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en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = W , postal_code_type =
Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal ...
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CET CET or cet may refer to: Places * Cet, Albania * Cet, standard astronomical abbreviation for the constellation Cetus * Colchester Town railway station (National Rail code CET), in Colchester, England Arts, entertainment, and media * Comcast Enter ...
, utc_offset = +1 , timezone_DST = CEST , utc_offset_DST = +2 , blank_name =
Vehicle registrationMotor vehicle registration is the registration of a motor vehicle with a government authority, either compulsory or otherwise. The purpose of motor vehicle registration is to establish a link between a vehicle and an owner or user of the vehicle. Thi ...
, blank_info = W , blank1_name =
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
, blank1_info = €100 billion (2019) , blank2_name =
GDP per capita Lists of countries by GDP per capita list the countries in the world by their gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money ba ...

GDP per capita
, blank2_info = €52,700 (2019) , blank_name_sec1 =
HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
(2019) , blank_info_sec1 = 0.947
·
1st First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
, blank3_name = Seats in the Federal Council , blank3_info = , blank_name_sec2 =
GeoTLD A geographic top-level domain (often shortened as geographic TLD or geoTLD) is any of an unofficial group of top-level domains A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the Domain name, domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name Sys ...
, blank_info_sec2 =
.wien .wien is a top-level domain A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming syste ...
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Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=
Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian (also known as Austrian or Bavarian; or ; german: Bairisch ) is a West Germanic language spoken in parts of Bavaria and most of Austria. Before 1945, Austro-Bavarian was also prevalent in parts of the southern Czech Republic ...
) is the
national capital A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
, largest city, and one of nine states of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
. Vienna is Austria's
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
, with about 2 million inhabitants (2.6 million within the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
, nearly one third of the country's population), and its
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
, and
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...
centre. It is the 6th-largest city by population within city limits in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Until the beginning of the 20th century, Vienna was the largest
German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe ...

German-speaking
city in the world, and before the splitting of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...

Austro-Hungarian Empire
in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it is the second-largest German-speaking city after
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
. Vienna is host to many major
international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the behavior of states and other actors in the international system. Organizations m ...
s, including the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
,
OPEC The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, ) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or o ...

OPEC
and the
OSCE The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization composed primarily o ...
. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
,
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity ...

Slovakia
and
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
. These regions work together in a European
Centrope Centrope is an Interreg IIIA project to establish a multinational region in four Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Eur ...

Centrope
border region. Along with nearby
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city center was designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of
World Heritage in Danger The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relation ...
. Additionally, Vienna is known as the "City of Music" due to its musical legacy, as many famous classical musicians such as and
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, speci ...

Mozart
called Vienna home. Vienna is also said to be the "City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst,
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian and the founder of , a clinical method for treating through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to (from ) parents ...

Sigmund Freud
. Vienna's ancestral roots lie in early
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...

Celtic
and
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
settlements that transformed into a
Medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

Medieval
and
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new s ...

Baroque
city. It is well known for having played a pivotal role as a leading European music center, from the age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic center of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque palaces and gardens, and the late-19th-century
Ringstraße The (german: Ringstraße, lit. ''ring road'') is a circular grand boulevard that serves as a ring road around the historic (Inner Town) district of Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate ...
lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the
Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the research and analysis division of the Economist Group The Economist Group (legally The Economist Newspaper Limited) is a media company headquartered in London London is the capital city, capita ...

Economist Intelligence Unit
ranked the city first (in a tie with
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in , located in the region of . As the in the province, the recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the . Vancouver has the highe ...

Vancouver
and
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern Califo ...

San Francisco
) for the
world's most livable cities The world's most livable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities This is a list of lists of places: Cities proper * List of largest cities * Lists of cities by country * List of cities by continent (or continental region) ** Li ...
. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
. Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna fourth on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within" (up from sixth in 2011 and eighth in 2010). The
UN-Habitat The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) is the programme for and . It was established in 1978 as an outcome of the first United Nations Conference on Human Settlements and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat I) held in V ...
classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and sixth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure, and markets. Vienna regularly hosts
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions. It attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year.


Etymology

The English name ''Vienna'' is borrowed from the homonymous Italian name. The etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from ''vedunia'', meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and ...
''uuenia'' (''wenia'' in modern writing), the
New High German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a loan translation of the German (). The most important characteristic of the period is the development ...
''wien'' and its dialectal variant ''wean''. Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction ''
Vindobona Vindobona (from Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ref ...
'', probably meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, ''vindo-'', meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish ''fionn'' and the Welsh ''gwyn'' –, and ''-bona'' "village, settlement". The Celtic word ''vindos'' may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of Vindos, a Celtic
deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion), or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleto ...

deity
who survives in
Irish Mythology Irish mythology is the mythology of the island of Ireland that has been preserved in the Oral tradition, oral tradition, and later in the manuscripts of early Celtic Christianity. These tales and themes have continued to be developed over tim ...
as the warrior and
seer The efficiency of air conditioners is often rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) which is defined by the Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute The Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), for ...

seer
Fionn mac Cumhaill. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
,
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
and
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
names of the city (''Vídeň'', ''Viedeň'' and ''Wiedeń'' respectively) and in that of the city's district
Wieden Wieden (; Central Bavarian Central Bavarian, also known as Central Austro-Bavarian, form a subgroup of Bavarian language, Bavarian dialects in large parts of Austria and the German state of Bavaria along the Danube river, on the northern side of t ...
. Another theory suggests the name comes from the
Wends 230px, ''Germaniae veteris typus'' (Old Germany). Aestui, Venedi, Goths, Gythones and Ingaevones are visible on the right upper corner of the map. Edited by Willem and Joan Blaeu, 1645. Wends ( ang, Winedas; Old Norse: ''Vindr''; german: Wenden ...
(
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
: Winedas; Old Norse: Vindr;
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
: Wenden, Winden;
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
: vendere;
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
: vender;
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
: Wendowie,
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
: Wendové) which is a historical name for
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
living near Germanic settlement areas. The name of the city in
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
(''Bécs''),
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
(''Beč''; ) and
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register (sociolinguistics), register of the Turkish language used in the Ottoman Empire (14th to 20th centuries CE). It borrowed extensively, ...
(''Beç'') has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area.
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
-speakers call the city ''Dunaj'', which in other
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
an Slavic languages means the river
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
, on which the city stands.


History


Early history

Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples The Indo-European languages ar ...

Celts
settled the site on the Danube. In 15 BC, the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
fortified the frontier city they called
Vindobona Vindobona (from Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Continental Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be ref ...
to guard the empire against
Germanic tribes This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd ...

Germanic tribes
to the north. Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman (or Koloman, Irish ''Colmán'', derived from ''colm'' "dove") is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil ( Virgil the Geometer) served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements; evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great
Schottenstift The Schottenstift ( en, Scottish Abbey), formally called Benediktinerabtei unserer Lieben Frau zu den Schotten ( en, Benedictine Abbey of Our Dear Lady of the Scots), is a Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Cathol ...

Schottenstift
monastery (Scots Abbey), once home to many Irish monks. In 976, Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a district centered on the Danube on the eastern frontier of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German language, German and Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a Landlocked country, landlocked Federated state, state (''States of Germany ...

Bavaria
. This initial district grew into the
duchy of Austria The Duchy of Austria (german: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the ''Privilegium Minus'', when the Margraviate of Austria (''Name of Austria, Osta ...
. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube, eventually encompassing Vienna and the lands immediately east. In 1145, moved the Babenberg family residence from
Klosterneuburg Klosterneuburg (; frequently abbreviated as Kloburg by locals) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary consid ...

