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West Sussex is a
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
in
South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England, first level of International Territorial Level, ITL for Statistics, statistical purposes. It consists of the counties of england, ...
on the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
coast. The
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
comprises the shire districts of Adur, Arun,
Chichester Chichester () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parish in West Sussex, England.OS Explorer map 120: Chichester, South Harting and Selsey Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publis ...
,
Horsham Horsham is a market town on the upper reaches of the River Arun on the fringe of the Weald in West Sussex, England. The town is south south-west of London, north-west of Brighton and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Nearby town ...
, and
Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is an area in the central part of Sussex. It may refer to: * Arun Valley line, also called the Mid Sussex line, a rail line in West Sussex * Brighton & Mid-Sussex, a proposed local government district in the Redcliffe-Maud Report * Mid S ...
, and the
boroughs A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
of
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
and
Worthing Worthing () is a seaside town in West Sussex, England, at the foot of the South Downs, west of Brighton, and east of Chichester. With a population of about 110,000 and an area of , the borough is the second largest component of the Brighton a ...

Worthing
. Covering an area of 1,991 square kilometres (769 sq mi), West Sussex borders
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
to the west,
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
to the north, and
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
to the east. The
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pref ...
and only
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
in West Sussex is
Chichester Chichester () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parish in West Sussex, England.OS Explorer map 120: Chichester, South Harting and Selsey Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publis ...

Chichester
, located in the south-west of the county. This was legally formalised with the establishment of West Sussex Council in 1888 but within the ceremonial Sussex. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974, the ceremonial function of the historic county of
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...

Sussex
was divided into two separate counties, with the western half becoming West Sussex and the eastern half
East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

East Sussex
. The existing East and West Sussex councils took control respectively, with Mid Sussex and parts of Crawley being transferred to West Sussex administration from East Sussex. In the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
, West Sussex recorded a population of 806,900. The county has a long history of human settlement dating back to the
Lower Paleolithic The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, lithos - stone) ...
era. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
conquered West Sussex's indigenous
Britons The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mix ...
, and incorporated the area as a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
. During the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...
settled the area, establishing the
Kingdom of Sussex The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex (; ang, Sūþseaxna rīce), was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Heptarchy The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven king Ki ...
in 477, which lasted until when the kingdom was annexed by
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
. West Sussex has a range of scenery, including
weald The Weald (, ) is an area of South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England ...
en,
downland Downland, chalkland, chalk downs or just downs are areas of open chalk hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body ...
and coastal. The highest point of the county is Blackdown, at 280 metres (919 ft). It has a number of
stately home An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European ...
s including
Goodwood
Goodwood
,
Petworth House Petworth House in the parish of Petworth Petworth is a small town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Chichester (district), Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the junction of the A272 road, A2 ...
and
Uppark . Image:Uppark House - side.jpg, 260px, Uppark, side view Uppark is a 17th-century house in South Harting, West Sussex, England. It is a Grade I listed building and a National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Tru ...
, and
castles A castle is a type of fortified A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...
such as
Arundel Castle Arundel Castle is a restored and remodelled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery Roger de Montgomery (died 1094), also known as Roger the Great de Montgomery, was the first Earl of Shre ...

Arundel Castle
and
Bramber Castle Bramber Castle is a Normans, Norman motte-and-bailey castle formerly the ''caput'' of the large English feudal barony, feudal barony of Bramber long held by the House of Braose, Braose family. It is situated in the village of Bramber, West Sussex, ...

Bramber Castle
. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking, cycling and other recreational opportunities.


History

Although the name Sussex, derived from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
'Sūþsēaxe' ('
South Saxons The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex (; ang, Sūþseaxna rīce), was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Heptarchy The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven king Ki ...
'), dates from the Saxon period between AD 477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the
Old Stone Age The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by ho ...
.Armstrong. History of Sussex. Chapter 2. The first Inhabitants The oldest
hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a t ...
remains known in Britain were found at Eartham Pit, Boxgrove. Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devil's Jumps, a group of
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
burial mounds, and the Iron Age
Cissbury Ring Cissbury Ring is an biological Site of Special Scientific Interest A Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest (ASSI) in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation desi ...
and
Chanctonbury Ring Chanctonbury Ring is a prehistoric Hillfort, hill fort atop Chanctonbury Hill on the South Downs, on the border of the civil parishes of Washington, West Sussex, Washington and Wiston, West Sussex, Wiston in the England, English county of West Suss ...

