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William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional
Yoknapatawpha County Yoknapatawpha County () is a List of fictional counties, fictional Mississippi county created by the American author William Faulkner, largely based upon and inspired by Lafayette County, Mississippi, and its county seat of Oxford, Mississippi (whi ...
, based on
Lafayette County, Mississippi Lafayette County is a County (United States), county in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 47,351. Its county seat is Oxford, Mississippi, Oxford. The local pronunciation of the na ...
, where Faulkner spent most of his life. Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers of
American literature American literature is literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In ...
, and is widely considered one of the best writers of
Southern literature Image:US map-South.PNG, 300px, 16 states and Washington, D.C. are defined as the Southern region of the United States by the Census Bureau. The 11 states in solid red are usually considered part of the South. The inclusion of some of the 6 states in ...
. Born in New Albany, Mississippi, Faulkner's family moved to
Oxford, Mississippi Oxford is a city in, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administr ...
when he was a young child. With the outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, he joined the
Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; french: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together ...

Royal Canadian Air Force
but he did not serve in combat. Returning to Oxford, he attended the
University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, byname Ole Miss, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organis ...
for three semesters before dropping out. He then moved to
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
, where he wrote his first novel '' Soldiers' Pay'' (1925). Returning to Oxford, he wrote ''
Sartoris ''Sartoris'' is a novel, first published in 1929, by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, ...
'' (1927), his first work which is set in Yoknapatawpha County. In 1929, he published ''
The Sound and the Fury ''The Sound and the Fury'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapa ...
''. The following year, he wrote ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times rom ...

As I Lay Dying
''. Seeking greater economic success, he went to
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
to work as a screenwriter. Faulkner's renown reached its peak upon the publication of
Malcolm Cowley Malcolm Cowley (August 24, 1898 – March 27, 1989) was an American writer, editor, historian, poet, and literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation Evaluation is a system A system is a g ...

Malcolm Cowley
's ''The Portable Faulkner'' and his 1949
Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_for = Outstanding contributions in literature , presenter = Swedish Academy The Swedish Academy ( sv, Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Roya ...
, making him the only Mississippi-born Nobel laureate. Two of his works, ''
A Fable ''A Fable'' is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. ...
'' (1954) and his last novel ''
The Reivers ''The Reivers: A Reminiscence'', published in 1962, is the last novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize la ...
'' (1962), won the
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It recognizes distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life, published during ...
. His economic success allowed him to purchase an estate in Oxford,
Rowan Oak Rowan Oak, also known as William Faulkner House, is William Faulkner's former home in Oxford, Mississippi. It is a primitive Greek Revival house built in the 1840s by Robert Sheegog. Faulkner purchased the house when it was in disrepair in the 1930 ...

Rowan Oak
. Faulkner died from a heart attack on July 6, 1962 related to a fall from his horse the prior month. In 1998, the
Modern Library The Modern Library is an American book publishing imprint Imprint or imprinting may refer to: Entertainment * Imprint (TV series), ''Imprint'' (TV series), Canadian television series * Imprint (Masters of Horror), "Imprint" (''Masters of Horror ...
ranked his 1929 novel ''The Sound and the Fury'' sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were ''As I Lay Dying'' (1930) and ''
Light in August ''Light in August'' is a 1932 novel by the Southern American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mi ...
'' (1932). ''
Absalom, Absalom! ''Absalom, Absalom!'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulk ...
'' (1936) appears on similar lists.


Life


Childhood and heritage

William Cuthbert Faulkner was born on September 25, 1897 in
New Albany, Mississippi New Albany is a city in Union County, Mississippi, Union County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 8,034 at the 2010 census. New Albany is the county seat of Union County. History New Albany was first organized in 1840 at the site of ...
, the first of four sons of Murry Cuthbert Falkner (August 17, 1870 – August 7, 1932) and Maud Butler (November 27, 1871 – October 16, 1960).MWP: William Faulkner (1897–1962)
, OleMiss.edu; accessed September 26, 2017.
His family was upper middle-class, "not quite of the old feudal cotton aristocracy". Soon after his first birthday, his family moved to
Ripley, Mississippi Ripley is a city in Tippah County, Mississippi Mississippi () is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country C ...
, where his father worked as the treasurer for the family-owned Gulf & Chicago Railroad Company. Murry hoped to inherit the railroad from his father, John Wesley Thompson Falkner, but John had little confidence in Murry's ability to run a business and sold it. Following the sale of the railroad business, Murry proposed a plan to get a new start for his family by moving to Texas to become a rancher. Maud disagreed with this proposition, and they moved instead to
Oxford, Mississippi Oxford is a city in, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administr ...
in 1902, where Murry's father owned several businesses, making it easy for Murry to find work.Minter, David L. ''William Faulkner, His Life and Work''. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980; Thus, four days prior to William's fifth birthday, the Falkner family settled in Oxford, where he lived on and off for the rest of his life. After 15 years in Oxford, Faulkner's father became the business manager of the University of Mississippi. His family, particularly his mother Maud, his maternal grandmother Lelia Butler, and Caroline "Callie" Barr (the African American nanny who raised him from infancy) influenced the development of Falkner's artistic imagination. Both his mother and his grandmother were avid readers as well as painters and photographers, educating him in visual language. While Murry enjoyed the outdoors and encouraged his sons to hunt, track, and fish, Maud valued education and took pleasure in reading and going to church. She taught her sons to read before she sent them to public school and she also exposed them to literary classics such as the works of
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
and the
Grimms' Fairy Tales ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'', originally known as the ''Children's and Household Tales'' (german: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, lead=yes, ), is a German collection of fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Mä ...
. Falkner spent his boyhood listening to stories which were told to him by his elders including stories which were about the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
, slavery, the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, gene ...
, and the Falkner family. Falkner's grandfather also told him about the exploits of William's great-grandfather and namesake,
William Clark Falkner William Clark Falkner (July 6, 1825 or 1826 – November 6, 1889) was a soldier, lawyer, politician, businessman, and author in northern Mississippi. He is most notable for the influence he had on the work of his great-grandson, author William Faul ...

