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Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''
De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De architectura
''. He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attributes: , , and ("strength", "utility", and "beauty"). These principles were later widely adopted in
Roman architecture , Spain, a masterpiece of ancient bridge building , a Roman theatre in Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser ...

Roman architecture
. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
drawing of the ''
Vitruvian Man The ''Vitruvian Man'' ( Italian: ''L'uomo vitruviano'' ; originally known as ''Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio'', lit. 'The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius') is a drawing Drawing is a form of visual art ...
'' by
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
. Little is known about Vitruvius' life, but by his own descriptionDe Arch. Book 1, preface. section 2. he served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the Roman military offices. He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of ''doctores ballistarum'' (artillery experts) and ''libratores'' who actually operated the machines. As an
army engineer Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport Military supply-chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, produc ...
he specialized in the construction of ''
ballista The ballista (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...

ballista
'' and '' scorpio''
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
war machines for
siege A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characteri ...

siege
s. It is possible that Vitruvius served with
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus. Vitruvius' ''De architectura'' was widely copied and survives in many dozens of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages, though in 1414 it was "rediscovered" by the Florentine humanist
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
in the library of Saint Gall Abbey.
Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Eu ...

Leon Battista Alberti
published it in his seminal treatise on architecture, ''
De re aedificatoria#REDIRECT De re aedificatoria ''De re aedificatoria'' (''On the Art of Building'') is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance human ...
'' (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome in 1486. Translations followed in Italian, French, English, German, Spanish, and several other languages. Though the original illustrations have been lost, the first illustrated edition was published in
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
in 1511 by
Fra Giovanni Giocondo Giovanni Giocondo, Order of Friars Minor The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; Post-nominal letters, postnominal abbreviation OFM) is a Mendicant orders, mendicant Catholic re ...
, with
woodcut Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with Chisel#Gouge, gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts ...
illustrations based on descriptions in the text.


Life and career

Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work ''
De Architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De Architectura
''. His full name is sometimes given as "Marcus Vitruvius Pollio", but both the first and last names are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores"; this can be read as "Vitruvius Polio, and others" or, less likely, as "Vitruvius, Polio, and others". An inscription in Verona, which names a '' Lucius Vitruvius Cordo'', and an inscription from
Thilbilis
Thilbilis
in North Africa, which names a ''Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra'' have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and
Mamurra Mamurra (''fl.'' 1st century BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Ro ...
(who was a military ''praefectus fabrum'' under
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
) were from the same family; or were even the same individual. Neither association, however, is borne out by ''De Architectura'' (which Vitruvius dedicated to
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
), nor by the little that is known of Mamurra. Vitruvius was a military engineer ('' praefectus fabrum''), or a '' praefect architectus armamentarius'' of the ''
apparitor In ancient Rome, an ''apparitor'' (also spelled apparator in English, or shortened to paritor) was a civil servant whose salary was paid from the aerarium , public treasury. The ''apparitores'' assisted the Roman magistrates, magistrates. There ...
'' status group (a branch of the Roman civil service). He is mentioned in
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
's table of contents for ''
Naturalis Historia The ''Natural History'' ( la, Naturalis Historia) is a work by Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, ...
'' (Natural History), in the heading for
mosaic A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly pop ...

mosaic
techniques.
Frontinus Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...
refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work ''
De aquaeductu ( en, On aqueducts) is a two-book official report given to the emperor Nerva or Trajan on the state of the Roman aqueduct, aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. It is also known as or . I ...
''. Likely born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the
Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

Roman army
under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, and Gnaeus Cornelius. These names vary depending on the edition of ''De architectura''. Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea. As an
army engineer Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport Military supply-chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, produc ...
he specialized in the construction of ''
ballista The ballista (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...

ballista
'' and '' scorpio''
artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications dur ...

artillery
war machines for
siege A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characteri ...

siege
s. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus. The locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes". Although he describes places throughout ''De Architectura'', he does not say he was present. His service likely included
north Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...
,
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
,
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rat ...