Chanctonbury Ring
hill forts on the South Downs. The
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
period saw the building of
Fishbourne Roman Palace Fishbourne Roman Palace (or Fishbourne Villa) is located in the village of Fishbourne, Chichester Chichester () is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the the Crown, monarch of the United Kingdom to a select ...
and rural villas such as
Bignor Roman Villa Bignor Roman Villa is a large Roman courtyard villa which has been excavated and put on public display on the Bignor estate in the English county of West Sussex West Sussex is a Counties of the United Kingdom, county in the south of Engl ...
together with a network of roads including
Stane StreetStane Street may refer to one of two Roman roads: * Stane Street (Chichester) - from London Bridge to Chichester (West Sussex) * Stane Street (Colchester) - from Braughing (Hertfordshire) to Colchester (Essex) ** Stane Street Halt railway station, n ...
, the
Chichester to Silchester Way The Chichester to Silchester Way is a Roman Road between Chichester Chichester () is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city and civil parish in West Sussex, England.OS Explorer map 120: Chichester, South Harting and Selsey Scale: ...
and the
Sussex Greensand Way The Sussex Greensand Way is a Roman road that runs east-west linking the London to Lewes Way (Roman road), London to Lewes Way at Barcombe Mills to Stane Street (Chichester), Stane Street at Hardham. The road, which has almost entirely fallen out ...
. The Romans used the Weald for
iron production Iron () is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...
on an industrial scale. The foundation of the
Kingdom of Sussex The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex (; ang, Sūþseaxna rīce), was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Heptarchy The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven king Ki ...
is recorded by the ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...
'' for the year AD 477; it says that Ælle arrived at a place called
Cymenshore Cymenshore is a place in Southern England where, according to the ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'', Ælle of Sussex landed in AD 477 and battled the Britons (historical), Britons with his three sons Cymen, Wlencing and cissa of sussex, Cissa, after the fi ...
in three ships with his three sons and killed or put to flight the local inhabitants. The
foundation story An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the creation myth, cosmogonic myth, which describes the creation of the world. However, many cultures have stori ...
is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stud ...
Parker MS. 477AD.
The Kingdom of Sussex was absorbed into
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
as an earldom and became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the
kingdom of Sussex The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex (; ang, Sūþseaxna rīce), was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Heptarchy The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven king Ki ...
, the later county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as
rapes Rape is a type of usually involving or other forms of carried out against a person without that person's . The act may be carried out by physical force, , , or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is u ...
. By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate
Quarter Sessions The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state S ...
. These were administered by a separate
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the
administrative counties An administrative county was a first-level administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar term ...
of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a single
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
with the coming into force of the
Local Government Act 1972 The Local Government Act 1972 (c. 70) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and ...
. At the same time a large part of the eastern
rape of Lewes The Rape of Lewes (also known as Lewes Rape) is one of the Rape (county subdivision), rapes, the traditional sub-divisions unique to the Historic counties of England, historic county of Sussex in England. Location The rape of Bramber lies to its we ...
(the
Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is an area in the central part of Sussex. It may refer to: * Arun Valley line, also called the Mid Sussex line, a rail line in West Sussex * Brighton & Mid-Sussex, a proposed local government district in the Redcliffe-Maud Report * Mid S ...
district which includes the towns of
Haywards Heath Haywards Heath is a town in West Sussex, England, south of London, north of Brighton, south of Gatwick Airport and northeast of the county town, Chichester. Nearby towns include Burgess Hill to the southwest, Horsham to the northwest, Crawl ...
,
Burgess Hill Burgess Hill is a town and civil parish located in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England, close to the border with East Sussex, on the edge of the South Downs National Park. Located south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and eas ...
and
East Grinstead East Grinstead is a town in West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published ...
) was transferred into West Sussex.


Provision for paupers

Until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job.


Settlements

Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, near the M23/ A23 corridor. The town of
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600. The coastal settlement of
Worthing Worthing () is a seaside town in West Sussex, England, at the foot of the South Downs, west of Brighton, and east of Chichester. With a population of about 110,000 and an area of , the borough is the second largest component of the Brighton a ...

Worthing
closely follows with a population of 104,600. The seaside resort of
Bognor Regis Bognor Regis is a town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based ...
and market town
Horsham Horsham is a market town on the upper reaches of the River Arun on the fringe of the Weald in West Sussex, England. The town is south south-west of London, north-west of Brighton and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Nearby town ...