William Clark Falkner
, who was a successful businessman, writer, and
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederate
hero. Telling stories about "Old Colonel", as his family called him, had already become something of a family pastime when Faulkner was a boy. According to one of Falkner's biographers, by the time William was born, his great-grandfather had "long since been enshrined as a household deity."Coughlan, pg. 38 The younger Faulkner was greatly influenced by the history of his family and the region in which he lived. Mississippi marked his sense of humor, his sense of the tragic position of "
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
and
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
"
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
, his characterization of Southern characters, and his timeless themes, including fiercely intelligent people who are dwelling behind the façades of
good ol' boy An old boy network (also known as old boys' network, old boys' club, or old boys' society) can refer to social and business connections among Alumnus, former pupils of male-only elite schools. The term originated from much of the British upper- ...
s and simpletons. As a schoolchild, Faulkner had success early on. He excelled in the first grade, skipped the second, and did well through the third and fourth grades. However, beginning somewhere in the fourth and fifth grades of his schooling, Falkner became a much quieter and more withdrawn child. He occasionally played hooky and became somewhat indifferent with regard to his schoolwork. Instead, he took an interest in studying the
history of Mississippi The history of the state of Mississippi Mississippi () is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguo ...
on his own time, beginning in the seventh grade. The decline of his performance in school continued, and Falkner wound up repeating the eleventh and twelfth grades, never graduating from high school. As a teenager in Oxford, Faulkner dated Estelle Oldham (1897–1972), the popular daughter of Major Lemuel and Lida Oldham, and he also believed that he would marry her. However, Estelle dated other boys during their romance, and in 1918 one of them, Cornell Franklin, proposed marriage to her before Faulkner did. Estelle's parents insisted that she marry Cornell, because he was an Ole Miss law graduate, because he had recently been commissioned as a major in the Hawaiian Territorial Forces, and because he also came from a respectable family of whom they were old friends. Estelle's marriage to Franklin fell apart ten years later, and they divorced in April 1929.


Trip to the North and early writings

When he was 17, Faulkner met Phil Stone, who became an important early influence on his writing. Stone was four years his senior and came from one of Oxford's older families; he was passionate about literature and had bachelor's degrees from
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
and the
University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, byname Ole Miss, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organis ...
. Stone read and was impressed by some of Faulkner's early poetry, becoming one of the first to recognize and encourage Faulkner's talent. Stone mentored the young Faulkner, introducing him to the works of writers such as
James Joyce James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosoph ...
, who influenced Faulkner's own writing. In his early 20s, Faulkner gave poems and short stories he had written to Stone in hopes of their being published. Stone sent these to publishers, but they were uniformly rejected. In spring 1918, Faulkner traveled to live with Stone at Yale, his first trip north. Although he initially planned to join the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
in hopes of being commissioned as an officer, Faulkner joined the with a forged letter of reference and left Yale to receive training in
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
. Accounts of Faulkner being rejected from the
United States Army Air Service The United States Army Air Service (USAAS)Craven and Cate Vol. 1, p. 9 (also known as the ''"Air Service"'', ''"U.S. Air Service"'' and before its legislative establishment in 1920, the ''"Air Service, United States Army"'') was the aerial warf ...
due to his short stature, despite wide publication, are false. Despite his claims, records indicate that Faulkner was never actually a member of the British
Royal Flying Corps "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colors= , colours_label= , march= , mascot= , anniversaries= , decorations= , battle_honours= , battles_label=Wars , battles=First World War , disbanded=merged with RNAS The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) ...
and never saw active service during the First World War. Despite claiming so in his letters, Faulkner did not receive cockpit training or even fly. Faulkner returned to Oxford in December 1918, where he told acquaintances false war-stories and even faked a war wound. In 1918, Faulkner's surname changed from "Falkner" to "Faulkner". According to one story, a careless typesetter made an error. When the misprint appeared on the title page of his first book, Faulkner was asked whether he wanted the change. He supposedly replied, "Either way suits me." In adolescence, Faulkner began writing poetry almost exclusively. He did not write his first novel until 1925. His literary influences are deep and wide. He once stated that he modeled his early writing on the
Romantic era Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mas ...
in late 18th- and early 19th-century England. He attended the University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss") in Oxford, enrolling in 1919, going three semesters before dropping out in November 1920. Faulkner joined the
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Sigma Alpha Epsilon (), commonly known as SAE, is a North American Greek-letter social college fraternity A fraternity (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. ...
fraternity, and pursued his dream to become a writer. William was able to attend classes at the university because his father had a job there as a business manager. He skipped classes often and received a "D" grade in English. However, some of his poems were published in campus publications.Coughlan, Robert. ''The Private World of William Faulkner'', New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953.Porter, Carolyn
''William Faulkner''
, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007;
In 1922, his poem "Portrait" was published in the New Orleans literary magazine ''Double Dealer''. The magazine published his "New Orleans" short story collection three years later.