Klosterneuburg
in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440, Vienna became the resident city of the
Habsburg dynasty The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
. It eventually grew to become the ''de facto'' capital of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
(800–1806) in 1437 and a cultural center for arts and science, music and fine cuisine.
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 17th centuries Christian forces twice stopped
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
armies outside Vienna, in the 1529 Siege of Vienna and the 1683
Battle of Vienna The Battle of Vienna (german: link=no, Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or ''Kahlenberg'' (Battle of the Bald Mountain); pl, bitwa pod Wiedniem or ''odsiecz wiedeńska'' (lit. The Relief of Vienna); ota, Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası, lit=siege of ...
. The
Great Plague of ViennaImage:Plague hospital in Vienna 1679.jpg, 300px, A plague hospital in Vienna 1679. Contemporary engraving. The Great Plague of Vienna occurred in 1679 in Vienna, Austria, the imperial residence of the Austrian Habsburg rulers. From contemporary desc ...
ravaged the city in 1679, killing nearly a third of its population.


Austrian Empire and the early 20th century

In 1804, during the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, Vienna became the capital of the newly formed
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural ...
. The city continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) wa ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1814/15. The City also saw major uprisings against Hapsburg rule in
1848 It is historically famous for the wave of revolutions, a series of widespread struggles for more liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an a ...
, which were surpressed. After the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) ">Inner City Parish Church in Pest">Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, Kiegyezés) established th ...
, Vienna remained the capital of what became the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...

Austro-Hungarian Empire
. The city functioned as a center of classical music, for which the title of the
First Viennese School The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composer A composer (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...
(Haydn/Mozart/Beethoven) is sometimes applied. During the latter half of the 19th century, Vienna developed what had previously been the
bastion A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the Curtain wall (fortification), curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners of the fort. The fully developed bastion consists of two f ...

bastion
s and
glacis A glacis (; ) in military engineering Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and military communications. Military engine ...

glacis
into the
Ringstraße The (german: Ringstraße, lit. ''ring road'') is a circular grand boulevard that serves as a ring road around the historic (Inner Town) district of Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate ...
, a new
boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circumnavigating the central city following the line of old or former city w ...

boulevard
surrounding the historical town and a major prestige project. Former suburbs were incorporated, and the city of Vienna grew dramatically. In 1918, after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, Vienna became capital of the
Republic of German-Austria The Republic of German-Austria (german: Republik Deutschösterreich or ) was a country created following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that last ...
, and then in 1919 of the
First Republic of Austria The First Austrian Republic (german: Republik Österreich) was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 10 September 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI o ...
. From the late-19th century to 1938, the city remained a center of high culture and of
modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
. A world capital of music, Vienna played host to composers such as
Brahms Johannes Brahms (; 7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that origina ...

Brahms
,
Bruckner Josef Anton Bruckner (; ) was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum The "Te Deum" (, ; from its incipit, , ) is a Latin Christian hymn traditionally ascribed to AD 387 aut ...

Bruckner
,
Mahler Gustav Mahler (; 7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, ...
and
Richard Strauss Richard Georg Strauss (; 11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, and violinist. Considered a leading composer of the late Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, l ...

Richard Strauss
. The city's cultural contributions in the first half of the 20th century included, among many, the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international styl ...

Vienna Secession
movement in art,
psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis (from Greek language, Greek: + ) is a set of Theory, theories and Therapy, therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a bo ...

psychoanalysis
, the
Second Viennese School The Second Viennese School (german: Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) is the group of composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especi ...
(Schoenberg, Berg, Webern), the architecture of
Adolf Loos Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (; 10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural style based ...

Adolf Loos
and the philosophy of
Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein ( ; ; 26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationali ...

Ludwig Wittgenstein
and the
Vienna Circle The Vienna Circle (german: Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the Natural science, natural and Social Sciences, social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at th ...
. In 1913
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
,
Leon Trotsky Lev Davidovich Bronstein. ( – 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky; uk, link= no, Лев Давидович Троцький; also transliterated ''Lyev'', ''Trotski'', ''Trotskij'', ''Trockij'' and ''Trotzky''. (), was a Ukrainian ...

Leon Trotsky
,
Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz ( sh-Cyrl, Јосип Броз, ; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (; sh-Cyrl, Тито, links=no, ), was a Yugoslav communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belon ...

Josip Broz Tito
,
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian and the founder of , a clinical method for treating through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to (from ) parents ...

Sigmund Freud
and
Joseph Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin . ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgia (country), Georgian revolutionary and the ruler of the Soviet Union from 1927 until 1953. He served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922 ...
all lived within a few kilometres of each other in central Vienna, some of them becoming regulars at the same
coffeehouse A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves of various types, e.g. , , and . Some coffeehouses may serve cold drinks, such as , , and other non-caffeinated beverages. In continental Europe, cafés serve alc ...

coffeehouse
s. Austrians came to regard Vienna as a center of
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, s ...

socialist
politics, sometimes referred to as "
Red Vienna Felleishof Red Vienna ( German: ''Rotes Wien'') was the colloquial name for the capital of Austria between 1918 and 1934, when the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria (SDAP) maintained almost unilateral political control over Vienna and ...
"(“Das rote Wien”). In the
Austrian Civil War The Austrian Civil War (german: Österreichischer Bürgerkrieg), also known as the February Uprising (german: Februarkämpfe), is a term sometimes used for a few days of skirmishes between Fascist and Socialist forces between 12 and 16 February 1 ...
of 1934 Chancellor
Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (german: Engelbert Dollfuß, ; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian politician who served as Chancellor of Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern ...

Engelbert Dollfuss
sent the Austrian Armed Forces, Austrian Army to shell civilian housing such as the Karl Marx-Hof occupied by the Republikanischer Schutzbund, socialist militia.


Anschluss and World War II

In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, the Austrian-born Chancellor of Germany, German Chancellor
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
spoke to the ethnic Germans, Austrian Germans from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg Imperial Palace, Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. In the ensuing days the new Nazi authorities oversaw the harassment of Viennese Jews, the looting of their homes, and their on-going deportation and murder. Between 1938 (after the Anschluss) and the end of the Second World War in 1945, Vienna lost its status as a capital to
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, because Austria ceased to exist and became part of Nazi Germany. During the November pogroms on November 9, 1938, 92 synagogues in Vienna were destroyed. Only the city temple in the 1st district was spared, as the data of all Jews in Vienna were collected in the adjacent archives. Adolf Eichmann held office in the expropriated Palais Rothschild and organized the expropriation and persecution of the Jews. Of the almost 200,000 Jews in Vienna, around 120,000 were driven to emigrate and around 65,000 were killed. After the end of the war, the Jewish population of Vienna was about only 5,000. Vienna was also the center of the important resistance group around Heinrich Maier, which provided the Allies with plans for V-1, V-2 rockets, Peenemünde, Tiger tanks, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and other aircraft. The information was important to Operation Crossbow and Operation Hydra (1943), Operation Hydra, both preliminary missions for Operation Overlord. In addition, factory locations for war-essential products were communicated as targets for the Allied Air Force. The group was exposed and most of its members were executed after months of torture by the Gestapo in Vienna. The group around the later executed Karl Burian even tried to blow up the Gestapo headquarters in the Hotel Metropole. On 2 April 1945, the Red Army, Soviet Red Army launched the Vienna Offensive against the Germans holding the city and besieged it. British and American air-raids, as well as artillery duels between the Red Army and the SS and Wehrmacht, crippled infrastructure, such as tram services and water- and power-distribution, and destroyed or damaged thousands of public and private buildings. The Red Army was helped by an Austrian resistance group in the German Wehrmacht. The group tried under the code name Radetzky to prevent the destruction and fighting in the city. Vienna fell eleven days later. At the end of the war, Austria again became separated from Germany, and Vienna regained its status as the capital city of the Republic of Austria, but the Soviet hold on the city remained until 1955, when Austria regained full sovereignty.