Gaul
(including
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Aguiéne''), archaic Guyenne or Guienne ( oc, Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=n ...
) and Pontus. To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in ''The Military Institutions of the Romans'':
The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the refect had a post of no small importance. The position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, and the physicians who had the care of them; and he regulated the expenses relative thereto. He had the charge of providing carriages, bathhouses and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, '' onagri,'' ''balistae'' and all the other engines of war under his direction. This post was always conferred on an officer of great skill, experience and long service, and who consequently was capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.
At various locations described by Vitruvius, battles and
sieges A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterize ...
occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the
Gallic War The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy ...
there are references to: * The siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at
Avaricum Avaricum was an '' oppidum'' in ancient Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified ...
in 52 BC.
Vercingetorix Vercingetorix (; – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni The Arverni (: ''Aruerni'') were a people dwelling in the modern region during the and the . They were one of the most powerful tribes of ancient , contesting primacy ove ...

Vercingetorix
commented that "the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field, but by a kind of art and skill in assault, with which they aulsthemselves were unacquainted." * The broken siege at
Gergovia Gergovia was a Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be refe ...
in 52 BC. * The circumvallation and
Battle of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgiu ...
in 52 BC. The women and children of the encircled city were evicted to conserve food, then starved to death between the opposing walls of the defenders and besiegers. * The siege of
Uxellodunum The siege in the campaign of 51 BC. Uxellodunum can be found on this map in the territory of the Cadurci in south west Gaul. Uxellodunum is an Iron Age hill fort, or ''oppidum'', located above the river Dordogne River, Dordogne near the modern-d ...
in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic ''
oppida An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Pal ...
''. Of the sites involved in
Caesar's civil war Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public r ...

Caesar's civil war
, we find the
Siege of Massilia The Siege of Massilia, including a naval battle, was an episode of Caesar's civil war Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It beg ...
in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC (modern Albania), the
Battle of Pharsalus The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a stat ...

Battle of Pharsalus
in 48 BC (Hellas – Greece), the
Battle of Zela The Battle of Zela was a battle fought in 47 BC between Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the Roman Republic, the ev ...
of 47 BC (modern Turkey), and the
Battle of Thapsus The Battle of Thapsus was an engagement in Caesar's Civil War that took place on April 6, 46 BC near Thapsus (in modern Tunisia). The Republican forces of the Optimates, led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Quintus Caecilius Mete ...

Battle of Thapsus
in 46 BC in Caesar's
African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa *** Ethnic groups ...
campaign. A
legion Legion may refer to: Military * Roman legion The Roman legion ( la, legiō, ) was the largest military unit of the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic b ...

legion
that fits the same sequence of locations is the
Legio VI Ferrata Legionary inscription: "VEXILLA TIO LEG VI FERR" ("Detachment of Legion VI Ferrata"), Hecht Museum, Haifa, Israel">Haifa.html" ;"title="Hecht Museum, Haifa">Hecht Museum, Haifa, Israel Legio VI Ferrata ("Sixth Ironclad Legion") was a Roman legi ...
, of which ''ballista'' would be an auxiliary unit. Mainly known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture,
construction management Construction management (CM) is a professional service that uses specialized, project management techniques to oversee the planning, design, and construction of a project, from its beginning to its end. The purpose of Construction management is to c ...
,
construction engineering Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or ...
,
chemical engineering Chemical engineering is a certain type of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline ...
,
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
,
materials engineering The interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, ant ...

materials engineering
,
mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineerin ...