Horsham
are both large towns. Chichester, the county town, has a
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
and
city status City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose. Historically, city status ...
, and is situated not far from the border with
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
. Other conurbations of a similar size are
Burgess Hill Burgess Hill is a town and civil parish located in the Mid Sussex District of West Sussex, England, close to the border with East Sussex, on the edge of the South Downs National Park. Located south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and eas ...
,
East Grinstead East Grinstead is a town in West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published ...
and
Haywards Heath Haywards Heath is a town in West Sussex, England, south of London, north of Brighton, south of Gatwick Airport and northeast of the county town, Chichester. Nearby towns include Burgess Hill to the southwest, Horsham to the northwest, Crawl ...
in the
Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is an area in the central part of Sussex. It may refer to: * Arun Valley line, also called the Mid Sussex line, a rail line in West Sussex * Brighton & Mid-Sussex, a proposed local government district in the Redcliffe-Maud Report * Mid S ...
district,
Littlehampton Littlehampton is a town, seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on th ...
in the
Arun district Arun is a Districts of England, local government district in West Sussex, England. It contains the towns of Arundel, Bognor Regis and Littlehampton, and takes its name from the River Arun, which runs through the centre of the district."Arun" ...
, and Lancing, Southwick and Shoreham in the Adur district. Much of the coastal town population is part of the
Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton The Brighton and Hove Built-up area or Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation has a population of 474,485 (2011 census), making it England's 12th largest conurbation. This was an increase of around 3% from the 2001 population of 461,181. Na ...
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbati ...
.
Rustington Rustington is a large village and civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex. Rustington is approximately at the midpoint of the West Sussex coast and midway between the county town of Chichester and Brighton. The A259 road, A259 runs a ...

Rustington
and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county. There are several more towns in West Sussex, although they are of similar size to other villages. The smaller towns of the county are
Arundel Arundel ( or ) is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and colle ...

Arundel
,
Midhurst Midhurst () is a market town, parish and civil parishes in England, civil parish in West Sussex, England. It lies on the River Rother (Western), River Rother inland from the English Channel, and north of the county town of Chichester. The na ...
,
Petworth Petworth is a small town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Chichester (district), Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the junction of the A272 road, A272 east–west road from Heathfield, East Sussex ...
,
Selsey Selsey is a seaside town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the ...
and
Steyning Steyning ( ) is a town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Horsham (district), Horsham District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the north end of the River Adur gap in the South Downs, four miles (6.4 km) north of th ...
. The larger villages are
Billingshurst Billingshurst is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a popu ...
, Copthorne,
Crawley Down Crawley Down is a village in the Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is a local government district in the English non-metropolitan county of West Sussex West Sussex is a Counties of the United Kingdom, county in the south of England, bordering East S ...

Crawley Down
,
Cuckfield Cuckfield ( ) is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administrat ...
,
Henfield Henfield is a large village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Horsham (district), Horsham District of West Sussex, England. It lies south of London, northwest of Brighton, and east northeast of the county town of Chichester at ...
,
Hassocks :''For the floor cushion, see Hassock''. Hassocks is a large village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe bot ...
,
Hurstpierpoint Hurstpierpoint is a village in West Sussex, England, southwest of Burgess Hill, and west of Hassocks railway station. It sits in the civil parishes in England, civil parish of Hurstpierpoint and Sayers Common which has an area of 2029.88& ...

Hurstpierpoint
, Lindfield,
Pulborough Pulborough is a large village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, featu ...
and
Storrington Storrington is a small town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Or ...
. The current total population of the county makes up 1.53% of England's population.


Geography


Physical geography

West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to the west, Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east. The
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
lies to the south. The area has been formed from
Upper Jurassic The Late Jurassic is the third Epoch (geology), epoch of the Jurassic Period (geology), Period, and it spans the geologic time scale, geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strat ...
and
Lower Cretaceous Lower may refer to: *Lower (surname) Lower is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Arthur R. M. Lower Arthur Reginald Marsden Lower (12 August 1889 – 7 January 1988) was a Canadian historian and "liberal nationalist" intere ...
rock strata, part of the
Weald–Artois Anticline The Weald–Artois Anticline, or Wealden Anticline, is a large anticline In structural geology, an anticline is a type of Fold (geology), fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest Bed (geology), beds at its core, whereas a syncline i ...
. The eastern part of this ridge, the
Weald The Weald (, ) is an area of South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England ...
of Kent, Sussex and Surrey has been greatly eroded, with the chalk surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the
Wealden Group The Wealden Group, occasionally also referred to as the Wealden Supergroup, is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are t ...
. In West Sussex the exposed rock becomes older towards the north of the county with
Lower Greensand The Lower Greensand Group is a geological unit present across large areas of Southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernmost part, with cultural, eco ...
ridges along the border with Surrey including the highest point of the county at Blackdown. Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald leaving a north facing of the
chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