Four-power Vienna

After the war, Vienna was part of Occupation of Austria, Soviet-occupied Eastern Austria until September 1945. As in Berlin, Vienna in September 1945 was divided into sectors by the four powers: the US, the UK, France, and the Soviet Union and supervised by an Allied Commission for Austria, Allied Commission. The four-power occupation of Vienna differed in one key respect from that of Berlin: the central area of the city, known as the first district, constituted an ''international zone'' in which the four powers alternated control on a monthly basis. The control was policed by the four powers on a ''de facto'' day-to-day basis, the famous "four soldiers in a jeep" method. The Berlin Blockade of 1948 raised Western concerns that the Soviets might repeat the blockade in Vienna. The matter was raised in the UK House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons by MP Anthony Nutting, who asked: "What plans have the Government for dealing with a similar situation in Vienna? Vienna is in exactly a similar position to Berlin." There was a lack of airfields in the Western sectors, and authorities drafted contingency plans to deal with such a blockade. Plans included the laying down of metal landing mats at Schönbrunn. The Soviets did not blockade the city. The Potsdam Agreement included written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had covered the western sectors of Berlin. Also, there was no precipitating event to cause a blockade in Vienna. (In Berlin, the Western powers had introduced a new currency in early 1948 to economically freeze out the Soviets.) During the 10 years of the four-power occupation, Vienna became a hotbed for international espionage between the Western bloc, Western and Eastern blocs. In the wake of the Berlin Blockade, the Cold War in Vienna took on a different dynamic. While accepting that Germany and Berlin would be divided, the Soviets had decided against allowing the same state of affairs to arise in Austria and Vienna. Here, the Soviet forces controlled districts 2, 4, 10, 20, 21, and 22 and all areas incorporated into Vienna in 1938. Barbed wire fences were installed around the perimeter of West Berlin in 1953, but not in Vienna. By 1955, the Soviets, by signing the Austrian State Treaty, agreed to relinquish their occupation zones in Eastern Austria as well as their sector in Vienna. In exchange they required that Austria declare its permanent neutrality after the allied powers had left the country. Thus they ensured that Austria would not be a member of NATO and that NATO forces would therefore not have direct communications between Italy and West Germany. The atmosphere of four-power Vienna is the background for Graham Greene's screenplay for the film ''The Third Man'' (1949). Later he adapted the screenplay as a novel and published it. Occupied Vienna is also depicted in the 1991 Philip Kerr novel, ''A German Requiem (novel), A German Requiem''.


Austrian State Treaty and afterwards

The four-power control of Vienna lasted until the Austrian State Treaty was signed in May 1955. That year, after years of reconstruction and restoration, the Vienna State Opera, State Opera and the Burgtheater, both on the Ringstraße, reopened to the public. The Soviet Union signed the State Treaty only after having been provided with a political guarantee by the federal government to declare Austria's neutrality after the withdrawal of the allied troops. This law of neutrality, passed in late October 1955 (and not the State Treaty itself), ensured that modern Austria would align with neither NATO nor the Soviet bloc, and is considered one of the reasons for Austria's delayed 1995 enlargement of the European Union, entry into the European Union in 1995. In the 1970s, Chancellor of Austria, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Center, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna has regained much of its former international stature by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, United Nations Office at Vienna and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.


Demographics

Because of the industrialization and migration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). In 1910, Vienna had more than two million inhabitants, and was the third List of cities proper by population, largest city in Europe after London and Paris. Around the start of the 20th century, Vienna was the city with the second-largest Czechs, Czech population in the world (after Prague). After World War I, many Czechs in Vienna, Czechs and Hungarians in Vienna, Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. After World War II, the Soviets used force to repatriate key workers of Czech, Slovak and Hungarian origins to return to their ethnic homelands to further the Soviet bloc economy. Under the Nazi regime, 65,000 Jews in Vienna, Jews were deported and murdered in concentration camps by Nazi forces; approximately 130,000 fled. By 2001, 16% of people living in Austria had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia; the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna were Turkey, Turks (39,000; 2.5%), Poland, Poles (13,600; 0.9%) and Germans (12,700; 0.8%). , an official report from Statistics Austria showed that more than 660,000 (38.8%) of the Viennese population have full or partial migrant background, mostly from Ex-Yugoslavia, Turkey, Germany, Poland, Romania and Hungary. From 2005 to 2015 the city's population grew by 10.1%. According to UN-Habitat, Vienna could be the fastest growing city out of 17 European metropolitan areas until 2025 with an increase of 4.65% of its population, compared to 2010.


Religion

According to the 2001 census, 49.2% of Viennese were Catholic, while 25.7% were of no religion, 7.8% were Muslim, 6.0% were members of an Eastern Orthodox Christian denomination, 4.7% were Protestant (mostly Lutheran), 0.5% were Jewish and 6.3% were either of other religions or did not reply. A 2011 report by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis showed the proportions had changed, with 41.3% Catholic, 31.6% no affiliation, 11.6% Muslim, 8.4% Eastern Orthodox, 4.2% Protestant, and 2.9% other. Based on information provided to city officials by various religious organizations about their membership, Vienna's Statistical Yearbook 2019 reports in 2018 an estimated 610,269 Roman Catholics, or 32.3% of the population, and 195,000 (10.3%) Muslims, 70,298 (3.7%) Orthodox, 57,502 (3.0%) other Christians, and 9,504 (0.5%) other religions. A study conducted by the Vienna Institute of Demography estimated the 2018 proportions to be 34% Catholic, 30% unaffiliated, 15% Muslim, 10% Orthodox, 4% Protestant, and 6% other religions. Vienna is the seat of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna, in which is also vested the exempt Ordinariate for Byzantine-rite Catholics in Austria; its Archbishop of Vienna, Archbishop is Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. Many Catholic Church, Catholic churches in central Vienna feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung to classical music and organ. Some of Vienna's most significant historical buildings are Catholic churches, including the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral (''Stephansdom''), Karlskirche, Peterskirche, Vienna, Peterskirche and the Votive Church, Vienna, Votivkirche. On the banks of the Danube, there is a Buddhist Peace Pagoda, built in 1983 by the monks and nuns of Nipponzan Myohoji.


Geography

Vienna is located in northeastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps in the Vienna Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today's inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from . The city has a total area of 414.65 square kilometers (160.1 sq mi), making it the largest city in Austria by area.


Climate

Vienna has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification ''Cfb''). The city has warm summers, with periodical precipitations that can reach its yearly peak in July and August (66.6 and 66.5 mm respectively) and average high temperatures from June to September of approximately , with a record maximum exceeding and a record low in September of . Winters are relatively dry and cold with average temperatures at about freezing point. Spring is variable and autumn cool, with possible snowfalls already in November. Precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year, averaging around annually, with considerable local variations, the Vienna Woods region in the west being the wettest part ( annually) and the flat plains in the east being the driest part ( annually). Snow in winter is common, even if not so frequent compared to the Western and Southern regions of Austria.