New Orleans and early novels

Faulkner spent the first half of 1925 in
New Orleans, Louisiana New Orleans (,New Orleans
bohemian A Bohemian () is a resident of Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Gre ...
artists and writers lived, specifically in the
French Quarter The French Quarter, also known as the , is the oldest neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic ...

French Quarter
where Faulkner lived beginning in March. During his time in New Orleans, Faulkner's focus drifted from poetry to prose and his literary style made a marked transition from
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
to
modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
. ''
The Times-Picayune ''The Times-Picayune , The New Orleans Advocate'' is an American newspaper published in New Orleans, Louisiana, since January 25, 1837. The current publication is the result of the 2019 acquisition of ''The Times-Picayune'' (itself a result o ...
'' published several of his short works of prose. After being directly influenced by
Sherwood Anderson Sherwood Anderson (September 13, 1876 – March 8, 1941) was an American novelist and short story writer, known for subjective and self-revealing works. Self-educated, he rose to become a successful copywriter and business owner in Cleveland and ...
, he made his first attempt at fiction writing. Anderson assisted in the publication of ''Soldiers' Pay'' and ''
Mosquitoes Mosquitoes are members of a group of almost 3,600 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defin ...
'', Faulkner's second novel, set in New Orleans, by recommending them to his publisher.Hannon, Charles. "Faulkner, William". ''The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature''. Jay Parini (2004), Oxford University Press, Inc. The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. The miniature house at 624 Pirate's Alley, just around the corner from in New Orleans, is now the site of Faulkner House Books, where it also serves as the headquarters of the Pirate's Alley Faulkner Society. Also in New Orleans, Faulkner wrote his first novel, '' Soldiers' Pay.'' ''Soldiers' Pay'' and his other early works were written in a style similar to contemporaries
Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, journalist, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory The iceberg theory or theory of o ...
and
F. Scott Fitzgerald Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American novelist, essayist, short story writer and screenwriter. He was best known for his novels depicting the flamboyance and excess of the —a term . During ...
, at times nearly exactly appropriating phrases. During the summer of 1927, Faulkner wrote his first novel set in his fictional Yoknapatawpha County, titled ''
Flags in the Dust Image:Flagsagdh,jh.jpg, First edition (publ. Random House) ''Flags in the Dust'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner, completed in 1927. His publisher heavily edited the manuscript with Faulkner's reluctant consent, removing about 40 ...
.'' This novel drew heavily from the traditions and history of the South, in which Faulkner had been engrossed in his youth. He was extremely proud of the novel upon its completion and he believed it a significant step up from his previous two novels—however, when submitted for publication to Boni & Liveright, it was rejected. Faulkner was devastated by this rejection but he eventually allowed his literary agent, Ben Wasson, to significantly edit the text, and the novel was published in 1929 as ''
Sartoris ''Sartoris'' is a novel, first published in 1929, by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, ...
.'' The work was notable in that it was his first novel that dealt with the Civil War rather than the contemporary emphasis on World War I and its legacy.


''The Sound and the Fury''

In autumn 1928, just after his 31st birthday, Faulkner began working on ''
The Sound and the Fury ''The Sound and the Fury'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapa ...
''. He started by writing three short stories about a group of children with the last name Compson, but soon began to feel that the characters he had created might be better suited for a full-length novel. Perhaps as a result of disappointment in the initial rejection of ''Flags in the Dust'', Faulkner had now become indifferent to his publishers and wrote this novel in a much more experimental style. In describing the writing process for this work, Faulkner would later say, "One day I seemed to shut the door between me and all publisher's addresses and book lists. I said to myself, 'Now I can write.'" After its completion, Faulkner insisted that Ben Wasson not do any editing or add any punctuation for clarity. In 1929, Faulkner married Estelle Oldham, with Andrew Kuhn serving as best man at the wedding. Estelle brought with her two children from her previous marriage to Cornell Franklin and Faulkner hoped to support his new family as a writer. Faulkner and Estelle later had a daughter, Jill, in 1933. He began writing ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times rom ...