chalk
which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the
River Arun The River Arun () is a river in the England, English county of West Sussex. At long, it is the longest river entirely in Sussex and one of the longest starting in Sussex after the River Medway, River Wey and River Mole. From the series of sma ...
and
River Adur The Adur ( or ) is a river in Sussex, England; it gives its name to the Adur (district), Adur district of West Sussex. The river, which is long, was once navigable for large vessels up as far as Steyning, where there was a large Saxon port, but ...

River Adur
. In addition to these two rivers which drain most of the county a winterbourne, the River Lavant, flows intermittently from springs on the dip slope of the chalk downs north of Chichester. The county makes up 1.52% of the total land of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, making it the 30th largest county in the country.


Climate

West Sussex is the sunniest county in the United Kingdom, according to
Met Office The Meteorological Office, abbreviated as the Met Office is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily ...
records. Over the last 29 years it has averaged 1902 hours of sunshine per year. Sunshine totals are highest near the coast with
Bognor Regis Bognor Regis is a town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based ...
often having the highest in mainland England, including a total of 2237 hours in 1990. Mean annual temperature for southern coastal counties is around 11 °C. The coldest month, January, has mean daily minimum temperatures of around 3 °C near the coast and lower inland. July tends to be the warmest month when mean daily maxima tend to be around 20 °C. A maximum temperature of 35.4 °C occurred at North Heath,
Pulborough Pulborough is a large village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, featu ...
on 26 June 1976. Coastal high temperatures are often moderated by cooler sea breezes. Monthly rainfall tends to be highest in autumn and early winter and lowest in the summer months, with July often being the driest month. There is less rainfall from summer convective showers and thunderstorms than in inland areas. The county can suffer both from localised flooding caused by heavy rainfall and from water shortages caused by prolonged periods of below average rainfall. Winter rainfall is needed to recharge the chalk aquifers from which much of the water supply is drawn.


Land economy

West Sussex developed distinctive land uses along with its neighbours in the weald. The
Landrace A landrace is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable s ...
cattle transformed into
Sussex cattle #Redirect Sussex cattle#Redirect Sussex cattle The Sussex is a British list of cattle breeds, breed of red beef cattle from the Weald of Sussex, Surrey and Kent, in south-eastern England. Its traditional use as a draught ox on the Weald continued ...
and Sussex chickens emerged about the time of the Roman conquest.Hobson, Jeremy and Lewis, Celia. ''Choosing & Raising Chickens: The complete guide to breeds and welfare''. Daniel and Charles Publishing. London. 2009. p 94-95 Some of the earliest evidence of horses in Britain has been found at Boxgrove, dated to 500,000 BC. Viticulture is a part of the economy, with wineries producing mainly sparkling wine of varied quality.


Communications and transport

The M23 motorway, M23 Motorway runs from London to the south of
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
. The A23 and A24 road, A24 roads run from London to Brighton and
Worthing Worthing () is a seaside town in West Sussex, England, at the foot of the South Downs, west of Brighton, and east of Chichester. With a population of about 110,000 and an area of , the borough is the second largest component of the Brighton a ...

Worthing
respectively with the A29 road, A29 a little further west ending in
Bognor Regis Bognor Regis is a town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based ...
. Other major roads are the A272 road, A272 which runs east to west through the middle of the county and the A27 road, A27 which does the same but closer to the coast. The A259 road, A259 is a local alternate route to the A27 in the eastern coastal strip. Gatwick Airport, which handled over 33 million passengers and had over 250,000 aircraft movements in 2011, is located within the borders of
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
, and is the second largest airport in the United Kingdom. There is also a considerably smaller local airport at Shoreham Airport, Shoreham and a grass airfield handling light aircraft and helicopters at Chichester/Goodwood Airport, Goodwood. There are three main railway routes: the Brighton Main Line, the Arun Valley Line and the West Coastway Line. The Portsmouth Direct Line serves and occasionally enters the westernmost part of West Sussex, although it has no railway stations in the county.


Politics


Members of Parliament

Since the 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 general election, West Sussex has been represented entirely by Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs).


