HOME

TheInfoList




Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in southeastern
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
. It is the second-smallest state with a
land area This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surr ...
of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bordered with
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
to the north and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
to the west, and is bounded by the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
to the south (with the exception of a small land border with
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
located along
Boundary Islet Boundary Islet, historically known as North East Islet, is a islet in the Hogan Island Group of Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland, specifically the state of Victoria (Australia), Vi ...
), the
Great Australian Bight The Great Australian Bight is a large ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
Great Australian Bight
portion of the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or ...

Southern Ocean
to the southwest, and the
Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea (Māori Māori or Maori can refer to: Relating to the Māori people * Māori people of New Zealand, or members of that group * Māori language, the language of the Māori people of New Zealand * Māori culture * Cook Islanders ...

Tasman Sea
(a
marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% of Water distribution on Earth, Earth's w ...
of the
South Pacific Ocean South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
) to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
coastal and central regions to the
Victorian Alps The Victorian Alps, also known locally as the High Country, is a large mountain system residing in the southeastern Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. Occupying the majority of eastern Victoria, it is the southwestern half of ...
in the north-east and the
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
north-west. Victoria has a population of over 6.6 million, the majority of which is concentrated in the central south area surrounding
Port Phillip Bay Port Phillip ( Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign ...

Port Phillip Bay
, and in particular in the
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...

metropolitan area
of
Greater Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovere ...
, Victoria's
state capital Below is an index of pages containing lists of capital cities A capital or capital city is the municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-gov ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
and also Australia's second-largest city, where over three quarters of the Victorian population live. The state is home to four of Australia's 20 largest cities: Melbourne,
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
,
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
and
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. The population is , with 35.1% of inhabitants being
immigrants Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...
. Victoria is home to numerous
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
groups, including the Boonwurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai, the
Gunditjmara The Gunditjmara or Gunditjamara, also known as Dhauwurd Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native peop ...
, the
Taungurong The Taungurong people, also known as the ''Daung Wurrung'', were thirteen clans who spoke the Daungwurrung language and were part of the Kulin alliance of indigenous Australian Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to grou ...
, the
Wathaurong The Wathaurong nation, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people living in the area near Melbourne, Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula in the state of Victoria, Australia, Victoria. They are p ...
, the
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Is ...
, and the
Yorta Yorta The Yorta Yorta, also known as Jotijota, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchin ...
. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to European colonisation. In 1770
James Cook Captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a milit ...

James Cook
claimed the east coast of the
Australian continent The continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in ...
for the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
, and from 1788 the area that is now Victoria was a part of the colony of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
. The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay. Much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the
Port Phillip District The Port Phillip District was a historical administrative division of the Colony of New South Wales, which existed from September 1836 until 1 July 1851, when it was separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria. The District ...
of New South Wales. Named in honour of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, Victoria was separated from New South Wales and established as a separate
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
in 1851, achieving
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ' ...
in 1855. The
Victorian gold rush The Victorian gold rush cut the travel time from New York to San Francisco in seven months to four months in the 1849 California Gold Rush, Gold Rush. A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious ...
in the 1850s and 1860s significantly increased Victoria's population and wealth. By the time of
Australian Federation The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-lar ...
in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city in
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

Australasia
, and served as the federal capital of Australia until
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
was opened in 1927. The state continued to grow strongly through various periods of the 20th and early 21st centuries as a result of high levels of international and interstate migration. Victoria has 38 seats in the
Australian House of Representatives The House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated commun ...

Australian House of Representatives
and 12 seats in the
Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives (Australia), House of Representatives. The compositioned and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I of the Con ...
. At state level, the
Parliament of Victoria The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria that follows a Westminster System, Westminster-derived parliamentary system. It consists of the Monarchy in Australia, Queen, repre ...

Parliament of Victoria
consists of the
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...

Legislative Assembly
and the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Ex ...

Legislative Council
. The
Labor Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
, led by
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
as
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...
, has governed Victoria since 2014. The
Governor of Victoria The Governor of Victoria is the representative of the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of sta ...
, the representative of the
Monarchy of Australia The monarchy of Australia is the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aus ...
in the state, is currently
Linda Dessau Linda Marion Dessau, (born 8 May 1953) is an Australian jurist, barrister, and the 29th and current Governor of Victoria since 1 July 2015. She is the first female and the first Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli ...