As I Lay Dying
'' in 1929 while working night shifts at the University of Mississippi Power House. The novel would be published in 1930. Parini (2004), p. 142. Beginning in 1930, Faulkner sent some of his short stories to various national magazines. Several of these were published and brought him enough income to buy a house in Oxford for his family, which he named
Rowan Oak Rowan Oak, also known as William Faulkner House, is William Faulkner's former home in Oxford, Mississippi. It is a primitive Greek Revival house built in the 1840s by Robert Sheegog. Faulkner purchased the house when it was in disrepair in the 1930 ...

Rowan Oak
.Williamson, Joel
''William Faulkner and Southern History''
, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993; .
He made money on his 1931 novel, ''
Sanctuary A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Ind ...
'', which was widely reviewed and read (but widely disliked for its perceived criticism of the South). With the onset of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, Faulkner was not satisfied with his economic situation. With limited royalties from his work, he published short stories in magazines such as ''
The Saturday Evening Post ''The Saturday Evening Post'' is an American magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, enterta ...
'' to supplement his income. Bartunek (2017), p. 98.


''Light in August'' and foray into Hollywood

By 1932, Faulkner was in need of money. He asked Wasson to sell the serialization rights for his newly completed novel, ''Light in August'', to a magazine for $5,000, but none accepted the offer. Then
MGM Studios Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures or MGM) is an American media company, founded in 1924, that produces and distributes feature films and television programs. It is based in Beverly Hills, California ...
offered Faulkner work as a screenwriter in Hollywood. Faulkner was not an avid movie goer and had reservations about working in the movie industry. As André Bleikasten comments, he “was in dire need of money and had no idea how to get it…So he went to Hollywood.” Bleikasten (2017), p. 218. It has been noted that authors like Faulkner were not always hired for their writing prowess but "to enhance the prestige of the …writers who hired them." He arrived in Culver City, California, in May 1932. The job would begin a sporadic relationship with moviemaking and with California, which was difficult but he endured in order to earn "a consistent salary that would support his family back home." His first screenplay was for ''
Today We Live ''Today We Live'' is a 1933 American pre-Code '' (1931) were able to feature criminal, anti-hero protagonists. File:LegsTurntab42ndStTrailer.jpg, upright=1.5, ''42nd Street (film), 42nd Street'' (1933) made concessions to the Hays Code i ...
'', an adaptation of his short story "Turnabout", which received a mixed response. He then wrote a screen adaptation of ''Sartoris'' that was never produced. From 1932 to 1954, Faulkner worked on around 50 films. As Stefan Solomon observes, Faulkner was highly critical of what he found in Hollywood, and he wrote letters that were "scathing in tone, painting a miserable portrait of a literary artist imprisoned in a cultural Babylon." Many scholars have brought attention to the dilemma he experienced and that the predicament had caused him serious unhappiness. In Hollywood he worked with director
Howard Hawks Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and screenwriter of the classic Hollywood era. Critic Leonard Maltin Leonard Michael Maltin (born December 18, 1950) is an American film critic ...
, with whom he quickly developed a friendship, as they both enjoyed drinking and hunting. Howard Hawks' brother,
William Hawks William Bellinger Hawks (January 29, 1901 – January 10, 1969) was an American film producer. Career Hawks attended Yale University, where he was a member of Scroll and Key and graduated in 1923. In his early career, Hawks was a stockbroker. ...
, became Faulkner's
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

Hollywood
agent. Faulkner would continue to find reliable work as a screenwriter from the 1930s to the 1950s. Faulkner had an extramarital affair with Hawks' secretary and script girl, Meta Carpenter, later known as Meta Wilde. The affair was chronicled in her book ''A Loving Gentleman''. In 1942, Faulkner tried to join the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosph ...

United States Air Force
but was rejected. He instead worked on local
civil defense Civil defense ( en, region=gb, civil defence) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general wor ...
. Capps (1966), p. 3.


Final years and death

When Faulkner visited
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
in December 1950 to receive the Nobel Prize, he met Else Jonsson (1912–1996), who was the widow of journalist (1910–1950). Jonsson was a reporter for ''
Dagens Nyheter ''Dagens Nyheter'' (, lit. "the news of the day"), abbreviated ''DN'', is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Seria ...

