zone was smaller than the minimum of six feet stipulated in NCAA rules, and it would have been too great of a risk to allow offensive plays to be run toward that end zone. The Fighting Illini won the game 48-27 taking home the Land of Lincoln Trophy, which was introduced in 2009. Northwestern Football intends to return to Wrigley Field in 2020, 2022, and 2024. As a result of the 2017-18 redesign of the home (third base) dugout and its adjacent seating into removable modules, the playing field will accommodate a regulation size 120-yard football field that will run East-West.


Soccer

The Chicago Sting of the North American Soccer League (1968–1984), North American Soccer League (NASL) used Wrigley, along with Comiskey Park, for their home matches during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Sting hosted the San Diego Sockers (1974–96), San Diego Sockers on 1979 North American Soccer League season, August 25, 1979, at Wrigley when the Bears were using Soldier Field. Unlike the Bears' American football layout, the association football, soccer pitch ran east-to-west, from right field to the foul territory on the third-base side. Soccer returned to Wrigley Field in July 2012, when Italian club A.S. Roma played Poland's Zaglebie Lubin in a friendly match.


Hockey

On January 1, 2009, the National Hockey League played its 2009 NHL Winter Classic, 2009 Winter Classic in The Friendly Confines pitting two "Original Six" teams – the host Chicago Blackhawks and the visiting Detroit Red Wings – in an outdoor ice hockey game. The rink ran across the field from first base to third base with second base being covered by roughly the center of the rink. The attendance for this game was 40,818. The Red Wings won 6–4.


Concerts

Since 2005, Wrigley Field has been opened on a limited basis to popular concerts, not without some controversy. Local neighborhood groups have expressed concerns about the impact of concert crowds and noise on the surrounding residential neighborhood, particularly in 2009 when three concerts were added to the schedule, one conflicting with an annual neighborhood festival. List of concerts at Wrigley Field


Traditions and mainstays


Corporate sponsorship

Wrigley Field shares its name with the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, Wrigley Company, as the park was named for its then-owner, William Wrigley Jr., the CEO of the Wrigley Company. As early as the 1920s, before the park became officially known as Wrigley Field, the scoreboard was topped by the elf-like "Doublemint Twins", posed as a pitcher and a batter. There were also ads painted on the bare right field wall early in the ballpark's history, prior to the 1923 remodeling which put bleachers there. After that, the Doublemint elves were the only visible in-park advertising. The elves were removed permanently in 1937 when the bleachers and scoreboard were rebuilt. It would be about 44 years before in-park advertising would reappear. Ironically given the roots of its name, Wrigley Field had been a notable exception to the trend of selling naming rights, corporate naming rights to sporting venues. The Tribune Company, owners of the park from 1981 to 2009, chose not to rename the ballpark, utilizing other ways to bring corporate sponsorship into the ballpark. During the mid-1980s, Anheuser-Busch placed Budweiser and Bud Light advertisements beneath the center field scoreboard. Bud Light became the sponsor of the rebuilt bleachers in 2006. In the early 2000s, following the trend of many ballparks, a green-screen chroma key board was installed behind home plate, in the line of sight of the center field TV camera, to allow electronic "rotating" advertisements visible only to the TV audiences. By 2006, the board was set up to allow advertisements to be both physical and electronic (thus they can be seen in both live and replay shots). In 2007, the first on-field advertising appeared since the park's early days. Sporting goods firm Under Armour placed its logo on the double-doors between the ivy on the outfield wall, in left-center and right-center fields. Advertisements were also placed in the dugouts, originally for Sears department stores, then Walter E. Smithe furniture and now State Farm insurance. For 2008 and 2009, the Cubs worked out an agreement with the Chicago Board Options Exchange to allow the CBOE to auction some 70 box seat season tickets and award naming rights to them. For the 2009 season, the Cubs announced that the renovated restaurant space in the southeast corner of Wrigley Field, formerly known as the Friendly Confines Cafe, would be renamed the Captain Morgan Club. On October 27, 2009, Thomas S. Ricketts officially took over 95% ownership of the
Chicago Cubs The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. The team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located ...
, Wrigley Field and 20% ownership of Comcast SportsNet Chicago. The Tribune retained 5% ownership. Ricketts, however, has expressed no interest in selling the naming rights to Wrigley Field, preferring that it retain the name it has used since 1926.