Linda Dessau
. Victoria is divided into 79 local government areas, as well as several
unincorporated areas File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal corporation. Similarly, an unincorporated ...
which the state administers directly. Victoria's economy is the second-largest among Australian states and is highly diversified, with service sectors predominating. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, and theatres, and is also described as the world's sporting capital, and the spiritual home of
Australian cricket The Australia men's national cricket team represents Australia in men's international cricket. As the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, playing in the History of Test cricket from 1877 to 1883, first ever Test match in 1877, the team al ...
and
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
.


History


Indigenous Victorians

The state of Victoria was originally home to many Aboriginal Australian nations that had occupied the land for tens of thousands of years before European settlement of Australia, European settlement. According to Gary Presland, Aboriginal people have lived in Victoria for about 40,000 years, living a semi-nomadic existence of fishing, hunting and gathering, and farming eels. At the Keilor Archaeological Site a human hearth excavated in 1971 was radiocarbon-dated to about 31,000 years BP, making Keilor one of the earliest sites of human habitation in Australia.Gary Presland,
Keilor Archaeological Site
', eMelbourne website. Accessed 3 November 2008
A
cranium The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cell, red and white blood cells, store mi ...
found at the site has been dated at between 12,000 and 14,700 years BP. Archaeological sites in
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
and on the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
Islands have been dated to between 20,000 – 35,000 years ago, when sea levels were 130 metres below present level allowing Aborigines to move across the region of southern Victoria and on to the land bridge of the Bassian plain to
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
by at least 35,000 years ago.David Rhodes, Terra Culture Heritage Consultants,
Channel Deepening Existing Conditions Final Report – Aboriginal Heritage
'', Prepared for Parsons Brinckerhoff & Port of Melbourne Corporation, August 2003. Accessed 3 November 2008
During the Ice Age about 20,000 years BP, the area now the bay of
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay on the central coast of southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait via a short, narr ...
would have been dry land, and the Yarra and Werribee river would have joined to flow through the heads then south and south west through the Bassian plain before meeting the ocean to the west. Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands became separated from mainland Australia around 12,000 BP, when the sea level was approximately 50m below present levels. Port Phillip was flooded by post-glacial
rising sea levels Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquia ...

rising sea levels
between 8000 and 6000 years ago. Oral history and creation stories from the
Wada wurrung Wathaurong, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people living in the area near Melbourne, Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula in the state of Victoria, Australia, Victoria. They are part of the K ...
,
Woiwurrung The Woiwurrung, also spelt Woi Wurrung, Woiwurrong, Woiworung, Wuywurung, are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, N ...
and Bun wurrung languages describe the flooding of the bay. Hobsons Bay was once a kangaroo hunting ground. Creation stories describe how
Bunjil Bunjil is a creator deity, culture hero and ancestral being, often depicted as a wedge-tailed eagle (or eaglehawk) in the Australian Aboriginal mythology of some of the Aboriginal Victorians, Aboriginal peoples of Victoria. Creation stories ...
was responsible for the formation of the bay, or the bay was flooded when the
Yarra river The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra river
was created (Yarra Creation Story.)


British colonisation

Victoria, like
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
, was named after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the
administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management, the act of directing people towards accomplishing a goal ** Administration (government), management in or of government *** Administrative division ** Academic administratio ...
of the colonial government in Sydney. The first British settlement in the area later known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor
David CollinsDavid Collins may refer to: Sports * David Collins (Hampshire cricketer), 18th-century cricketer associated with Hampshire * David Collins (New Zealand cricketer) (1887–1967), played for Wellington and Cambridge University * David Collins (Scottis ...
at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people (five government officials, nine officers of marines, two drummers, and 39 privates, five soldiers' wives and a child, 307 convicts, 17 convicts' wives, and seven children). They had been sent from England in under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, who had been exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent. In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, and Lieutenant Burchell were sent in (Captain Wetherall) and the brigs ''Dragon'' and ''Amity'', took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point (now Corinella), on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, which was the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria.
Edward Henty Edward Henty (28 March 1810 – 14 August 1878), Bassett, Marnie,Henty, Edward (1810 - 1878), ''Australian Dictionary of Biography The ''Australian Dictionary of Biography'' (ADB or AuDB) is a national co-operative enterprise founded and m ...
settled Portland Bay in 1834.