Dagens Nyheter
'' from 1943 to 1946, who had interviewed Faulkner in 1946 and introduced his works to Swedish readers. Faulkner and Else had an affair that lasted until the end of 1953. At the banquet where they met in 1950, publisher Tor Bonnier introduced Else as the widow of the man responsible for Faulkner winning the Nobel prize. Faulkner's Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech on the immortality of the artists, although brief, contained a number of allusions and references to other literary works. Faulkner served as the first Writer-in-Residence at the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisat ...

University of Virginia
at
Charlottesville Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville, is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical pr ...
from February to June 1957 and again in 1958. On June 17, 1962, Faulkner suffered a serious injury in a fall from his horse, which led to
thrombosis Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek "clotting”) is the formation of a Thrombus, blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel (a vein or an artery) is injured, the body uses pla ...

thrombosis
. He suffered a fatal heart attack on July 6, 1962, at the age of 64, at Wright's Sanatorium in
Byhalia, Mississippi Byhalia , pronounced "bye-HAIL-yah" by some residents, is a town in Marshall County, Mississippi Mississippi () is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Uni ...

Byhalia, Mississippi
. Faulkner is buried with his family in St. Peter's Cemetery in Oxford, alongside the grave of an unidentified family friend, whose stone is marked only with the initials "E.T."


Writing

From the early 1920s to the outbreak of World War II, Faulkner published 13 novels and many short stories. This body of work formed the basis of his reputation and earned him the Nobel Prize at age 52. Faulkner's prodigious output include celebrated novels such as ''
The Sound and the Fury ''The Sound and the Fury'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapa ...
'' (1929), ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times rom ...

As I Lay Dying
'' (1930), ''
Light in August ''Light in August'' is a 1932 novel by the Southern American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mi ...
'' (1932), and ''
Absalom, Absalom! ''Absalom, Absalom!'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulk ...
'' (1936). He was also a prolific writer of
short stories A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a single effect or mood. The short story is one of the oldest ty ...
. Faulkner's first short story collection, ''
These 13 ''These 13'' is a 1931 collection of Short story, short stories written by William Faulkner, and dedicated to his first daughter, Alabama, who died nine days after her birth on January 11, 1931, and to his wife Estelle. No longer in print, ''Thes ...
'' (1931), includes many of his most acclaimed (and most frequently
anthologized In book publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, ...
) stories, including " A Rose for Emily", "
Red Leaves "Red Leaves" is a short story by American author William Faulkner. First published in the ''Saturday Evening Post'' on October 25, 1930, it was one of Faulkner's first stories to appear in a national magazine. The next year the story was included i ...

Red Leaves
", "
That Evening Sun "That Evening Sun" is a short story by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawph ...
", and "
Dry September "Dry September" is a short story by William Faulkner. Published in 1931, it describes a lynch mob forming (despite ambiguous evidence) on a hot September evening to avenge an alleged (and unspecified) insult or attack upon a white woman by a blac ...
". He set many of his short stories and novels in
Yoknapatawpha County Yoknapatawpha County () is a List of fictional counties, fictional Mississippi county created by the American author William Faulkner, largely based upon and inspired by Lafayette County, Mississippi, and its county seat of Oxford, Mississippi (whi ...
—which was based on and nearly geographically identical to Lafayette County (of which his hometown of
Oxford, Mississippi Oxford is a city in, and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administr ...
, is the county seat). Yoknapatawpha was Faulkner's "postage stamp", and the bulk of work that it represents is widely considered by critics to amount to one of the most monumental fictional creations in the history of literature. Three of his novels, ''
The Hamlet ''The Hamlet'' is a novel by the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as ...
'', '' The Town'' and '' The Mansion'', known collectively as the Snopes Trilogy, document the town of Jefferson and its environs, as an extended family headed by Flem Snopes insinuates itself into the lives and psyches of the general populace. His short story " A Rose for Emily" was his first story published in a major magazine, the ''Forum'', but received little attention from the public. After revisions and reissues, it gained popularity and is now considered one of his best. Faulkner was known for his experimental style with meticulous attention to
diction Diction ( la, dictionem (nom. ), "a saying, expression, word"), in its original meaning, is a writer's or speaker's distinctive vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study ...
and
cadence In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, count ...
. In contrast to the
minimalist In visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processe ...
understatement of his contemporary
Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, journalist, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory The iceberg theory or theory of o ...
, Faulkner made frequent use of "
stream of consciousness In literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophica ...
" in his writing, and wrote often highly emotional, subtle, cerebral, complex, and sometimes
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in C ...
or
grotesque Since at least the 18th century (in French and German as well as English), grotesque has come to be used as a general adjective for the strange, mysterious, magnificent, fantastic, hideous, ugly, incongruous, unpleasant, or disgusting, and thus ...
stories of a wide variety of characters including former slaves or descendants of slaves, poor white, agrarian, or working-class Southerners, and Southern aristocrats. In an interview with ''
The Paris Review ''The Paris Review'' is a quarterly English-language literary magazine A literary magazine is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial publ ...
'' in 1956, Faulkner remarked:
Let the writer take up surgery or bricklaying if he is interested in technique. There is no mechanical way to get the writing done, no shortcut. The young writer would be a fool to follow a theory. Teach yourself by your own mistakes; people learn only by error. The good artist believes that nobody is good enough to give him advice. He has supreme vanity. No matter how much he admires the old writer, he wants to beat him.
Another esteemed Southern writer,
Flannery O'Connor Mary Flannery O'Connor (March 25, 1925August 3, 1964) was an American novelist, short story writer and essayist. She wrote two novels and thirty-two short stories, as well as a number of reviews and commentaries. She was a Southern literature, ...
, stated that "the presence alone of Faulkner in our midst makes a great difference in what the writer can and cannot permit himself to do. Nobody wants his mule and wagon stalled on the same track the Dixie Limited is roaring down". Faulkner wrote two volumes of poetry which were published in small printings, ''The Marble Faun'' (1924), and ''A Green Bough'' (1933), and a collection of mystery stories, ''Knight's Gambit'' (1949).