mechanical engineering
,
military engineering Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport Military supply-chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, produc ...
and
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
; architectural engineers consider him the first of their discipline, a specialization previously known as technical architecture. In his work describing the construction of military installations, he also commented on the
miasma theory upright=1.1, An 1831 color lithograph by Robert Seymour (illustrator), Robert Seymour depicts cholera as a robed, skeletal creature emanating a deadly black cloud. The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an Superseded scientific ...
– the idea that unhealthy air from wetlands was the cause of illness, saying:
Frontinus Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...
mentions Vitruvious in connection with the standard sizes of
pipes PIPES is the common name for piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), and is a frequently used buffering agent in biochemistry. It is an ethanesulfonic acid buffer developed by Good et al. in the 1960s. Applications PIPES has two Acid dissoc ...

pipes
: the role he is most widely respected. He is often credited as father of
architectural acoustics Architectural acoustics (also known as building acoustics) is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a building and is a branch of acoustical engineering Acoustical engineering (also known as acoustic engineering) is the br ...
for describing the technique of '' echeas'' placement in theaters. The only building, however, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a ''
basilica In Ancient Roman architecture, a basilica is a large public building with multiple functions, typically built alongside the town's Forum (Roman), forum. The basilica was in the Latin West equivalent to a stoa in the Greek East. The building ...

basilica
'' completed in 19 BC. It was built at Fanum Fortunae, now the modern town of
Fano Fano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil ...

Fano
. The ''Basilica di Fano'' (to give the building its Italian name) has disappeared so completely that its very site is a matter of conjecture, although various attempts have been made to visualise it. The early Christian practice of converting Roman ''basilicae'' (public buildings) into cathedrals implies the ''basilica'' may be incorporated into the cathedral in Fano. In later years the emperor Augustus, through his sister
Octavia Minor Octavia the Younger ( la, Octavia Minor; 69/66–11 BC) was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶ ...
, sponsored Vitruvius, entitling him with what may have been a pension to guarantee financial independence. Whether ''De architectura'' was written by one author or is a compilation completed by subsequent librarians and copyists, remains an open question. The date of his death is unknown, which suggests that he had enjoyed only little popularity during his lifetime.
Gerolamo Cardano Gerolamo (also Girolamo or Geronimo) Cardano (; french: link=no, Jérôme Cardan; la, Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 (O. S.)– 21 September 1576 (O. S.)) was an Italian polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, ', "having learn ...

Gerolamo Cardano
, in his 1552 book ''De subtilitate rerum'', ranks Vitruvius as one of the 12 persons whom he supposes to have excelled all men in the force of genius and invention; and would not have scrupled to have given him the first place, if it could be imagined that he had delivered nothing but his own discoveries.


''De architectura''

Vitruvius is the author of ''De architectura, libri decem'', known today as ''The Ten Books on Architecture'',Vitruvius, Pollio (transl. Morris Hicky Morgan, 1960), ''The Ten Books on Architecture''. Courier Dover Publications. . a treatise written in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
on architecture, dedicated to the emperor Augustus. In the preface of Book I, Vitruvius dedicates his writings so as to give personal knowledge of the quality of buildings to the emperor. Likely Vitruvius is referring to
Marcus Agrippa Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (; 63 BC – 12 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, and architect who was a close friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to the Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the ...

Marcus Agrippa
's campaign of public repairs and improvements. This work is the only surviving major book on architecture from
classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, ...
. According to Petri Liukkonen, this text "influenced deeply from the
Early Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
onwards artists, thinkers, and architects, among them
Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Eu ...

Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472),
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
(1452–1519), and
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
(1475–1564)." The next major book on architecture, Alberti's reformulation of ''Ten Books'', was not written until 1452. Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book ''De architectura'' that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of ''firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis'' – that is, stability, utility, beauty. These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad. According to Vitruvius, architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humans constructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements. When perfecting this art of building, the Greeks invented the architectural orders:
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
,
Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in ancient Greek and Latin poetry * Ionian mode, a musical mode or a diatonic scale Places and peoples * Ionian, of or from Ionia, an ancient region in western An ...