Batman’s treaty

Melbourne was founded in 1835 by
John Batman John Batman (21 January 18016 May 1839) was an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer, best known for his role in the founding Founding may refer to: * The formation or of a corporation, government, or other organization * The laying o ...
, who set up a base in
Indented Head Indented Head is a small coastal township located on the Bellarine Peninsula, east of Geelong, in the Australian States and territories of Australia, state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The town lies on the coast of the Port Phillip bay betw ...
, and
John Pascoe Fawkner John Pascoe Fawkner (20 October 1792 – 4 September 1869) was an early Australian pioneer, businessman and politician of Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by populat ...
. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne. And in 1838,
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
was officially declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826. On 6 June 1835, just under two years before Melbourne was officially recognised as a settlement, John Batman, the leader of the
Port Phillip Association The Port Phillip Association (originally the Geelong and Dutigalla Association) was formally formed in June 1835 to settle land in what would become Melbourne, which the association believed had been acquired by John Batman John Batman (21 Jan ...
presented
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Is ...
Elders with a land use agreement. This document, now referred to as the Batman treaty, was later given to the British government to claim that local Aboriginal people had given Batman access to their land in exchange for goods and rations. Today, the meaning and interpretation of this treaty is contested. Some argue it was pretence for taking Aboriginal land in exchange for trinkets, while others argue it was significant in that it sought to recognise
Aboriginal land rights Indigenous land rights are the rights of Indigenous peoples to land law, land and natural resources therein, either individual and collective rights, individually or collectively, mostly in colonised countries. Land and resource-related rights ...
. The exact location of the meeting between Batman and the Kulin Ngurungaeta (head clan-men) with whom he made the treaty is unknown, although it is believed to have been by the
Merri Creek The Merri Creek is a waterway in southern parts of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, which flows through the northern suburbs of Northcote, Victoria, Northcote. It begins near Wallan north of Melbourne and flows south for 70 km u ...
. According to historian Meyer Eidelson, it is generally believed to have occurred on the Merri near modern-day Rushall Station.


Colonial Victoria

On 1 July 1851, writs were issued for the election of the first Victorian Legislative Council, and the absolute independence of Victoria from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new Colony of Victoria. Days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
, and subsequently at
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. Later discoveries occurred at many sites across Victoria. This triggered one of the largest gold rushes the world has ever seen. The colony grew rapidly in both population and economic power. In 10 years, the population of Victoria increased sevenfold from 76,000 to 540,000. All sorts of gold records were produced, including the "richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world" and the . In the decade 1851–1860 Victoria produced 20 million ounces of gold, one-third of the world's output. Immigrants arrived from all over the world to search for gold, especially from Ireland and China. By 1857, 26,000 Chinese miners worked in Victoria, and their legacy is particularly strong in Bendigo and its environs. In 1854 at Ballarat, an armed rebellion against the government of Victoria was made by miners protesting against mining taxes (the "
Eureka Stockade The Eureka Rebellion occurred in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands (Victoria), Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. In 2018, Ballarat had a population of 1 ...

Eureka Stockade
"). This was crushed by British troops, but the confrontation persuaded the colonial authorities to reform the administration of mining concessions (reducing the hated mining licence fees) and extend the electoral franchise. The following year, the Imperial Parliament granted Victoria responsible government with the passage of the Colony of Victoria Act 1855. Some of the leaders of the Eureka rebellion went on to become members of the Victorian Parliament. In 1857, reflecting the growing presence of Irish Catholic immigrants,
John O'Shanassy Sir John O'Shanassy, KCMG (18 February 1818 – 5 May 1883), was an Irish-Australian politician who served as the 2nd Premier of Victoria. O'Shanassy was born near Thurles in County Tipperary County Tipperary ( ga, Contae Thiobraid Áran ...
became the colony's second Premier with the former
Young Ireland Young Ireland ( ga, Éire Óg, ) was a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...
er,
Charles Gavan Duffy Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, KCMG, Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, PC (12 April 1816 – 9 February 1903), was an Irish poet and journalist (editor of ''The Nation (Irish newsp ...
as his deputy. Melbourne's Protestant establishment was ill-prepared "to countenance so startling a novelty". In 1858–59, ''Melbourne Punch'' cartoons linked Duffy and O'Shanassy to the terrors of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
. In 1862 Duffy's Land Act attempted, but failed, through a system of extended pastoral licences, to break the land-holding monopoly of the so-called "squatter" class. In 1871, having led, on behalf of small farmers, opposition to Premier Sir James McCulloch's
land tax A land value tax (LVT) is a levy on the value of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and c ...
, Duffy, himself, was briefly Premier. In 1893 widespread bank failures brought to an end a sustained period of prosperity and of increasingly wild speculation in land and construction. Melbourne nonetheless retained, as the legacy of the gold rush, its status as Australia's primary financial centre and largest city. In 1901, Victoria became a state in the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
. While
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
was being built, Melbourne served until 1927 as country's first federal capital.