World heritage in danger

Vienna was moved to the UNESCO world heritage in endangered list in 2017. The main reason was a planned high-rise development. The city's social democratic party planned construction of a complex in 2019. The plan includes a -high tower, which was reduced from due to opposition. UNESCO believed that the project "fails to comply fully with previous committee decisions, notably concerning the height of new constructions, which will impact adversely the outstanding universal value of the site." UNESCO set the restriction for the height of the construction in the city center to . The citizens of Vienna also opposed the construction of the complex because they are afraid of losing UNESCO status and also of encouraging future high-rise development. The city officials replied that they will convince the WHC to maintain UNESCO world heritage status and said that no further high-rise developments are being planned. UNESCO is concerned about the height of high-rise development in Vienna as it can dramatically influence the visual integrity of the city, specifically the baroque palaces. Visual impact studies are being done in the Vienna city center to assess the level of visual disturbance to visitors and how the changes influenced the city's visual integrity.


Districts and enlargement

Vienna is composed of 23 districts (''Bezirke''). Administrative district offices in Vienna (called Magistratische Bezirksämter) serve functions similar to those in the other Austrian states (called Bezirkshauptmannschaften), the officers being subject to the mayor of Vienna; with the notable exception of the police, which is under federal supervision. District residents in Vienna (Austrians as well as EU citizens with permanent residence here) elect a District Assembly (Bezirksvertretung). City hall has delegated maintenance budgets, e.g., for schools and parks, so that the districts are able to set priorities autonomously. Any decision of a district can be overridden by the city assembly (Gemeinderat) or the responsible city councilor (amtsführender Stadtrat). The heart and historical city of Vienna, a large part of today's Innere Stadt, was a fortress surrounded by fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. In 1850, Vienna with the consent of the emperor annexed 34 surrounding villages, called Vorstädte, into the city limits (districts no. 2 to 8, after 1861 with the separation of Margareten from Wieden no. 2 to 9). Consequently, the walls were razed after 1857, making it possible for the city center to expand. In their place, a broad boulevard called the
Ringstraße The (german: Ringstraße, lit. ''ring road'') is a circular grand boulevard that serves as a ring road around the historic (Inner Town) district of Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate ...
was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks were created by the start of the 20th century. These buildings include the Rathaus, Vienna, Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater, the University of Vienna, University, the Parliament of Austria, Parliament, the twin museums of Naturhistorisches Museum, natural history and Kunsthistorisches Museum, fine art, and the Vienna State Opera, Staatsoper. It is also the location of New Wing of the Hofburg Imperial Palace, Hofburg, the former imperial palace, and the Imperial and Royal War Ministry finished in 1913. The mainly gothic architecture, Gothic St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, Stephansdom is located at the center of the city, on Stephansplatz, Vienna, Stephansplatz. The Imperial-Royal Government set up the Vienna City Renovation Fund (Wiener Stadterneuerungsfonds) and sold many building lots to private investors, thereby partly financing public construction works. From 1850 to 1890, city limits in the West and the South mainly followed another wall called ''Linienwall'' at which a road toll (historic), road toll called the ''Liniengeld'' was charged. Outside this wall from 1873 onwards a beltway, ring road called Gürtel, Vienna, Gürtel was built. In 1890 it was decided to integrate 33 suburbs (called Vororte) beyond that wall into Vienna by 1 January 1892Czeike, volume 5, p. 290 and transform them into districts no. 11 to 19 (district no. 10 had been constituted in 1874); hence the Linienwall was torn down beginning in 1894. In 1900, district no. 20, Brigittenau, was created by separating the area from the 2nd district. From 1850 to 1904, Vienna had expanded only on the right bank of the Danube, following the main branch before the regulation of 1868–1875, i.e., the Old Danube of today. In 1904, the 21st district was created by integrating Floridsdorf, Kagran, Stadlau, Hirschstetten, Aspern and other villages on the left bank of the Danube into Vienna, in 1910 Strebersdorf followed. On 15 October 1938 the Nazis created Great Vienna with 26 districts by merging 97 towns and villages into Vienna, 80 of which were returned to surrounding Lower Austria in 1954. Since then Vienna has had 23 districts. Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
, but is bounded by the ''Donaukanal'' ("Danube canal"). Vienna's second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
. Across the Danube, where the Vienna International Center is located (districts 21–22), and in the southern areas (district 23) are the newest parts of the city.


Politics


Political history

In the twenty years before the First World War and until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party (Austria), Christian Social Party. In particular, long-term mayor Karl Lueger was able to not apply the general voting rights for men introduced by and for the parliament of imperial Austria, the ''Reichsrat'', in 1907, thereby excluding most of the working class from taking part in decisions. For
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
, who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics. Vienna is today considered the center of the Social Democratic Party of Austria, Social Democratic Party (SPÖ). During the period of the First Austrian Republic, First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "
Red Vienna Felleishof Red Vienna ( German: ''Rotes Wien'') was the colloquial name for the capital of Austria between 1918 and 1934, when the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria (SDAP) maintained almost unilateral political control over Vienna and ...
" (''Rotes Wien''). In February 1934 troops of the Austrian federal government under
Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (german: Engelbert Dollfuß, ; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian politician who served as Chancellor of Austria Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern ...

Engelbert Dollfuss
, who had closed down the first chamber of the federal parliament, the ''Nationalrat'', in 1933, and paramilitary socialist organizations were engaged in the Austrian Civil War, which led to the ban of the Social Democratic party. The SPÖ has held the mayor's office and control of the city council/parliament at every free election since 1919. The only break in this SPÖ dominance came between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party was illegal, mayors were appointed by the Austrofascism, austro-fascist and later by the Nazi Party, Nazi authorities. The mayor of Vienna is Michael Ludwig (politician), Michael Ludwig of the SPÖ. The city has enacted many social democratic policies. The ''Gemeindebauten'' are social housing assets that are well integrated into the city architecture outside the first or "inner" district. The low rents enable comfortable accommodation and good access to the city amenities. Many of the projects were built after the World War II, Second World War on vacant lots that were destroyed by bombing during the war. The city took particular pride in building them to a high standard.


Government

Since Vienna obtained federal state (''Bundesland'') status of its own by the federal constitution of 1920, the city council also functions as the state parliament (Landtag), and the mayor (except 1934–1945) also doubles as the ''Landeshauptmann'' (governor/minister-president) of the state of Vienna. The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor ('':de:Magistrat der Stadt Wien'') and the state government (''Landesregierung''). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (''Magistratsabteilungen''), politically supervised by ''amtsführende Stadträte'' (members of the city government leading offices; according to the Vienna constitution opposition parties have the right to designate members of the city government not leading offices). Under the city constitution of 1920, municipal and state business must be kept separate. Hence, the city council and state parliament hold separate meetings, with separate presiding officers–the chairman of the city council or the president of the state Landtag–even though the two bodies' memberships are identical. When meeting as a city council, the deputies can only deal with the affairs of the city of Vienna; when meeting as a state parliament, they can only deal with the affairs of the state of Vienna. In the 1996 City Council election, the SPÖ lost its overall majority in the 100-seat chamber, winning 43 seats and 39.15% of the vote. The SPÖ had held an outright majority at every free municipal election since 1919. In 1996 the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which won 29 seats (up from 21 in 1991), beat the ÖVP into third place for the second time running. From 1996 to 2001, the SPÖ governed Vienna in a coalition with the ÖVP. In 2001 the SPÖ regained the overall majority with 52 seats and 46.91% of the vote; in October 2005, this majority was increased further to 55 seats (49.09%). In course of the 2010 city council elections the SPÖ lost their overall majority again and consequently forged a coalition with the The Greens – The Green Alternative, Green Party – the first SPÖ/Green coalition in Austria. This coalition was maintained following the 2015 election.