Legacy

Faulkner's work has been examined by many critics from a wide variety of critical perspectives, including his position on slavery in the South and his view that desegregation was not an idea to be forced, arguing desegregation should "go slow" so as not to upend the southern way of life. The essayist and novelist
James Baldwin James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist A novelist is an author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information ...
was highly critical of his views around integration. The
New Critics New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
became interested in Faulkner's work, with
Cleanth Brooks Cleanth Brooks ( ; October 16, 1906 – May 10, 1994) was an American literary critic and professor. He is best known for his contributions to New Criticism in the mid-20th century and for revolutionizing the teaching of poetry in American higher e ...
writing ''The Yoknapatawpha Country'' and Michael Millgate writing ''The Achievement of William Faulkner''. Since then, critics have looked at Faulkner's work using other approaches, such as feminist and psychoanalytic methods. Faulkner's works have been placed within the literary traditions of
modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
and the
Southern Renaissance The Southern Renaissance (also known as Southern Renascence) was the reinvigoration of United States, American Southern literature in the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of writers such as William Faulkner, Thomas Wolfe, Caroline Gordon, Margar ...
. According to critic and translator Valerie Miles, Faulkner's influence on Latin American fiction is considerable, with fictional worlds created by
Gabriel García Márquez Gabriel García Márquez (; 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant a ...
(
Macondo Macondo is a fictional town described in Gabriel García Márquez Gabriel García Márquez (; 6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabi ...
) and
Juan Carlos Onetti Juan Carlos Onetti Borges (July 1, 1909 – May 30, 1994) was a Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with A ...
(Santa Maria) being "very much in the vein of" Yoknapatawpha: "
Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (; ; November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist. Among his works are ''The Death of Artemio Cruz'' (1962), ''Aura (Fuentes), Aura'' (1962), ''Terra Nostra (novel), Terra Nostra'' (1975), ''The ...

Carlos Fuentes
's ''
The Death of Artemio Cruz ''The Death of Artemio Cruz'' ( es, La muerte de Artemio Cruz, ) is a novel written in 1962 by Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (; ; November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist. Among his works are ...
'' wouldn't exist if not for ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times rom ...

As I Lay Dying
''". Fuentes himself cited Faulkner as one of the most important writers to him. Faulkner also had great influence on
Mario Vargas Llosa Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquis of Vargas Llosa (born 28 March 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa (, ), is a Peruvian writer, journalist, essayist, college professor, and a former politician, who also holds Spanish cit ...

Mario Vargas Llosa
, particularly on the early novels ''
The Time of the Hero ''The Time of the Hero'' (original title: ''La ciudad y los perros'', literally "The City and the Dogs", 1963 in literature, 1963) is a 1963 novel by Peruvian literature, Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature, ...
'', ''
The Green House ''The Green House'' (Original title: ''La Casa Verde'') is the second novel by the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa, published in 1966. The novel is set over a period of forty years (from the early part of the 20th century to the 1960s) in two ...
'' and ''
Conversation in the Cathedral ''Conversation in The Cathedral'' (original title: ''Conversación en La catedral'') is a 1969 novel by Spanish-Peruvian writer and essayist Mario Vargas Llosa, translated by Gregory Rabassa. One of Vargas Llosa's major works, it is a portrayal of ...
''. Vargas Llosa has claimed that during his student years he learned more from Yoknapatawpha than from classes. The works of William Faulkner are a clear influence on the French novelist
Claude Simon Claude Simon (; 10 October 1913 – 6 July 2005) was a French novelist, and the 1985 Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Laureate in Literature. Biography Claude Simon was born in Tananarive on the isle of Madagascar. His parents were French, his ...
, and the Portuguese novelist . After his death, Estelle and their daughter, Jill, lived at Rowan Oak until Estelle's death in 1972. The property was sold to the
University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, byname Ole Miss, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organis ...
that same year. The house and furnishings are maintained much as they were in Faulkner's day. Faulkner's scribblings are preserved on the wall, including the day-by-day outline covering a week he wrote on the walls of his small study to help him keep track of the plot twists in his novel, ''
A Fable ''A Fable'' is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. ...
''. Faulkner's final work, ''The Reivers'', was adapted into a 1969 film starring
Steve McQueen Terrence Stephen McQueen (March 24, 1930November 7, 1980), known as Steve McQueen in his film career, nicknamed the "King of Cool" (during moto races used alias Harvey Mushman), was an American actor. His persona, emphasized during the height ...