Geography and geology

Victoria's northern border follows a straight line from
Cape Howe Cape Howe is a coastal headland A headland, also known as a head, is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size of ...
to the start of the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
and then follows the Murray River as the remainder of the northern border. On the Murray River, the border is the southern bank of the river. This precise definition was not established until 1980, when a ruling by Justice Ninian Stephen of the
High Court of Australia The High Court of Australia is Australia's apex court The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and hi ...

High Court of Australia
settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man on an island in the middle of the river. The ruling clarified that no part of the watercourse is in Victoria. The border also rests at the southern end of the
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in ...

Great Dividing Range
, which stretches along the east coast and terminates west of Ballarat. It is bordered by South Australia to the west and shares Australia's shortest land border with
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
. The official border between Victoria and Tasmania is at 39°12' S, which passes through
Boundary Islet Boundary Islet, historically known as North East Islet, is a islet in the Hogan Island Group of Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland, specifically the state of Victoria (Australia), Vi ...
in the
Bass Strait Bass Strait () is a sea strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait ...

Bass Strait
for 85 metres. Victoria contains many topographically, geologically and climatically diverse areas, ranging from the wet,
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
climate of
Gippsland Gippsland is a rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary ...
in the southeast to the snow-covered Victorian alpine areas which rise to almost , with
Mount Bogong 250px, Cleve Cole Hut Mount Bogong, , located in the Alpine National Park and part of the Victorian Alps of the Great Dividing Range, is the highest mountain in Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Austra ...

Mount Bogong
the highest peak at . There are extensive semi-arid plains to the west and northwest. There is an extensive series of river systems in Victoria. Most notable is the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
system. Other rivers include:
Ovens River The Ovens River, a perennial river of the north-east Murray River, Murray catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the Victorian Alps, alpine and Hume (region), Hume regions of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victori ...
,
Goulburn River The Goulburn River, a major inland perennial river of the Goulburn Broken River (Victoria), Broken catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the Victorian Alps, alpine, Northern Country/North Central, and Southern Riverina regions ...
,
Patterson River The Patterson River is a partly man-made urban river of the Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victori ...
, King River,
Campaspe River The Campaspe River, an inland intermittent river of the northcentral catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the lower Riverina Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, bioregion and Victorian Central Highlands, C ...
,
Loddon River The Loddon River, an inland river of the northcentral catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the lower Riverina Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia, bioregion and Victorian Central Highlands, Central Highlands ...
,
Wimmera River The Wimmera River, an inland intermittent river of the Wimmera catchment, is located in the Grampians and Wimmera regions of the Australian state of Victoria, Australia, Victoria. Rising in the Pyrenees (Victoria), Pyrenees, on the northern slop ...
, Elgin River, Barwon River, Thomson River,
Snowy River The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...
,
Latrobe River The Latrobe River (or sometimes La Trobe or LaTrobe) is a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (cha ...
,
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
,
Maribyrnong River The Maribyrnong River is a perennial river of the Port Phillip catchment, located in the northwestern suburbs of Melbourne, in the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. Course The Maribyrnong River draws its headwaters from near ...
,
Mitta River Mitta Mitta River, a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream throu ...
,
Hopkins River The Hopkins River, a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream throu ...
,
Merri River The Merri River, a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream thro ...
and
Kiewa River Kiewa River, a perennial stream, perennial river that is part of the Murray River, Murray catchment within the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the Victorian Alps, Alpine bioregion, in the Australian States and territories of Australia, state o ...
. The state symbols include the pink heath (state flower), Leadbeater's possum (state animal) and the (state bird). According to
Geoscience Australia Geoscience Australia is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which ...