County Council

West Sussex County Council (WSCC) is the authority that governs the non-metropolitan county of West Sussex. The county contains 7 district and borough councils ( Adur, Arun, Chichester (district), Chichester,
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
, Horsham (district), Horsham,
Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is an area in the central part of Sussex. It may refer to: * Arun Valley line, also called the Mid Sussex line, a rail line in West Sussex * Brighton & Mid-Sussex, a proposed local government district in the Redcliffe-Maud Report * Mid S ...
and
Worthing Worthing () is a seaside town in West Sussex, England, at the foot of the South Downs, west of Brighton, and east of Chichester. With a population of about 110,000 and an area of , the borough is the second largest component of the Brighton a ...

Worthing
), and 159 town, parish and neighbourhood councils. West Sussex County Council has 71 councillors; the majority of them being Conservative. There are 46 Conservative councillors, 10 UK Independence Party, 8 Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats, 6 Labour Party (UK), Labour Party councillors and 1 Independent (politician), Independent councillor. The Chief Executive and his team of Executive Directors are responsible for the day-to-day running of the council. West Sussex County Council is based at County Hall, Chichester and provides a large range of services including education, social services, fire and rescue, libraries, trading standards, town and country planning, refuse disposal and consumer services.


West Sussex Youth Cabinet

The West Sussex Youth Cabinet is a group of local representatives and four UK Youth Parliament (UKYP) representatives, who are elected by young people in West Sussex. The Youth Cabinet represents the views of the young people West Sussex at county level. Elections for the Youth Cabinet and UKYP in West Sussex run every year in March.


Places of interest


Nature and zoos

* Chichester Harbour * Pagham Harbour – A protected area of wetland that is an important feeding ground for birds. * RSPB Pulborough Brooks * Selsey Bill * South Downs Way – a long distance footpath * Stansted Park * St Leonard's Forest * Tilgate Park * Wakehurst Place * Warnham Local Nature Reserve, a 92-acre site with visitor centre * WWT Arundel (a nature reserve of the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust)


Castles, houses and other buildings

*
Arundel Castle Arundel Castle is a restored and remodelled medieval castle in Arundel, West Sussex, England. It was established by Roger de Montgomery Roger de Montgomery (died 1094), also known as Roger the Great de Montgomery, was the first Earl of Shre ...

Arundel Castle
* Barnham, West Sussex, Barnham Windmill *
Bramber Castle Bramber Castle is a Normans, Norman motte-and-bailey castle formerly the ''caput'' of the large English feudal barony, feudal barony of Bramber long held by the House of Braose, Braose family. It is situated in the village of Bramber, West Sussex, ...

Bramber Castle
* Christ's Hospital, an old charitable school notable for its archaic uniforms and picturesque campus. * Goodwood House and Goodwood Circuit, Goodwood Motor Circuit * High Salvington windmill * Hurstpierpoint College, a public school, notable for its substantial Sussex flint buildings and large campus. * Lancing College, a public school, notable for its substantial Sussex sandstone chapel and large campus. * Seaford College, a public school known for its large campus * Nymans house and gardens, a National Trust property near Handcross,
Haywards Heath Haywards Heath is a town in West Sussex, England, south of London, north of Brighton, south of Gatwick Airport and northeast of the county town, Chichester. Nearby towns include Burgess Hill to the southwest, Horsham to the northwest, Crawl ...
*
Petworth House Petworth House in the parish of Petworth Petworth is a small town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Chichester (district), Chichester District of West Sussex, England. It is located at the junction of the A272 road, A2 ...
and deer park. * Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, where Sir Archibald McIndoe carried out reconstructive surgery for burns patients during the Second World War. * Sackville College, a Jacobean almshouse in
East Grinstead East Grinstead is a town in West Sussex West Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published ...
* Shipley Windmill, (no longer open to the public). * Standen, East Grinstead *
Uppark . Image:Uppark House - side.jpg, 260px, Uppark, side view Uppark is a 17th-century house in South Harting, West Sussex, England. It is a Grade I listed building and a National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Tru ...
, a 17th-century mansion high on the South Downs.


Religious buildings

The Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, otherwise called Chichester Cathedral, is the seat of the Church of England, Anglican Bishop of Chichester. It was founded as a cathedral in 1075, when the seat of the bishop was moved from Selsey Abbey.Tim Tatton-Brown and John Crook, ''The English Cathedral'', New Holland (2002), The cathedral has architecture in both the Norman architecture, Norman and the English Gothic architecture, Gothic styles, and has been called by the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner "the most typical English Cathedral". The Arundel Cathedral, Cathedral Church of Our Lady and St Philip Howard in
Arundel Arundel ( or ) is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and colle ...