Steve McQueen
. Some of Faulkner's works have been adapted into films such as
James Franco James Edward Franco (born April 19, 1978) is an American actor, filmmaker, and writer. For his role in ''127 Hours ''127 Hours'' is a 2010 Biographical film, biographical survival film, survival drama film co-written, produced and directed ...

James Franco
's ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction in American literature that takes place in the Southern United States, American South. Common themes in Southern Gothic literature include deeply f ...
'' (2013). They have received a polarized response, with many critics contending that Faulkner's works are "unfilmable".


Awards

Faulkner was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature for "his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel". It was awarded at the following year's banquet along with the 1950 Prize to Bertrand Russell. Faulkner detested the fame and glory that resulted from his recognition. His aversion was so great that his 17-year-old daughter learned of the Nobel Prize only when she was called to the principal's office during the school day. He donated part of his Nobel money "to establish a fund to support and encourage new fiction writers", eventually resulting in the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction, and donated another part to a local Oxford bank, establishing a scholarship fund to help educate African-American teachers at Rust College in nearby Holly Springs, Mississippi. The government of France made Faulkner a Legion of Honour, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1951. Faulkner was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for what are considered "minor" novels: his 1954 novel ''
A Fable ''A Fable'' is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. ...
'', which took the Pulitzer in 1955, and the 1962 novel, ''
The Reivers ''The Reivers: A Reminiscence'', published in 1962, is the last novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize la ...
'', which was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer in 1963."Fiction"
. ''Past winners & finalists by category''. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
(The award for ''A Fable'' was a controversial political choice. The jury had selected Milton Lott's ''The Last Hunt (novel), The Last Hunt'' for the prize, but Pulitzer Prize Administrator Professor John Hohenberg convinced the Pulitzer board that Faulkner was long overdue for the award, despite ''A Fable'' being a lesser work of his, and the board overrode the jury's selection, much to the disgust of its members.) He also won the U.S. National Book Award twice, for ''Collected Stories'' in 1951"National Book Awards – 1951"
. National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-31. (With essays by Neil Baldwin (writer), Neil Baldwin and Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 50- and 60-year anniversary publications.)
and ''
A Fable ''A Fable'' is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. ...
'' in 1955."National Book Awards – 1955"
. National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-31. (With acceptance speech by Faulkner and essays by Neil Baldwin and Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 50- and 60-year anniversary publications.)
In 1946 he was one of three finalists for the first ''Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine'' Award and placed second to Rhea Galati. The United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp in his honor on August 3, 1987. Faulkner had once served as Postmaster at the University of Mississippi, and in his letter of resignation in 1923 wrote:
As long as I live under the capitalistic system, I expect to have my life influenced by the demands of moneyed people. But I will be damned if I propose to be at the beck and call of every itinerant scoundrel who has two cents to invest in a postage stamp. This, sir, is my resignation.
On October 10, 2019, a Mississippi Writers Trail historical marker was installed at
Rowan Oak Rowan Oak, also known as William Faulkner House, is William Faulkner's former home in Oxford, Mississippi. It is a primitive Greek Revival house built in the 1840s by Robert Sheegog. Faulkner purchased the house when it was in disrepair in the 1930 ...

Rowan Oak
in Oxford, Mississippi honoring the contributions of William Faulkner to the American literary landscape.


Collections

The manuscripts of most of Faulkner's works, correspondence, personal papers, and over 300 books from his working library reside at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the
University of Virginia The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisat ...

University of Virginia
, where he spent much of his time in his final years. The library also houses some of the writer's personal effects and the papers of major Faulkner associates and scholars, such as his biographer Joseph Blotner, bibliographer Linton Massey, and Random House editor Albert Erskine. Southeast Missouri State University, where the Center for Faulkner Studies is located, also owns a generous collection of Faulkner materials, including first editions, manuscripts, letters, photographs, artwork, and many materials pertaining to Faulkner's time in Hollywood. The university possesses many personal files and letters kept by Joseph Blotner, along with books and letters that once belonged to Malcolm Cowley. The university achieved the collection due to a generous donation by Louis Daniel Brodsky, a collector of Faulkner materials, in 1989. Further significant Faulkner materials reside at the
University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, byname Ole Miss, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organis ...
, the Harry Ransom Center, and the New York Public Library. The Random House records at Columbia University also include letters by and to Faulkner. In 1966, the United States Military Academy dedicated a William Faulkner Room in its library.