Ionic
and Corinthian. It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding the proportions of the greatest work of art: the human body. This led Vitruvius in defining his
Vitruvian Man The ''Vitruvian Man'' ( Italian: ''L'uomo vitruviano'' ; originally known as ''Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio'', lit. 'The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius') is a drawing Drawing is a form of visual art ...
, as drawn later by
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
: the human body inscribed in the circle and the square (the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order). In this book series, Vitruvius, also wrote about
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
in relation to housing architecture and how to choose locations for cities.


Scope

Vitruvius is sometimes loosely referred to as the first architect, but it is more accurate to describe him as the first Roman architect to have written surviving records of his field. He himself cites older but less complete works. He was less an original thinker or creative intellect than a codifier of existing architectural practice. Vitruvius had a much wider scope than modern architects. practised a wide variety of disciplines; in modern terms, they could be described as being engineers, architects,
landscape architects A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water manage ...
, surveyors, artists, and combined. Etymologically the word architect derives from Greek words meaning 'master' and 'builder'. The first of the ''Ten Books'' deals with many subjects which now come within the scope of
landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for constructio ...
. In Book I, Chapter 1, titled The Education of the Architect, Vitruvius instructs... He goes on to say that the architect should be versed in drawing, geometry, optics (lighting), history, philosophy, music, theatre, medicine, and law. In Book I, Chapter 3 (''The Departments of Architecture''), Vitruvius divides architecture into three branches, namely; building; the construction of
sundial A sundial is a horological device that tells the time of day (in modern usage referred to as civil time In modern usage, civil time refers to statutory time scales designated by civilian authorities, or to local time indicated by clocks. M ...

sundial
s and water clocks; and the design and use of machines in construction and warfare. He further divides building into public and private. Public building includes city planning, public security structures such as walls, gates and towers; the convenient placing of public facilities such as theatres, forums and markets, baths, roads and pavings; and the construction and position of shrines and temples for religious use. Later books are devoted to the understanding, design and construction of each of these.


Proportions of man

In Book III, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3, Vitruvius writes about the proportions of man: It was upon these writings that Renaissance engineers, architects and artists like Mariano di Jacopo Taccola, Pellegrino Prisciani and
Francesco di Giorgio Martini Image:La rocca di San Leo.JPG, Fortress of San Leo Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439–1501) was an Italian architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, and writer. As a painter, he belonged to the Sienese School. He was considered a visionary archi ...

Francesco di Giorgio Martini
and finally
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
based the illustration of the
Vitruvian Man The ''Vitruvian Man'' ( Italian: ''L'uomo vitruviano'' ; originally known as ''Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio'', lit. 'The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius') is a drawing Drawing is a form of visual art ...
. Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion. The drawing itself is often used as an implied symbol of the essential
symmetry Symmetry (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

symmetry
of the human body, and by extension, of the
universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

universe
as a whole.


Lists of names given in Book VII Introduction

In the introduction to book seven, Vitruvius goes to great lengths to present why he is qualified to write ''De Architectura''. This is the only location in the work where Vitruvius specifically addresses his personal breadth of knowledge. Similar to a modern reference section, the author's position as one who is knowledgeable and educated is established. The topics range across many fields of expertise reflecting that in Roman times as today construction is a diverse field. Vitruvius is clearly a well-read man. In addition to providing his qualification, Vitruvius summarizes a recurring theme throughout the 10 books, a non-trivial and core contribution of his treatise beyond simply being a construction book. Vitruvius makes the point that the work of some of the most talented are unknown, while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous. This theme runs through Vitruvius's ten books repeatedly – echoing an implicit prediction that he and his works will also be forgotten. Vitruvius illustrates this point by naming what he considers are the most talented individuals in history. Implicitly challenging the reader that they have never heard of some of these people, Vitruvius goes on and predicts that some of these individuals will be forgotten and their works
lost Lost may refer to getting lost Getting lost is the occurrence of a person or animal losing spatial reference. This situation consists of two elements: the feeling of disorientation and a spatial component. While ''getting lost'', ''being lost'' or ...
, while other, less deserving political characters of history will be forever remembered with pageantry. *''List of physicists:''
Thales Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς Thales of Miletus ( ; el, Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), ''Thalēs''; ) was a Greek mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive kn ...