Economy

Vienna is one of the wealthiest regions in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
: Its gross regional product of EUR 47,200 per capita constituted 25.7% of Austria's GDP in 2013. It amounts to 159% of the EU average. The city improved its position from 2012 on the ranking of the most economically powerful cities reaching number nine on the listing in 2015. With a share of 85.5% in gross value added, the service sector is Vienna's most important economic sector. Industry and commerce have a share of 14.5% in gross value added, the primary sector (agriculture) has a share of 0.07% and therefore plays a minor role in the local added value. However, the cultivation and production of wines within the city borders have a high socio-cultural value. The most important business sectors are trade (14.7% of added value in Vienna), scientific and technological services, real estate and housing activities as well as manufacturing of goods. In 2012, Vienna's contribution in Austria's outgoing and incoming foreign direct investments was of about 60%, which demonstrates Vienna's role as an international hub for domestic and foreign companies. Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Vienna has expanded its position as gateway to Eastern Europe: 300 international companies have their Eastern European headquarters in Vienna and its environs. Among them are Hewlett Packard, Henkel, Baxalta and Siemens. Companies in Vienna have extensive contacts and competences in business with Eastern Europe due to the city's historical role as center of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Empire. The number of international businesses in Vienna is still growing: In 2014 159 and in 2015 175 international firms established offices in Vienna. Altogether, approximately 8,300 new companies have been founded in Vienna every year since 2004. The majority of these companies are operating in fields of industry-oriented services, wholesale trade as well as information and communications technologies and new media. Vienna makes effort to establish itself as a start-up hub. Since 2012, the city hosts the annual Pioneers Festival, the largest start-up event in Central Europe with 2,500 international participants taking place at Hofburg Palace. Tech Cocktail, an online portal for the start-up scene, has ranked Vienna sixth among the top ten start-up cities worldwide.


Research and development

The city of Vienna attaches major importance to science and research and focuses on creating a positive environment for research and development. In 2014, Vienna has accommodated 1,329 research facilities; 40,400 persons are employed in the R&D sector and 35% of Austria's R&D expenses are invested in the city. With a research quota of 3.4% Vienna exceeds the Austrian average of 2.77% and has already met the EU target of 3.0% by 2020. A major R&D sector in Vienna are life sciences. The Vienna Life Science Cluster is Austria's major hub for life science research, education and business. Throughout Vienna, five universities and several basic research institutes form the academic core of the hub with more than 12,600 employees and 34,700 students. Here, more than 480 medical device, biotechnology and Pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical companies with almost 23,000 employees generate around 12 billion euros in revenue (2017). This corresponds to more than 50% of the revenue generated by life science companies in Austria (22.4 billion euros). Vienna is home to global players like Boehringer Ingelheim, Octapharma, Ottobock and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Takeda. However, there is also a growing number of start-up companies in the life sciences and Vienna was ranked first in the 2019 PeoplePerHour Startup Cities Index. Companies such as Apeiron Biologics, Hookipa Pharma, Marinomed, mySugr, Themis Bioscience and Valneva operate a presence in Vienna and regularly hit the headlines internationally. To facilitate tapping the economic potential of the multiple facettes of the life sciences at Austria's capital, the Austrian Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs and the local government of City of Vienna have joined forces: Since 2002, the LISAvienna platform is available as a central contact point. It provides free business support services at the interface of the Austrian federal promotional bank, Austria Wirtschaftsservice and the Vienna Business Agency and collects data that inform policy making. The main academic hot spots in Vienna are the Life Science Center Muthgasse with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), the Austrian Institute of Technology, the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, University of Veterinary Medicine, the AKH Vienna with the Medical University Vienna, MedUni Vienna and the Vienna Biocenter. Central European University, a graduate institution expelled from Budapest in the midst of a Hungarian government steps to take control of academic and research organizations, welcomes the first class of students to its new Vienna campus in 2019.


Information technologies

The Viennese sector for information and communication technologies is comparable in size with the sector in Helsinki, Milan or Munich and thus among Europe's largest IT locations. In 2012 8,962 IT businesses with a workforce of 64,223 were located in the Vienna Region. The main products are instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation as well as electronic components. More than ⅔ of the enterprises provide IT services. Among the biggest IT firms in Vienna are Kapsch, Beko Engineering & Informatics, air traffic control experts Frequentis, Cisco Systems Austria, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft Austria, IBM Austria and Samsung Electronics Austria. The US technology corporation Cisco Systems, Cisco runs its ''Entrepreneurs in Residence'' program for Europe in Vienna in cooperation with th
Vienna Business Agency
The British company UBM plc, UBM has rated Vienna one of the ''Top 10 Internet Cities'' worldwide, by analyzing criteria like connection speed, WiFi availability, innovation spirit and open government data. In 2011 74.3% of Viennese households were connected with broadband, 79% were in possession of a computer. According to the broadband strategy of the city, full broadband coverage will be reached by 2020.


Tourism and conferences

There were 17.6 million overnight stays in Vienna in 2019 (+6.8% compared to 2018). The top ten incoming markets in 2019 were Germany,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
, the United States, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, China, France, Russia and Switzerland. In 2019 the International Congress and Convention Association
ICCA
ranked Vienna 6th in the world for association meetings. The Union of International Associations
UIA
ranked Vienna 5th in the world for 2019 with 306 international meetings, behind Singapore, Brussels, Seoul and Paris. The city's largest conference center, th
Austria Center Vienna (ACV)
has a total capacity for around 22,800 people and is situated next to the United Nations Office at Vienna, United Nations Headquarters in Vienna. Other centers are th
Messe Wien Exhibition & Congress Center
(up to 3,000 people) and th
Hofburg Palace
(up to 4,900 people).


Rankings

Vienna was ranked top in the ''2019 Quality of Living Ranking'' by the international Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer Consulting Group for the tenth consecutive year. In the 2015 liveability report by the
Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the research and analysis division of the Economist Group The Economist Group (legally The Economist Newspaper Limited) is a media company headquartered in London London is the capital city, capita ...

Economist Intelligence Unit
as well as in the ''Quality of Life Survey 2015'' of London-based Monocle (media company), ''Monocle magazine'' Vienna was equally ranked second most livable city worldwide. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, The United Nations Human Settlements Programme ''UN-Habitat'' has ranked Vienna the most prosperous city in the world in its flagship report ''State of the World Cities 2012/2013''. According to the 201
City RepTrack
ranking by the Reputation Institute, Vienna has the best reputation in comparison with 100 major global cities. The ''Innovation Cities Global Index 2014'' by the Australian innovation agenc
2thinknow
ranks Vienna sixth behind
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern Califo ...

San Francisco
-San Jose, California, San Jose, New York City, London, Boston and Paris. In 2019 PeoplePerHour put Vienna at the top of their Startup Cities Ranking. US climate strategist Boyd Cohen placed Vienna first in his first ''global smart cities'' ranking of 2012. In the 2014 ranking, Vienna reached third place among European cities behind Copenhagen and Amsterdam. The ''Mori Memorial Institute for Urban Strategies'' ranked Vienna in the top ten of their Global city#Global Power City Index, Global Power City Index 2016.


Urban development


Central Railway Station

Vienna's new Wien Hauptbahnhof, Central Railway Station was opened in October 2014. Construction began in June 2007 and was due to last until December 2015. The station is served by 1,100 trains with 145,000 passengers. There is a shopping center with approximately 90 shops and restaurants. In the vicinity of the station a new district is emerging with office space and 5,000 apartments until 2020.