Critical reception

Faulkner's contemporary critical reception was mixed, with ''The New York Times'' noting that many critics regarded his work as "raw slabs of pseudorealism that had relatively little merit as serious writing". In 1998, the
Modern Library The Modern Library is an American book publishing imprint Imprint or imprinting may refer to: Entertainment * Imprint (TV series), ''Imprint'' (TV series), Canadian television series * Imprint (Masters of Horror), "Imprint" (''Masters of Horror ...
ranked his 1929 novel ''The Sound and the Fury'' sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were ''As I Lay Dying'' (1930) and ''
Light in August ''Light in August'' is a 1932 novel by the Southern American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mi ...
'' (1932). ''
Absalom, Absalom! ''Absalom, Absalom!'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulk ...
'' (1936) appears on similar lists.


Selected list of works

* ''
The Sound and the Fury ''The Sound and the Fury'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapa ...
'' (1929) * ''
As I Lay Dying ''As I Lay Dying'' is a 1930 Southern Gothic Southern Gothic is a subgenre of Gothic fiction Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times rom ...

As I Lay Dying
'' (1930) * ''
Light in August ''Light in August'' is a 1932 novel by the Southern American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mi ...
'' (1932) * ''
Absalom, Absalom! ''Absalom, Absalom!'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulk ...
'' (1936) * ''If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem, The Wild Palms'' (1939) * ''Go Down, Moses (short story collection), Go Down, Moses''(1942) * ''
The Reivers ''The Reivers: A Reminiscence'', published in 1962, is the last novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize la ...
'' (1962)


Filmography

*''Flesh (1932 film), Flesh'' (1932) *''
Today We Live ''Today We Live'' is a 1933 American pre-Code '' (1931) were able to feature criminal, anti-hero protagonists. File:LegsTurntab42ndStTrailer.jpg, upright=1.5, ''42nd Street (film), 42nd Street'' (1933) made concessions to the Hays Code i ...
'' (1933) *''The Story of Temple Drake'' (1933) *''Submarine Patrol'' (1938) *''Air Force (film), Air Force'' (1943) *''To Have and Have Not (film), To Have and Have Not'' (1944) *''The Big Sleep (1946 film), The Big Sleep'' (1946)


Notes and references


Notes


Citations and references


Works cited

* * * William Faulkner: ''Novels 1930–1935'' (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, ed.) (Library of America, 1985) * William Faulkner: ''Novels 1936–1940'' (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 1990) * William Faulkner: ''Novels 1942–1954'' (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 1994) * William Faulkner: ''Novels 1957–1962'' (Noel Polk, ed., with notes by Joseph Blotner) (Library of America, 1999) * William Faulkner: ''Novels 1926–1929'' (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 2006) * ''The Portable Faulkner,'' ed. Malcolm Cowley ( Viking Press, 1946). * Blotner, Joseph. ''Faulkner: A Biography''. New York City, New York: Random House, 1974. 2 vols. * Blotner, Joseph. ''Faulkner: A Biography''. New York City, New York: Random House, 1984. * Fowler, Doreen, Abadie, Ann. ''Faulkner and Popular Culture: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha''. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1990 , * Jaillant, Lise
"'I'm Afraid I've Got Involved With a Nut': New Faulkner Letters." Southern Literary Journal 47.1 (2014): 98–114.
* Kerr, Elizabeth Margaret, and Kerr, Michael M. ''William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha: A Kind of Keystone in the Universe''. Fordham Univ Press, 1985 , * *Liénard-Yeterian, Marie. 'Faulkner et le cinéma', Paris: Michel Houdiard Editeur, 2010. * * * Sensibar, Judith L. ''The Origins of Faulkner's Art''. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. * Sensibar, Judith L. ''Faulkner and Love: The Women Who Shaped His Art, A Biography''. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. * Sensibar, Judith L. ''Vision in Spring''. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. . * * * * *


External links

*
Digital Yoknapatawpha

Faulkner at Virginia: An Audio Archive
{{DEFAULTSORT:Faulkner, William William Faulkner, 1897 births 1962 deaths 20th-century American dramatists and playwrights 20th-century American novelists 20th-century American poets 20th-century American short story writers People from New Albany, Mississippi Novelists from Mississippi Modernist writers American Nobel laureates American male novelists American male screenwriters Mississippi postmasters American erotica writers National Book Award winners Nobel laureates in Literature O. Henry Award winners People from Oxford, Mississippi Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winners Southern United States in fiction University of Virginia alumni American male short story writers Writers of American Southern literature People from Ripley, Mississippi Deaths by horse-riding accident in the United States Screenwriters from Mississippi 20th-century American male writers Accidental deaths in Mississippi British Army personnel of World War I 20th-century American screenwriters Lost Generation writers