Thales
,
Democritus Democritus (; el, Δημόκριτος, ''Dēmókritos'', meaning "chosen of the people"; – ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient w ...

Democritus
,
Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (; grc-gre, Ἀναξαγόρας, ''Anaxagoras'', "lord of the assembly";  BC) was a Pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the i ...

Anaxagoras
,
Xenophanes Xenophanes of Colophon (city), Colophon (; grc, wikt:Ξενοφάνης, Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος ; c. 570 – c. 478 BC) was a Greece, Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and critic of religious polytheism. Xenophanes is see ...
*''List of philosophers:''
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
,
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
,
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
,
Zeno Zeno or Zenon ( grc, Ζήνων) may refer to: People * Zeno (name), including a list of people and characters with the name Philosophers * Zeno of Elea (), philosopher, follower of Parmenides, known for his paradoxes * Zeno of Citium (333 – 2 ...

Zeno
,
Epicurus Epicurus, ''Epíkouros'', "ally, comrade" (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded Epicureanism Epicureanism is a system of founded around 307 BC based upon the teachings of the . Epicureanism was originally ...

Epicurus
*''List of kings:''
Croesus Croesus ( ; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or aco ...

Croesus
,
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
,
Darius Darius may refer to: Persian kings ;Kings of the Achaemenid Empire * Darius I (the Great, 550 to 487 BC) * Darius II (423 to 404 BC) * Darius III (Codomannus, 380 to 330 BC) ;Crown Prince * Darius (son of Xerxes I), Crown Prince of Persia, may ha ...

Darius
*''On plagiarism:''
Aristophanes Aristophanes (; grc, Ἀριστοφάνης, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme 250px, Pinakia, identification tablets (name, father's name, deme) used for tasks like jury selection, Museum at the Ancient Agora of Athe ...

Aristophanes
,
Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy I Soter (; gr, Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, ''Ptolemaîos Sōtḗr'' "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...
, a person named Attalus *''On abusing dead authors:'' Zoilus Homeromastix, Ptolemy II Philadelphus *''On divergence of the visual rays:'' Agatharchus, Aeschylus,
Democritus Democritus (; el, Δημόκριτος, ''Dēmókritos'', meaning "chosen of the people"; – ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient w ...

Democritus
,
Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (; grc-gre, Ἀναξαγόρας, ''Anaxagoras'', "lord of the assembly";  BC) was a Pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the i ...

Anaxagoras
*''List of writers on temples:'' Silenus, ''Theodorus'', Chersiphron and Metagenes, Ictinus and Carpion, ''Theodorus the Phocian'', Hermogenes of Priene, Hermogenes, Arcesius, Satyros, Satyrus and a person named Pythis (disambiguation), Pytheos *''List of artists:'' Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas, Praxiteles, Timotheos *''List of writers on laws of symmetry:'' ''Nexaris'', ''Theocydes'', a person named Demophilus (disambiguation), Demophilus, ''Pollis'', a person named Leonidas (disambiguation), Leonidas, Silanion, Melampus, ''Sarnacus'', Euphranor *''List of writers on machinery:'' Diades of Pella, Archytas, Archimedes, Ctesibius, ''Nymphodorus (physician), Nymphodorus'', Philo of Byzantium, Diphilus, Democles, ''Charias'', Polyidus of Thessaly, Pyrrus, ''Agesistratus'' *''List of writers on architecture:'' ''Fuficius'', Marcus Terentius Varro, Terentius Varro, ''Publius Septimius (writer)'' *''List of architects:'' ''Antistates'', ''Callaeschrus'', ''Antimachides'', ''Pormus'', ''Cossutius'' *''List of greatest temple architects:'' ''Chersiphron of Gnosus'', Metagenes, Demetrius, ''Paeonius the Milesian'', ''Ephesian Daphnis'', Ictinus, Philon, Philo, ''Cossutius'', ''Gaius Mucianus''


Rediscovery

Vitruvius' ''
De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') is a treatise on architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the ...