Aspern

Seestadt Aspern is one of the largest urban expansion projects of Europe. A 5 hectare artificial lake, offices, apartments and a subway station within walking distance are supposed to attract 20,000 new citizens when construction is completed in 2028. In addition, the highest wooden skyscraper in the world, “HoHo Wien”, will be built within 3 years, starting in 2015.


Smart City

In 2014, the Vienna City Council adopted the Smart City Wien Framework Strategy 2050. It is a long-term umbrella strategy that is supposed to establish a conducive, long-term and structural framework in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 3.1 tonnes per capita to 1 tonne per capita by 2050, have 50% of Vienna's gross energy consumption renewable energy, originate from renewable sources and to reduce motorized individual traffic from the current 28% to 15% by 2030. A stated goal is that, by 2050, all vehicles within the municipal boundaries will run without conventional propulsion technologies. Additionally, Vienna aims to be one of the five biggest European research and innovation hubs in 2050.


Culture


Music, theater and opera

Famous composers including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Nina Stollewerk, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler, Robert Stolz, and Arnold Schoenberg have worked in Vienna. Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theater, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theaters in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater, Vienna, Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theaters, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of the performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret. Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien, the Vienna State Opera, Staatsoper and the Vienna Volksoper, Volksoper, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Classical concerts are performed at venues such as the Musikverein, Wiener Musikverein, home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra known across the world for the annual widely broadcast "New Year's Day Concert", as well as the Konzerthaus, Vienna, Wiener Konzerthaus, home of the internationally renowned Vienna Symphony. Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music, particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Strauss I, and Johann Strauss II. Up until 2005, the Theater an der Wien hosted premieres of musicals, but since 2006 (a year dedicated to the 250th anniversary of Mozart's birth), has devoted itself to opera again, becoming a stagione opera house offering one new production each month. Since 2012, Theater an der Wien has taken over the Wiener Kammeroper, a historical small theater in the first district of Vienna seating 300 spectators, turning it into its second venue for smaller sized productions and chamber operas created by the young ensemble of Theater an der Wien (JET). Before 2005 the most successful musical was ''Elisabeth (musical), Elisabeth'', which was later translated into several languages and performed all over the world. The Wiener Taschenoper is dedicated to stage music of the 20th and 21st century. The Haus der Musik ("house of music") opened in the year 2000. The Wienerlied is a unique song genre from Vienna. There are approximately 60,000 – 70,000 Wienerlieder. In 1981 the popular British new romantic group Ultravox paid a tribute to Vienna on an album and an artful music video recording called ''Vienna''. The inspiration for this work arose from the cinema production called ''The Third Man'' with the title Zither music of Anton Karas. The Vienna's English Theatre (VET) is an English theater in Vienna. It was founded in 1963 and is located in the 8th Vienna's district. It is the oldest English-language theater in continental Europe. In May 2015, Vienna hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2015, Eurovision Song Contest following Austria in the Eurovision Song Contest 2014, Austria's victory in the Eurovision Song Contest 2014, 2014 contest.


Actors from Vienna

Notable entertainers born in Vienna include Hedy Lamarr, Christoph Waltz, John Banner, Christiane Hörbiger, Eric Pohlmann, Boris Kodjoe, Christine Buchegger, Mischa Hausserman, Senta Berger and Christine Ostermayer.


Musicians from Vienna

Notable musicians born in Vienna include Louie Austen, Alban Berg, Falco (musician), Falco, Fritz Kreisler, Joseph Lanner, Arnold Schoenberg, Arnold Schönberg, Franz Schubert, Johann Strauss I, Johann Strauss II, Anton Webern, and Joe Zawinul. Famous musicians who came here to work from other parts of Austria and Germany were Johann Joseph Fux, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Ferdinand Ries, Johann Sedlatzek, Antonio Salieri, Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Franz Liszt, Franz von Suppé, Anton Bruckner, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Rainhard Fendrich.


Notable writers from Vienna

Notable writers from Vienna include Karl Leopold von Möller, Carl Julius Haidvogel, and Stefan Zweig. Writers who lived and worked in Vienna include Franz Kafka, Arthur Schnitzler, Elias Canetti, Ingeborg Bachmann, Robert Musil, Karl Kraus (writer), Karl Kraus, Ernst von Feuchtersleben, Thomas Bernhard and Elfriede Jelinek.


Notable politicians from Vienna

Notable politicians from Vienna include Karl Leopold von Möller.


Museums

The Hofburg Palace, Hofburg is the location of the Imperial Treasury, Vienna, Imperial Treasury (''Schatzkammer''), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. The Sisi Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth of Austria) allows visitors to view the imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museum, which houses many paintings by Old Master, old masters, ancient and classical artifacts, and the Naturhistorisches Museum. A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. It houses the Museum of Modern Art, commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (featuring the largest collection of paintings in the world by Egon Schiele, as well as works by the
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international styl ...

Vienna Secession
, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), the Architekturzentrum Wien, AzW (museum of architecture), additional halls with feature exhibitions, and the Tanzquartier. The Liechtenstein Palace contains much of one of the world's Liechtenstein Museum, largest private art collections, especially strong in the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a of , , , , and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new s ...

Baroque
. The Belvedere (palace), Belvedere, built under Prince Eugene of Savoy, Prince Eugene, has Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, a gallery containing paintings by Gustav Klimt (The Kiss), Egon Schiele, and other painters of the early 20th century, also sculptures by Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, and changing exhibitions too. There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Albertina, Vienna, Albertina, the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Military History Museum, the Technisches Museum Wien, Technical Museum, the Burial Museum, the Museum of Art Fakes, the KunstHausWien, Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna, Museum of Applied Arts, the Sigmund Freud Museum (Vienna), Sigmund Freud Museum, and the Mozarthaus Vienna. The museums on the history of the city, including the former Vienna Museum#Vienna Museum Karlsplatz, Historical Museum of the City of Vienna on Karlsplatz, the Hermesvilla, the residences and birthplaces of various composers, the Vienna Museum#Museum of the Romans, Museum of the Romans, and the Vienna Museum#Clock Museum, Vienna Clock Museum, are now gathered together under the group umbrella Vienna Museum. The Jewish Museum Vienna, founded 1896, is the oldest of its kind. In addition there are museums dedicated to Vienna's individual districts. They provide a record of individual struggles, achievements and tragedy as the city grew and survived two world wars. For readers seeking family histories these are good sources of information.


Architecture

A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque architecture, Baroque Karlskirche. Styles range from classicism, classicist buildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveau left many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secession Building, Vienna, Secession building, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, and the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau in the world. Wagner's prominent student Jože Plečnik from Slovenia also left important traces in Vienna. His works include the Langer House (1900) and the Zacherlhaus (1903–1905). Plečnik's 1910–1913 ''Church of the Holy Spirit'' () in Vienna is remarkable for its innovative use of poured-in-place concrete as both structure and exterior surface, and also for its abstracted classical form language. Most radical is the church's crypt, with its slender concrete columns and angular, cubist capitals and bases. Concurrent to the Art Nouveau movement was the Wiener Moderne, during which some architects shunned the use of extraneous adornment. A key architect of this period was
Adolf Loos Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (; 10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural style based ...