Geoscience Australia
, the geographic centre of Victoria is located in
Mandurang Mandurang, derived from an Aboriginal word meaning black cicada, is a rural locality in the City of Greater Bendigo,Map ...
at 36° 51' 15"S, 144° 16' 52" E. The small rural town is located 10 km (6 mi) south of
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
. Due to its central location and the region's historical ties to the gold rush, the town is widely regarded as the "Heart of Gold". The state's capital, Melbourne, contains about 70% of the state's population and dominates its economy, media, and culture. For other cities and towns, see
list of localities (Victoria) This is a list of locality names and populated place names in the state of Victoria, Australia Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a States and territories of Australia, state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with a lan ...
and
local government areas of Victoria This is a list of local government in Australia, local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, sorted by region. Also referred to as municipalities, the 79 Victorian LGAs are classified as cities (34), shires (38), rural citie ...
. File:Island Archway, Great Ocean Rd, Victoria, Australia - Nov 08.jpg, Island Archway on the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia. File:Aireys Inlet Lighthouse.jpg, Aireys Inlet File:Highways of Victoria.PNG, Victorian cities, towns, settlements and
road networkA street network is a system of interconnecting lines and points (called ''edges'' and ''nodes'' in network science) that represent a system of street 250px, Street in downtown Bucharest (Romania) A street is a public thoroughfare in a built e ...


Cities and towns

This is a list of places in the
Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines ...

Australian
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
of Victoria by population. Urban centres are defined by the
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Austra ...
as being a population cluster of 1,000 or more people. The below figures broadly represent the populations of the
contiguous Contiguity or contiguous may refer to: *Contiguous data storage, in computer science *Contiguity (probability theory) *Contiguity (psychology) *Contiguous distribution of species, in biogeography *Geographic contiguity of territorial land *Contiguo ...
built-up areas of each city.


Climate

Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid temperate with hot summers in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria's main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state. Winters along the coast of the state, particularly around
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
, are relatively mild (''see chart at right)''. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria's mildest climate. Air from the
Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or ...

Southern Ocean
helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.
The Mallee The Mallee covers the most northwesterly part of Victoria, bounded by the South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the ...
and upper
Wimmera The Wimmera is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ( environmen ...

Wimmera
are Victoria's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby semi-deserts. Average temperatures exceed during summer and in winter. Except at cool mountain elevations, the inland monthly temperatures are warmer than around Melbourne (see chart). Victoria's highest maximum temperature of was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. The Victorian Alps in the northeast are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east–west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than in winter and below in the highest parts of the ranges. The state's lowest minimum temperature of was recorded at
Omeo Omeo ( ) is a town in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman godde ...
on 15 June 1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970. Temperature extremes for the state are listed in the table below:


Rainfall

Rainfall in Victoria increases from south to the northeast, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Mean annual rainfall exceeds in some parts of the northeast but is less than in the Mallee. Rain is heaviest in the
Otway Ranges Image:Otway Fly Treetop Walk 2010.jpg, Great Otway National Park The Great Otway National Park, located in the Barwon South West region of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The national park is situated approximately southwest of Melbo ...
and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous northeast. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria's highest recorded daily rainfall was at
Tidal River A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, but it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been given a separate name. Generally, tidal ri ...

Tidal River
in
Wilsons Promontory National Park The Wilsons Promontory National Park, commonly known as Wilsons Prom or The Prom, is a national park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it i ...

Wilsons Promontory National Park
on 23 March 2011. File:Victoria_summer.jpg, Average January maximum temperatures:
Victoria's north is almost always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas. File:Victoria_winter.jpg, Average July maximum temperatures:
Victoria's hills and ranges are coolest during winter. Snow also falls there. File:Victoria_rainfall.jpg, Average yearly precipitation:
Victoria's rainfall is concentrated in the mountainous north-east and coast.