De architectura
'' was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the Florentine humanist
Poggio Bracciolini Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), usually referred to simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italians, Italian scholar and an early Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist. He was responsible for rediscover ...

Poggio Bracciolini
in the library of Saint Gall Abbey.
Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Eu ...

Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472) publicised it in his seminal treatise on architecture, ''
De re aedificatoria#REDIRECT De re aedificatoria ''De re aedificatoria'' (''On the Art of Building'') is a classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (; 14 February 1404 – 25 April 1472) was an Italian Renaissance human ...
'' (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome, 1486. Translations followed in Italian (Cesare Cesariano, 1521), French (Jean Martin, 1547), English, German (:de:Walther Hermann Ryff, Walther H. Ryff, 1543) and Spanish and several other languages. The original illustrations had been lost and the first illustrated edition was published in
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
in 1511 by
Fra Giovanni Giocondo Giovanni Giocondo, Order of Friars Minor The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; Post-nominal letters, postnominal abbreviation OFM) is a Mendicant orders, mendicant Catholic re ...
, with
woodcut Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with Chisel#Gouge, gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts ...
illustrations based on descriptions in the text. Later in the 16th-century Andrea Palladio provided illustrations for Daniele Barbaro's commentary on Vitruvius, published in Italian and Latin versions. The most famous illustration is probably Da Vinci's ''
Vitruvian Man The ''Vitruvian Man'' ( Italian: ''L'uomo vitruviano'' ; originally known as ''Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio'', lit. 'The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius') is a drawing Drawing is a form of visual art ...
''. The surviving ruins of Roman antiquity, the Roman Forum, temples, theatres, triumphal arches and their reliefs and statues offered visual examples of the descriptions in the Vitruvian text. Printed and illustrated editions of ''De Architectura'' inspired
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture. Filippo Brunelleschi, for example, invented a new type of Hoist (device), hoist to lift the large stones for the dome of the cathedral in Florence and was inspired by ''De Architectura'' as well as surviving Roman monuments such as the Pantheon (Rome), Pantheon and the Baths of Diocletian.


Notable editions

Latin * 1800 Augustus Rode, Berlin * 1857 Teubner Edition by Valentin Rose * 1899 Teubner Edition * 1912 Teubner edition at The Latin Library * Bill Thayer, transcription of the 1912 Teubner Edition Italian * Cesare Cesariano, 1521, Como, Italy, includes illustrations by Cesare Cesariano * Danielle Barbaro, includes illustration by Andrea Palladio French * Jean Martin, 1547 * Claude Perrault, 1673 * Auguste Choisy, 1909 English * Henry Wotton, 1624 * Joseph Gwilt, 1826 * Bill Thayer transcription of the Gwilt 1826 Edition * Morris H. MorganMorris Hickey Morgan, with illustrations prepared by Herbert Langford Warren, 1914, Harvard University Press * Frank Granger, Loeb Classical Library, Loeb Edition, 1931 * Ingrid Rowland, 2001 * Thomas Gordon Smith, The Monacelli Press (January 5, 2004)


Roman technology

Books VIII, IX and X form the basis of much of what we know about Roman technology, now augmented by archaeological studies of extant remains, such as the water mills at Barbegal in France. The other major source of information is the ''
Naturalis Historia The ''Natural History'' ( la, Naturalis Historia) is a work by Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, ...
'' compiled by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
much later in c. 75 AD.


Machines

The work is important for its descriptions of the many different machines used for engineering structures such as Hoist (device), hoists, Crane (machine), cranes and pulleys, as well as war machines such as catapults, ''ballistae,'' and siege engines. As a practising engineer, Vitruvius must be speaking from personal experience rather than simply describing the works of others. He also describes the construction of sundials and water clocks, and the use of an aeolipile (the first steam engine) as an experiment to demonstrate the nature of atmospheric air movements (wind).