Adolf Loos
, whose works include the Looshaus (1909), the Kärntner Bar or American Bar (1908) and the Steiner House (1910). The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotruba Church, Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). The 220-meter high DC Towers, DC Tower 1 located on the Northern bank of the Danube, completed in 2013, is the tallest skyscraper in Vienna. In recent years, Vienna has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodeling and revitalization of the old Gasometer, Vienna, Gasometer in 2001. Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than . The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas and districts designated as World Heritage Site, world cultural heritage. Strong rules apply to the planning, authorization and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.


Ball dances of Vienna

Vienna is the last great capital of the 19th-century ball (dance), ball. There are over 450 balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Balls are held in the many palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace in Heldenplatz. While the Vienna Opera Ball, Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, List of balls in Vienna, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter's Ball) and the Life Ball (AIDS charity event) are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime. Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna State Opera often perform at the openings of the larger balls. A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Vienna balls generally begin at 9 pm and last until 5 am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day. Viennese balls are being exported (with support from the City of Vienna) to around 30 cities worldwide such as New York, Barcelona, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Rome, Prague, Bucharest, Berlin and Moscow.


Language

Vienna is part of the Austro-Bavarian language area, in particular Central Bavarian (''Mittelbairisch''). In recent years, linguistics experts have seen a decline in the use of the Viennese variant. Manfred Glauninger, sociolinguist at the Institute for Austrian Dialect and Name Lexica, has observed three issues. First, many parents feel there's a stigma attached to the Viennese dialect so they speak Standard German to their children. Second, many children have recently immigrated to Austria and are learning German as a second language in school. Third, young people are influenced by mass media which is most always delivered in Standard German.


Education

Vienna is Austria's main center of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasium (school), gymnasiums (high schools).


Universities

*Academy of Fine Arts Vienna *Central European University *Diplomatic Academy of Vienna *Medical University of Vienna *PEF Private University of Management Vienna *University of Applied Arts Vienna *University of Applied Sciences Campus Vienna *University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna *University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna *University of Vienna *Vienna University of Economics and Business *University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna *University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien *TU Wien *Webster University Vienna *Sigmund Freud University Vienna *International Anti-Corruption Academy (in Laxenburg, south of Vienna)


International schools

*Danube International School *International University Vienna *SAE Institute, SAE Vienna *Lauder Business School *Lycée Français de Vienne *Vienna Christian School *Vienna International School *American International School of Vienna, American International School *Japanische Schule in Wien (Japanese school) *Amadeus International School


Leisure activities


Parks and gardens

Vienna possesses many parks, including the ''Stadtpark, Vienna, Stadtpark'', the ''Burggarten'', the ''Volksgarten'' (part of the ''Hofburg''), the ''Schlosspark'' at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna, Vienna Botanic Gardens), the ''Donaupark'', the ''Schönbrunner Schlosspark'', the ''Prater'', the ''Augarten'', the ''Rathauspark'', the ''Lainzer Tiergarten'', the ''Dehnepark'', the ''Resselpark'', the ''Votivpark'', the ''Kurpark Oberlaa'', the ''Auer-Welsbach-Park'' and the ''Türkenschanzpark''. Green areas include ''Laaer-Berg'' (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the ''Vienna Woods, Wienerwald'', which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Small parks, known by the Viennese as ''Beserlparks'', are everywhere in the inner city areas. Many of Vienna's parks include monuments, such as the Stadtpark, Vienna, Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque Belvedere (palace), palace, where the Austrian State Treaty, State Treaty was signed. Vienna's principal park is the Prater which is home to the Wiener Riesenrad, Riesenrad, a Ferris wheel, and Kugelmugel, a micronation the shape of a sphere. The imperial Schönbrunn Palace, Schönbrunn's grounds contain an 18th-century park which includes Tiergarten Schönbrunn, the world's oldest zoo, founded in 1752. The Donauinsel, part of Vienna's flood defenses, is a long artificial island between the Danube and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities.


Sport

Austria's capital is home to numerous Association football, football teams. The best known are the local football clubs include FK Austria Wien (21 Austrian Football Bundesliga, Austrian Bundesliga titles and record 27-time cup winners), SK Rapid Wien (record 32 Austrian Football Bundesliga, Austrian Bundesliga titles), and the oldest team, First Vienna FC. Other important sports clubs include the Vikings Vienna, Raiffeisen Vikings Vienna (American football, American Football), who won the Eurobowl title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row and had a perfect season in 2013, the Aon hotVolleys Vienna, one of Europe's premier Volleyball organizations, the Vienna Wanderers (baseball) who won the 2012 and 2013 Championship of the Austrian Baseball League, and the Vienna Capitals (Ice hockey, Ice Hockey). Vienna was also where the European Handball Federation (EHF) was founded. There are also three Rugby union, rugby clubs; Vienna Celtic RFC, Vienna Celtic, the oldest rugby club in Austria, RC Donau, and Stade Viennois Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna Marathon, Vienna City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice hockey, Ice Hockey World Championships took place in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...

Austria
and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna's Ernst-Happel-Stadion, Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four UEFA Champions League, Champions League and European Champion Clubs' Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on 29 June it hosted the final of UEFA Euro 2008, Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1–0 victory over Germany. Tennis tournament Vienna Open also takes place in the city since 1974. The matches are played in the Wiener Stadthalle. The Neue Donau, which was formed after the Donauinsel was created, is free of river traffic and a popular destination for leisure and sports activities. Vienna will host the official 2021 3x3 Basketball World Cup.


Culinary specialities


Food

Vienna is well known for ''Wiener Schnitzel'', a cutlet of veal ''(Kalbsschnitzel)'' or pork ''(Schweinsschnitzel)'' that is pounded flat, coated in flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine and can be eaten hot or cold. It is usually served in many cozy cafeterias in the old town evoking all the history behind the Empire city. The traditional 'Wiener Schnitzel' though is a cutlet of veal. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include ''Tafelspitz'' (very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with ''Geröstete Erdäpfel'' (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, ''Apfelkren'' (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and ''Schnittlauchsauce'' (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and stale bread). Vienna has a long tradition of producing cakes and desserts. These include ''Apple strudel, Apfelstrudel'' (hot apple strudel), ''Milchrahmstrudel'' (milk-cream strudel), ''Palatschinken'' (sweet pancakes), and ''Knödel'' (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (''Marillenknödel''). Sachertorte, a delicately moist chocolate cake with apricot jam created by the Hotel Sacher, Sacher Hotel, is world-famous. In winter, small street stands sell traditional ''Chestnut, Maroni'' (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters. Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (''Würstelstand'') throughout the day and into the night. The sausage known as ''Frankfurter Würstchen, Wiener'' (German for Viennese) in the U.S. and in Germany, is called a ''Frankfurter'' in Vienna. Other popular sausages are ''Burenwurst'' (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), ''Kranjska klobasa, Käsekrainer'' (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and ''Bratwurst'' (a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "süß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy). Kebab, pizza and noodles are, increasingly, the snack foods most widely available from small stands. The ''Naschmarkt'' is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc., from around the world. The city has many coffee and breakfast stores.


Drinks

Vienna, along with Paris, Santiago, Cape Town, Prague, Canberra,
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
and Warsaw, is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling (Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Vienna, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering), Floridsdorf (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf), Liesing (Mauer, Vienna, Mauer) and Favoriten (Oberlaa). The wine is often drunk as a Spritzer ("G'spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria. Another wine very typical for the region is "Gemischter Satz", which is typically a blend of different types of wines harvested from the same vineyard. Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna has a single large brewery, Brauerei Ottakringer, Ottakringer, and more than ten Vienna microbreweries, microbreweries. A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many. Also, local soft drinks such as Almdudler are popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages, placing it on the top spots along American counterparts such as Coca-Cola in terms of market share. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Fanta, Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade.