Arundel
is the Roman Catholic
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

cathedral
of the Diocese of Arundel and Brighton. Built in French Gothic style and dedicated in 1873 as the Catholic parish church of Arundel, it was not designated a cathedral until the foundation of the diocese in 1965. Holy Trinity Church, Bosham, Bosham Church is partly of Anglo-Saxon architecture, Saxon construction and is shown on the Bayeaux Tapestry as the local church of late Saxon and Danish kings of England. Many other Saxon and early Norman architecture, Norman have survived in the county with little alteration including the Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Sompting, an 11th-century Anglo-Saxon church with a Rhenish helm unique in England and St. Nicholas' Church, Worth, a 10th-century church in Worth, West Sussex, Worth,
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
. Some Anglican churches and many of the numerous nonconformist chapels in the county have been converted to residential use. Chithurst Buddhist Monastery, Cittaviveka is a Buddhist monastery in Chithurst.


Museums

*Worthing Museum and Art Gallery, Worthing Museum & Art Gallery *Amberley Museum & Heritage Centre * Manor Cottage * Steyning Museum * Tangmere Military Aviation Museum * Horsham Museum * Weald and Downland Open Air Museum of historic buildings at Singleton, West Sussex, Singleton * Wings Museum, Balcombe


Arts

Pallant House Gallery in Chichester houses one of the most significant collections of 20th-century British art outside London. It includes a substantial body of early and mid-20th-century work bequeathed by Walter Hussey and many later works donated by Colin St. John Wilson, Sir Colin St John 'Sandy' Wilson. Worthing Museum and Art Gallery houses a large collection of Georgian and Victorian costume. The Cass Sculpture Foundation has an outdoor sculpture park at Goodwood, West Sussex, Goodwood.


Economy and demography

This is a table of trend of regional gross value added of West Sussex at current basic prices published by ''Office for National Statistics'' with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Significant companies in the county include Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, a substantial employer near Chichester. Gatwick Airport, with associated airlines including British Airways and Virgin Atlantic, is a major source of direct and indirect employment. Thales Group also has a presence in the county. Nestlé has their UK headquarters in Crawley. The table below shows the population change up to the 2011 census, contrasting the previous census. It also shows the proportion of residents in each district reliant upon lowest income and/or joblessness benefits, the national average proportion of which was 4.5% as at August 2012, the year for which latest datasets have been published. It can be seen that the most populous district of West Sussex is Arun containing the towns of
Arundel Arundel ( or ) is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and colle ...

Arundel
,
Bognor Regis Bognor Regis is a town and seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based ...
and
Littlehampton Littlehampton is a town, seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on th ...
:


Education

West Sussex has a comprehensive education system, with a mix of county-maintained secondary schools and Academy (English school), academies and over twenty independent senior schools. In addition primary education is provided through a mix of around 240 Infant school, infant, Junior school, junior, Primary school, primary, First school, first and Middle school, middle schools. Colleges include The College of Richard Collyer, Central Sussex College, Northbrook College and The Weald School, Billingshurst, The Weald School. Independent schools in the county include Christ's Hospital, whose students wear Tudor style uniform, Seaford College, Lancing College and Hurstpierpoint College. Tertiary education is provided by the University of Chichester and Chichester College.


Sport

At least 40 sports are active in West Sussex. Sussex was the first First-Class cricket county formed in 1839 and was a cradle for club cricket. Sussex is home to Fontwell Park Racecourse. The county has one Football League club located in
Crawley Crawley () is a large town and Borough status in the United Kingdom, borough in West Sussex, England. It is south of London, north of Brighton and Hove, and north-east of the county town of Chichester. Crawley covers an area of and had a p ...

Crawley
, that is Crawley Town F.C.


See also

* Lord Lieutenant of West Sussex, List of Lord Lieutenants of West Sussex * High Sheriff of West Sussex, List of High Sheriffs of West Sussex * List of hills of West Sussex * The Royal Sussex Regiment * Healthcare in Sussex


References


External links


West Sussex County Council

Images of West Sussex
at the English Heritage Archive {{authority control West Sussex, Non-metropolitan counties South East England Coast to Capital Local Enterprise Partnership Counties of England established in 1974