Aqueducts

His description of aqueduct (watercourse), aqueduct construction includes the way they are surveyed, and the careful choice of materials needed, although
Frontinus Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...
(a general who was appointed in the late 1st century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome), writing a century later, gives much more detail of the practical problems involved in their construction and maintenance. Surely Vitruvius' book would have been of great assistance in this. Vitruvius was writing in the 1st century BC when many of the finest Roman aqueducts were built, and survive to this day, such as those at Segovia and the Pont du Gard. The use of the inverted siphon is described in detail, together with the problems of high pressures developed in the pipe at the base of the siphon, a practical problem with which he seems to be acquainted.


Materials

He describes many different construction materials used for a wide variety of different structures, as well as such details as stucco painting. Concrete and Lime (material), lime receive in-depth descriptions. Vitruvius is cited as one of the earliest sources to connect lead mining and manufacture, its use in drinking water pipes, and its adverse effects on health. For this reason, he recommended the use of clay pipes and masonry channels in the provision of piped drinking-water. Vitruvius is the source for the anecdote that credits Archimedes with the discovery of the Archimedes' principle, mass-to-volume ratio while relaxing in his bath. Having been asked to investigate the suspected adulteration of the gold used to make a crown, Archimedes realised that the crown's volume could be measured exactly by its displacement of water, and ran into the street with the cry of'' Eureka (word), Eureka!''


Dewatering machines

He describes the construction of Archimedes' screw in Chapter X (without mentioning Archimedes by name). It was a device widely used for raising water to irrigate fields and drain mines. Other lifting machines he mentions include the endless chain of buckets and the reverse overshot water-wheel. Remains of the water wheels used for lifting water were discovered when old mines were re-opened at Rio Tinto (river), Rio Tinto in Spain, Rosia Montana in Romania and Dolaucothi in west Wales. The Rio Tinto wheel is now shown in the British Museum, and the Dolaucothi specimen in the National Museum of Wales.


Surveying instruments

That he must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments, especially the water level or ''chorobates,'' which he compares favourably with the ''Groma surveying, groma,'' a device using plumb lines. They were essential in all building operations, but especially in aqueduct construction, where a uniform gradient was important to the provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel. He also developed one of the first odometers, consisting of a wheel of known circumference that dropped a pebble into a container on every rotation.


Central heating

He describes the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants. Foremost among them is the development of the ''hypocaust,'' a type of central heating where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public baths and villas. He gives explicit instructions how to design such buildings so that fuel efficiency is maximised, so that for example, the ''caldarium'' is next to the ''tepidarium'' followed by the ''frigidarium''. He also advises on using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms, a bronze disc set into the roof under a circular aperture which could be raised or lowered by a pulley to adjust the ventilation. Although he does not suggest it himself, it is likely that his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water-wheel were used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger ''thermae'', such as the Baths of Diocletian. The one which was used in Bath of Caracalla for grinding flour.


Legacy

*
Vitruvian Man The ''Vitruvian Man'' ( Italian: ''L'uomo vitruviano'' ; originally known as ''Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio'', lit. 'The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius') is a drawing Drawing is a form of visual art ...
– a drawing by
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
*Colen Campbell#Vitruvius Britannicus, ''Vitruvius Britannicus'' – 18th century work on British architecture named after Vitruvius. *''Den Danske Vitruvius'' – 18th century work on Danish architecture – inspired by Vitruvius Britannicus. * ''The American Vitruvius'' – 20th century work on civil architecture by Werner Hegemann *William Vitruvius Morrison (1794–1838), the son of Irish architect Sir Richard Morrison and himself a noted architect of great houses, bridges, court houses and prisons. *A small Vitruvius (crater), lunar crater has been named after Vitruvius and also an elongated lunar mountain Mons Vitruvius close by. *The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) tool for buildings uses Vitruvius's principles.