Outside venues

Corporate sponsorship has not been limited to the park itself. Wrigley Field is famous for its view of the neighborhood buildings across Waveland and Sheffield Avenues. In addition to spectators standing or sitting on the apartment roofs, corporate sponsors have frequently taken advantage of those locations as well. In the earliest days of Weeghman Park, one building across Sheffield Avenue advertised a local hangout known as Bismarck Gardens (later called the Marigold Gardens after World War I). That same building has since advertised for the Torco Oil Company, Southwest Airlines, the Miller Brewing Company, and Gilbert's Craft Sausages. A building across from deep right-center field was topped by a neon sign for Baby Ruth candy beginning in the mid-1930s and running for some 40 years. That placement by the Chicago-based Curtiss Candy Company, coincidentally positioned in the line of sight of "Babe Ruth's called shot#Legacy and cultural references, Babe Ruth's called shot", proved fortuitous when games began to be televised in the 1940s—the sign was also in the line of sight of the ground level camera behind and to the left of home plate. The aging sign was eventually removed in the early 1970s. Another long-standing venue for a sign is the sloping roof of a building behind left-center field. Unsuitable for the bleachers that now decorate many of those buildings, that building's angling roof has been painted in the form of a large billboard since at least the 1940s. In recent years it has borne a bright-red Budweiser sign and, beginning in 2009, an advertisement for Horseshoe Casino. Other buildings have carried signs sponsoring beers, such as Old Style (when it was a Cubs broadcasting sponsor) and Miller; and also WGN-TV, which has telecast Cubs games since April 1948.


Legacy Partners

In January 2013 the Ricketts family launched "Legacy Partners," a marketing effort to sell new kinds of advertising in and around Wrigley Field renovations, renovated Wrigley Field. In conjunction with the new W Partners, the Cubs entered into 10-year agreements with its largest advertisers. # – Anheuser-Busch # – Under Armour # – ATI Physical Therapy, a national Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation organization # – CIVC Partners, Wintrust Financial Corporation, a Chicago-based regional bank holding company # – Sloan Valve # – American Airlines # – Nuveen Investments # – Advocate Health Care, the largest health care provider in Illinois. # – Toyota, Toyota Motor Corporation A permanent position just below the Clark and Addison marquee and other signage in and around the park and Wrigley Field parking lots. # – PepsiCo


Win flag

Beginning in the days of P.K. Wrigley and the 1937 bleacher/scoreboard reconstruction, a flag with either a "W" or an "L" has flown from atop the scoreboard masthead, indicating the day's result. In case of a doubleheader that is split, both flags are flown. Past Cubs media guides show that the original flags were blue with a white "W" and white with a blue "L", the latter coincidentally suggesting "surrender". In 1978, blue and white lights were mounted atop the scoreboard, to further denote wins and losses. The flags were replaced in the early 1980s, and the color schemes were reversed with the "win flag" being white with a blue W, and the "loss flag" the opposite. In 1982, the retired number of Ernie Banks was flying on a foul pole, as white with blue numbers, in 1987, the retired number of Billy Williams joined Banks, the two flags were positioned from the foul poles, Banks from left field, and Williams from right field. Later on, the team retired numbers for Ron Santo, Ryne Sandberg, Ferguson Jenkins and Greg Maddux, with Jenkins and Maddux both using the same number (31). Keeping with tradition, fans are known to bring win flags to home and away games, and displaying them after a Cubs win. Flags are also sold at the ballpark. On April 24, 2008, the Cubs flew an extra white flag displaying "10,000" in blue, along with the win flag, as the 10,000th win in team history was achieved on the road the previous night. Alongside the tradition of the "W" and "L" flags, the song "Go, Cubs, Go" is sung after each home win (it was also sung by visiting Cubs fans in Game 7 of the 2016 World Series at Progressive Field in Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, where the Cubs clinched their first championship since 1908). Also, following the 2015 addition of the park's Daktronics video screens, the large "W" in the "Wintrust" logo on the left field video screen is kept on following Cubs' wins.