Viennese cafés

Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. These coffee houses are unique to Vienna and many cities have unsuccessfully sought to copy them. Some people consider cafés as their extended living room where nobody will be bothered if they spend hours reading a newspaper while enjoying their coffee. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of drip brew, filtering coffee from booty captured after the second Battle of Vienna, Turkish siege in 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish King John III Sobieski, the commander of the anti-Turkish coalition of Poles, Germans, and Austrians, gave Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish – Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for providing information that allowed him to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna's first Coffeehouse, coffee shop. Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891.


Tourist attractions

Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg Imperial Palace, Hofburg and Schönbrunn Palace, Schönbrunn (also home to the world's oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn) and the Wiener Riesenrad, Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater, the Vienna State Opera, Wiener Staatsoper, the Lipizzaner horses at the Spanish Riding School, spanische Hofreitschule, and the Vienna Boys' Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna's Heurigen district Döbling. There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year. The most popular ones are Albertina, Vienna, Albertina, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Belvedere, Leopold Museum in the Museumsquartier, KunstHausWien, Bank Austria Kunstforum, the twin ''Kunsthistorisches Museum'' and ''Naturhistorisches Museum'', and the Technisches Museum Wien, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year. There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven's various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many Celebrity, famous people.
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, speci ...

Mozart
has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx Cemetery, St. Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna's many churches also draw large crowds, famous of which are St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Church of the Teutonic Order, Vienna, Deutschordenskirche, the Jesuit Church, Vienna, Jesuitenkirche, the Karlskirche, the Peterskirche, Maria am Gestade, the Minoritenkirche (Vienna), Minoritenkirche, the Ruprechtskirche, the Schottenkirche, Vienna, Schottenkirche, St. Ulrich, Vienna, St. Ulrich and the Votive Church, Vienna, Votivkirche. In order to get deeper insight in the history of Vienna visitors like to join the popula
Free Walking Tour
in Vienna. Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the Vienna International Centre, United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm. File:Albertina1.JPG, Albertina, Vienna, Albertina File:Austria Parlament Athena.jpg, Austrian Parliament Building File:Belveder - widok od frontu - Vienna.jpg, Belvedere (palace), Belvedere Palace File:Burgtheater Weitwinkel.jpg, Burgtheater File:Graben Vienna June 2006 283.jpg, Graben, Vienna, Graben File:Wien - Hundertwasserhaus (01).JPG, Hundertwasserhaus File:Karlskirche Wien abends.jpg, Karlskirche at dusk File:Maria-Theresien-Platz Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien 2010.jpg, Kunsthistorisches Museum File:Wien - Naturhistorisches Museum (1).JPG, Naturhistorisches Museum File:Wien - Palais Augarten (1).JPG, Palais Augarten File:Wien Rathaus hochauflösend.jpg, Rathaus, Vienna, Rathaus File:Kaiserliches Pavillon Schoenbrunn August 2006.jpg, Schönbrunn Zoo File:Spanische Hofreitschule3, Vienna.jpg, Spanish Riding School File:Sttephanplatz, Graben, Vienna, Austria.jpg, Stephansplatz, Vienna, Stephansplatz File:Wien - Stephansdom (1).JPG, St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral File:Wien - Heldenplatz, Prinz-Eugen-Denkmal (2).JPG, Prince Eugene Monument File:Kohlmarkt Vienna June 2006 309.jpg, View of Hofburg File:Secession 2016, Vienna.jpg,
Vienna Secession The Vienna Secession (german: Wiener Secession; also known as ''the Union of Austrian Artists'', or ''Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs'') is an art movement, closely related to Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international styl ...

Vienna Secession
building File:Wien - Staatsoper (1).JPG, Vienna State Opera File:20080215-18 Wenen (460).jpg, Wiener Riesenrad


Transportation

Vienna has an extensive transportation network with a unified fare system that integrates municipal, regional and railway systems under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR). Public transport is provided by buses, trams and five underground metro lines (Vienna U-Bahn, U-Bahn), most operated by the Wiener Linien. There are also more than 50 Vienna S-Bahn, S-train stations within the city limits. Suburban trains are operated by the Austrian Federal Railways, ÖBB. The city forms the hub of the Austrian railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system connects Vienna's main station Wien Hauptbahnhof, Vienna Hauptbahnhof with other European cities, like
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
,
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
, Budapest, Brussels, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Ljubljana, Munich, Prague, Venice, Wrocław, Warsaw, Zagreb and Zürich. Vienna has multiple road connections including expressways and motorways. Vienna is served by Vienna International Airport, located southeast of the city center next to the town of Schwechat. The airport handled approximately 31.7 million passengers in 2019. Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. The airport is undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building that opened in 2012 to prepare for an increase in passengers.


Viennese


International relations


International organizations in Vienna

Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the UNODC, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the OFID, OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Vienna is the world's third "UN city", next to New York City, New York, Geneva, and Nairobi. Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's secretariat (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, UNCITRAL). In conjunction, the University of Vienna annually hosts the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot, an international commercial arbitration competition for students of law from around the world. Diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in documents bearing the name Vienna Convention (disambiguation), Vienna Convention or Vienna Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna are the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Vienna also hosted the negotiations leading to the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran's nuclear program as well as the Vienna peace talks for Syria. Vienna also headquartered the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF).


Charitable organizations in Vienna

Alongside international and intergovernmental organizations, there are dozens of charitable organizations based in Vienna. One such organization is the network of SOS Children's Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Today, SOS Children's Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include Help Afghan School Children Organization, HASCO. Another popular international event is the annual Life Ball, which supports people with HIV or AIDS. Guests such as Bill Clinton and Whoopi Goldberg were recent attendees.


International city cooperations

The general policy of the City of Vienna is not to sign any Twin towns and sister cities, twin or sister city agreements with other cities. Instead Vienna has only cooperation agreements in which specific cooperation areas are defined. *Athens, Greece *Belgrade, Serbia *
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the off ...

Bratislava
, Slovakia *Brno, Czech Republic *Budapest, Hungary *Chengdu, China *Hamburg, Germany *Kraków, Poland *Ljubljana, Slovenia *Paris, France *Tehran, Iran *Sanandaj, Iran *Trieste, Italy *
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in , located in the region of . As the in the province, the recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the . Vancouver has the highe ...

Vancouver
, Canada *Zurich, Switzerland


District to district partnerships

In addition, individual Viennese districts have international partnerships all over the world. A detailed list is published on the website of the City of Vienna.


See also

*Donauinselfest *List of honorary citizens of Vienna *List of restaurants in Vienna *List of Viennese *List of World Heritage Sites in Austria *OPENCities *Outline of Vienna *Vienna Biennale *Vienna Porcelain Manufactory *Viennese German


References


Further reading

*Martina Pippal, Pippal, M.: ''A Short History of Art in Vienna'', Munich: C.H. Beck 2000, , provides a concise overview. *Robert von Dassanowsky, Dassanowsky, Robert ed.: "World Film Locations: Vienna", London: Intellect/Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2012, . International films about Vienna or Austria shot on location throughout cinema history.


External links


Official websites


Wien.gv.at
– Official site of the municipality, with interactive map.
Wien.info
– Official site of the tourism board: events, sightseeing, cultural information, etc.
Geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at
– Vienna History Wiki operated by the city of Vienna


History of Vienna



*[http://www.battlefieldsww2.com/viennagb.html German flaktowers in Vienna]
History of the Coat of Arms of Vienna and all (former) districts and municipalities


Further information on Vienna


Vienna Information
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