In popular culture

*The leader of the Master Builders in ''The Lego Movie'' is named Vitruvius. *Vitruvius appears as a non-player character in the 2017 video game ''Assassin's Creed Origins''. *Vitruvius' work appears in ''The Rule of Four'', a 2004 novel by Ian Caldwell and Dustin Thomason.


See also

*
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
*Ctesibius *Colen Campbell *
Frontinus Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...
*
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
*
Roman architecture , Spain, a masterpiece of ancient bridge building , a Roman theatre in Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser ...

Roman architecture
*Roman aqueducts *Roman engineering *Roman technology *Vitruvian man *Vitruvian scroll * Lucius Vitruvius Cordo


References


Sources

* Indra Kagis McEwen, ''Vitruvius: Writing the Body of Architecture''. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. * B. Baldwin, "The Date, Identity, and Career of Vitruvius". In ''Latomus'' 49 (1990), 425–34. * Kai Brodersen & Christiane Brodersen: Cetius Faventinus. Das römische Eigenheim / De architectura privata, Latin and German. Wiesbaden: Marix 2015,


Further reading

* Clarke, Georgia. 2002. "Vitruvian Paradigms". ''Papers of the British School at Rome'' 70:319–346. * De Angelis, Francesco. 2015. "Greek and Roman Specialized Writing on Art and Architecture". In ''The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture''. Edited by Clemente Marconi, 41–69. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. * König, Alice. 2009. "From Architect to Imperator: Vitruvius and his Addressee in the De Architectura". In ''Authorial Voices in Greco-Roman Technical Writing''. Edited by Liba Chaia Taub and Aude Doody, 31–52. Trier, Germany: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. * Milnor, Kristina L. 2005. "Other Men's Wives". In ''Gender, Domesticity and the Age of Augustus: Inventing Private Life''. By Kristina L. Milnor, 94–139. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. * Nichols, Marden Fitzpatrick. 2017".Author and Audience in Vitruvius’ De Architectura". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. * Rowland, Ingrid D. 2014. "Vitruvius and His Influence". In ''A Companion to Roman Architecture''. Edited by Roger B. Ulrich and Caroline K. Quenemoen, 412–425. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell. * Sear, Frank B. 1990. "Vitruvius and Roman Theater Design". ''American Journal of Archaeology'' 94.2: 249–258. * Smith, Thomas Gordon. 2004. ''Vitruvius on Architecture''. New York: Monacelli Press. * Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 1994. "The Articulation of the House". In ''Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum''. By Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, 38–61. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. * Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 2008. "Vitruvius: Building Roman Identity". In ''Rome's Cultural Revolution''. By Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, 144–210. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.


External links

* * *
''The Ten Books on Architecture''
online: cross-linked Latin text and English translation
''The Ten Books on Architecture''
at the Perseus Classics Collection. Latin and English text. Latin text has hyperlinks to pop-up dictionary.




An Abridgment of the Architecture of Vitruvius
(Morris Hicky Morgan translation with illustrations)
Vitruvius online


* [http://www.bl.uk/learning/cult/bodies/vitruvius/proportion.html Vitruvius' theories of beauty] – a learning resource from the British Library
Animation: The Odometer of Vitruv



Online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries
High resolution images of works by Vitruvius in .jpg and .tiff format.
digital scans in high resolution of 73 editions of Vitruvius from 1497 to 1909
from th
Werner Oechslin Library, Einsiedeln, Switzerland


* VITRUVII, M
''De architectura''
Naples, (c. 1480). A
Somni
{{Authority control 1st-century BC births 1st-century BC Romans 1st-century deaths Ancient Roman architects Ancient Roman civil engineers Ancient Roman military engineers Ancient Roman soldiers Architectural theoreticians Classical antiquarian architecture writers Classical Latin literature Golden Age Latin writers History of mining Military personnel of Julius Caesar Latin-language writers Roman military writers Roman people of the Gallic Wars Year of death unknown