Take Me Out to the Ball Game

The tradition of singing "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" at Cubs home games began when Hall of Fame announcer Harry Caray arrived in 1982 (he had sung it the preceding seven years as a broadcaster for the Chicago White Sox, White Sox), and it has remained a Wrigley Field staple. After Caray's death, the tradition of a guest conductor began, with former baseball players, other sports stars, actors, and other celebrities invited to sing during the Seventh Inning Stretch. Among the best-known guests have been former Bears coach Mike Ditka, former Cubs second baseman Ryne Sandberg, former pitcher Mike Krukow, former longtime Cubs first baseman Mark Grace, former Houston Rockets star Tracy McGrady, Chicago Blackhawks forwards Jonathan Toews and Patrick Kane, Chicago Bears quarterback Jay Cutler (American football), Jay Cutler, comedian Jay Leno, NASCAR driver Jeff Gordon, singers Ozzy Osbourne and Eddie Vedder, boxer and actor Mr. T, actor and lifelong Cub fan Gary Sinise, actors Tom Arnold (actor), Tom Arnold, James Belushi, Bill Murray, WWE wrestler/Chicago native CM Punk, Vince Vaughn, and Illinois-native country music singer Brett Eldredge.


Organ Music

Wrigley Field was the first Major League ballpark to introduce live organ (music), organ music on April 26, 1941. The stadium's first organist was Ray Nelson. As of July 2019, organist Gary Pressy, holds the record for 2,653 consecutive games played; never having missed a day's work in 33 years. Today, most major league ballparks have replaced the traditional live organist with canned music programmed by a DJ. Pressy says: "I don't think it's a dying art, especially at Wrigley Field ... The team respects tradition."


Writing on the Wall

During the 2016 postseason, someone wrote a message in chalk on the outer brick wall of the stadium along Waveland and Sheffield avenues. This started a chain reaction and more fans began to write their own messages on the wall. The messages were anything from words of support expressed towards the team or just a name. Chalk covered a majority of the wall, to point where fans had to bring step ladders in order to reach upper spaces for their message. The Cubs themselves encouraged the event by supplying chalk and adding extra security. The event gained both local and national attention, receiving coverage from Fox Sports and ''The Boston Globe''.


In popular culture

Wrigley Field had a brief cameo in the 1980 film ''The Blues Brothers (film), The Blues Brothers'', starring John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd as Jake and Elwood Blues. In the film, Elwood lists 1060 W. Addison as his fake home address on his Illinois driver's license, tricking the police and later the Illinois Nazis listening on police radio into heading for Wrigley Field. The 1984 film ''The Natural'', starring Robert Redford, had a scene set at Wrigley but was actually filmed at All-High Stadium in Buffalo, New York. All other baseball action scenes in that movie were shot in Buffalo, at the since-demolished War Memorial Stadium (Buffalo), War Memorial Stadium. During Cubs games, fans will often stand outside the park on Waveland Avenue, waiting for home run balls hit over the wall and out of the park. However, as a tradition, Cubs fans inside and sometimes even outside the park will promptly throw any home run ball hit by an opposing player back onto the field of play, a ritual depicted in the 1977 stage play ''Bleacher Bums'' and in the 1993 film ''Rookie of the Year (film), Rookie of the Year''. The ballpark was featured in a scene in the 1986 film ''Ferris Bueller's Day Off'', where the outside marquee read "''Save Ferris''". The director, John Hughes (filmmaker), John Hughes, originally wanted to film at Comiskey Park (he was a White Sox fan) but the team was out of town during filming. The 2006 film ''The Break-Up'' used Wrigley Field as the setting for its opening scene. An The Babe, early 1990s film about Babe Ruth had the obligatory scene in Wrigley Field about the "called shot" (the ballpark also doubled as Yankee Stadium (1923), Yankee Stadium for the film). A scoreboard similar to the one existing in 1932 World Series, 1932 was used, atop an ivy wall (though that did not exist until later in the decade). The ballpark was used for the establishing tryouts scene in ''A League of Their Own'' (1992). This film was a Hollywood account of the 1940s women's baseball league which Cubs owner P.K. Wrigley championed during World War II. Garry Marshall (older brother of the film's director Penny Marshall) has a cameo as "Walter Harvey", Wrigley's fictional alter ego. The sign behind the scoreboard was temporarily redone to read "Harvey Field", and filming was split between Wrigley and Cantigny Park near Wheaton, Illinois. Many television series have made featured scenes set in Wrigley Field, including ''ER (TV series), ER'', ''Crime Story (U.S. TV series), Crime Story'', ''Chicago Hope'', ''Prison Break'', ''Perfect Strangers (sitcom), Perfect Strangers'', ''My Boys'', ''Chicago Fire (TV series), Chicago Fire'' and ''Mike & Molly''. Also, the animated comedy ''Family Guy'' featured a scene at Wrigley Field that parodied the Steve Bartman incident. In an episode of ''The Simpsons'' titled "He Loves to Fly and He D'ohs", upon arriving in Chicago, Homer Simpson, Homer walks past a number of famous Chicago landmarks, including Wrigley Field, followed by a generic-looking stadium bearing the name "Wherever the White Sox play". In 2007, the band Nine Inch Nails created a promotional audio skit, which involved Wrigley Field being the target of disgruntled war veteran's terrorist attack. The late-1970s comedy stage play ''Bleacher Bums'' was set in the right field bleachers at Wrigley. The video of the play was also set on a stage, with bleachers suggesting Wrigley's layout, rather than in the actual ballpark's bleachers. The tradition of throwing opposition home run balls back was explained by Dennis Franz's character: "If someone hands you some garbage, you have to throw it back at them!" In the cartoon series ''Biker Mice from Mars'', the eponymous main characters hide out in the scoreboard of the stadium, which is named Quigley Field. A dog park in the Wrightwood Neighbors section of Lincoln Park, Chicago, Lincoln Park is named Wiggly Field (1997). The stadium was also featured on the popular Travel Channel television show ''Great Hotels'', starring Samantha Brown. She attended a game during a visit to Chicago. Chicago folk singer Steve Goodman featured Wrigley Field as the setting for his popular Cubs lament "A Dying Cub Fan's Last Request", extolling both the trials of the Cubs and the place Wrigley Field holds in Cub fans' hearts. After his untimely death from leukemia, Goodman's ashes were in fact scattered at Wrigley Field as described in the lyrics. The Statler Brothers' 1981 song "Don't Wait On Me" referred to a then-implausible situation: "When the lights go on at Wrigley Field". However, after Wrigley Field#Baseball, lights were installed, the line was changed to "When they put a dome on Wrigley Field" for their 1989 ''Live-Sold Out'' album. A few brief shots of Wrigley Field appear in the 1949 movie ''It Happens Every Spring''. It is also seen on the History (U.S. TV channel), History Channel's show ''Life After People.'' The stadium made a brief appearance in the open for the first episode of ''The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien'', with Conan rushing through the turnstiles while running from New York (where his previous show, ''Late Night with Conan O'Brien'', was taped) to Los Angeles (where his new show was taped, until his role as host ended on January 22, 2010) and then running onto the field while being chased by Cubs security. The route O'Brien takes is somewhat misleading, as he is shown running south on Michigan Avenue (Chicago), Michigan Avenue past the Tribune Tower before arriving at Wrigley Field, which is well north of the Tribune Tower. In the movie ''Category 6: Day of Destruction'', a terrorist turns off all the electricity at the stadium for a few minutes to demonstrate how hackers could penetrate city electrical systems. An overgrown Wrigley Field is shown in the new television series ''Revolution'' (2012). In episode 9 of season 3 of ''The Man in the High Castle (TV series), The Man in the High Castle'' (2015), Wrigley Field makes a short appearance as the home of a fictional soccer team called the ''Chicago Norsemen'' who, according to a banner, were "1963 Annual Soccer Champions". Wrigley Field was the site of the final task of ''The Amazing Race 29'' finale, where one team member was guided by their partner communicating to them from the press box via a one-way radio to place numbers on the hand-turned scoreboard that corresponded to their team's final placement at the end of each of the previous eleven episodes, before searching the stadium's seats for their final clue. On the Sonic Youth live album ''Smart Bar Chicago 85'' the band introduce the final song, 'Making The Nature Scene', as being about 'Tripping on Acid at Wrigley Field'. There is a sociologist and demographer called Elizabeth Wrigley-Field who is currently teaching at Columbia University, N.Y. She has her name from her parents (her mother was a Wrigley, her father a Field) but they called her simply Field, so she had to take legal steps to change her name to Wrigley-Field. In the 2020 film Greenland (film), Wrigley Field is shown still standing despite being severely damaged amidst the ruins of Chicago after the collision of an interstellar comet that collided with Earth.


Accessibility and transportation

trains. This view is now blocked by buildings constructed in 2007. The Chicago "L" Red Line (CTA), Red Line stop at is less than one block east of Wrigley Field; the stadium was originally built for proximity to the "L" tracks. As Addison is frequently crowded after games, many fans use , the next station to the north, and still less than a mile from the stadium. Additionally, Purple Line (CTA), Purple Line Express trains stop at Sheridan before weekday night games in order to provide an additional connection for passengers traveling from Evanston, Illinois, Evanston, Skokie, Illinois, Skokie and northern Chicago. After weekday night games, northbound Purple Line passengers are told to board at Sheridan, while southbound passengers are told to board at Addison. At the conclusion of games, the scoreboard operator raises to the top of the center field scoreboard either a white flag with a blue "W" to signify a Cubs victory or a blue flag with a white "L" for a loss. This is done to show the outcome of the game to passengers on passing "L" trains, and also to anyone passing by the park. The basic flag color was once the exact opposite of the colors used today (the rationale being that white is the traditional color for Surrender (military), surrender). In addition to rail service, the CTA provides several bus routes which service Wrigley. List of Chicago Transit Authority bus routes, CTA bus routes 22 Clark, 152 Addison and 154 Wrigley Field Express all provide access to the ballpark. Pace also operates the 282 Schaumburg-Wrigley Field Express from Woodfield Mall in Schaumburg and the 779 Yorktown-Wrigley Field Express from Yorktown Shopping Center in Lombard. Biking to the field is also a popular alternative. As Halsted, Addison, and Clark streets all have designated biking lanes, getting to the field via bicycle is a widely used way to avoid hectic pre- and postgame traffic; Wrigley Field offers a complimentary bike check program to accommodate for them. Cyclists may check their bikes up to 2 hours before games at the bike racks off of Waveland Ave, and may pick up their bikes up to one hour after games end. Parking in the area remains scarce, but that does not seem to bother fans who want to come to this baseball mecca, which has drawn more than 3 million fans every year from 2004 until 2011 averaging to a near-sellout every day of the season, even with many weekday afternoon games. The little parking that ''is'' available around the park can go for as much as $100 per space. To partially alleviate this problem, the Cubs sponsor a parking shuttle service from the nearby DeVry University campus at Belmont and Western as part of their agreement with local neighborhood groups. This was not available during the last World Series prior to 2016, in 1945 against the Detroit Tigers, sopersonal knowledge cars parked as much as a mile away on residential streets and fans walked to Wrigley Field.


Commemorative stamps

Image:Wrigley1950composite.JPG, 400px In 2001, a series of commemorative postage stamps on the subject of baseball parks was issued by the U.S. Postal Service. Most of them were engravings taken from old colorized postcards, including the illustration of Wrigley Field. In the case of Wrigley, the famous scoreboard was sliced off, presumably to hide the original postcard's banner containing the park's name. It may also be observed that the original black-and-white aerial photo, from the 1945 World Series, was taken from nearly the identical spot as the photo of the 1935 Series, allowing a comparison before and after the 1937 alterations to the bleachers. The stamp and its sources also provide a rare look at the center field bleachers filled with spectators, a practice which was later discontinued due to the risk to batters, who might lose the flight of a pitch amidst the white shirts. This led to the development of Batter's eye, darker backgrounds to the pitcher's mounds.


See also

*History of Wrigley Field *List of events at Wrigley Field


Notes


References


Sources

*''A Day at the Park'', by William Hartel *''Ballparks of North America'', by Michael Benson *''Cubs Journal'', by John Snyder *''Green Cathedrals'', by Philip J. Lowry *''Wrigleyville: A Magical History Tour of the Chicago Cubs'', by Peter Golenbock *''Wrigley Field: The Long Life and Contentious Times of the Friendly Confines'', by Stuart Shea
Top 10 Ballparks of 2008
by Devin Pratt


External links


Stadium site on MLB.com

Restore Wrigley Field



Wrigley Field News

Zachary Taylor Davis

1060 Project
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