Demographics

At March 2020 Victoria had a population of 6,689,377. The
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Austra ...
estimates that the population may well reach 7.2 million by 2050. Victoria's founding
Anglo-Celtic Anglo-Celtic people are descended primarily from British and Irish people. The concept is mainly relevant outside of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With ...
population has been supplemented by successive waves of migrants from
Southern The name Southern may refer to: * South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earl ...

Southern
and
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical reg ...

Eastern Europe
,
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
and, most recently,
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
and the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
. Victoria's population is ageing in proportion with the average of the remainder of the Australian population. About 72% of Victorians are Australian-born. This figure falls to around 66% in Melbourne but rises to higher than 95% in some rural areas in the north west of the state. Less than 1% of Victorians identify themselves as
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
. More than 75% of Victorians live in Melbourne, located in the state's south. The greater Melbourne metropolitan area is home to an estimated 4,850,740 people. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. Urban centres outside Melbourne include
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
,
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
,
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
,
Shepparton Shepparton () ( Yortayorta: ''Kanny-goopna'') is a city located on the floodplain of the Goulburn River (Victoria), Goulburn River in northern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, approximately north-northeast of Melbourne. As at June 20 ...
,
Mildura Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016. When nearby Wentworth, New South Wales, Wentworth, Irymple, Victor ...
,
Warrnambool Warrnambool (Maar A maar is a broad, low-relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term ''wikt:relief, relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', ...

Warrnambool
,
Wodonga Wodonga ( Waywurru: ''Wordonga'') is a city on the Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victori ...

Wodonga
and the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. Victoria is Australia's most urbanised state: nearly 90% of residents living in cities and towns. State Government efforts to decentralise population have included an official campaign run since 2003 to encourage Victorians to settle in regional areas, however Melbourne continues to rapidly outpace these areas in terms of population growth.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/CensusOutput/copsub2016.NSF/All%20docs%20by%20catNo/2016~Community%20Profile~2/$File/GCP_2.zip?OpenElement 0.8% of the population, or 47,788 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
(
Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific ...
and
Torres Strait Islanders Torres Strait Islanders () are the Indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait Islands, which are part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Ethnically distinct from the Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people of the rest of Australia, they are ...
) in 2016. At the 2016 census, 64.9% of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries of birth were
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
(2.9%),
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
(2.9%),
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
(2.7%),
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
(1.6%) and
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
(1.4%).


Language

As of the 2016 census, 72.2% of Victorians speak English at home. Speakers of other languages include
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
(3.2%),
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
(1.9%),
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(1.9%),
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
(1.7%), and
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
(1.3%).


Religion

In the 2016 Census, 47.9% of Victorians described themselves as Christian, 10.6% stated that they followed other religions and 32.1% stated that they had no religion or held secular or other spiritual beliefs. 31.7% of Victorians stated they had no religion, Roman Catholics were 23.2%, 9.4% did not answer the question, 9% were Anglican and 3.5% were Eastern Orthodox. In 2017 the proportion of couples marrying in a civil ceremony in Victoria was 77.3%; the other 22.7% were married in a religious ceremony.


Age structure and fertility

The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be aged over 60 by 2021. The 2016 census revealed that Australian
median age A population pyramid or "age-sex pyramid" is a graphical illustration of the distribution of a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governme ...

median age
has crept upward from 35 to 37 since 2001, which reflects the
population growth Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size ...
peak of 1969–72. In 2017, Victoria recorded a TFR of 1.724.


Average demographic

The "average Victorian" according to the demographic statistics may be described as follows:


Crime

In the year ending September 2020, the statistics were skewed by the introduction of six new public safety offences relating to the
COVID-19 pandemic in Australia The COVID-19 pandemic in Australia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 () caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) ...
. Total offences numbered 551,710, with 32,713 of these were breaches of Chief Health Officer Directions. The total offences occurred at a rate of 8,227 per 100,000 people, up 4.4% on the previous year. While there have been some dips along the way, the rate of recorded offences have increased year on year since 2011, when the figure was 6,937.7 offences per 100,000 people.


Government


Parliament

Victoria has a parliamentary form of government based on the
Westminster System The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
. Legislative power resides in the Parliament consisting of the Governor (the representative of the Queen), the executive (the Government), and two legislative chambers. The
Parliament of Victoria The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria that follows a Westminster System, Westminster-derived parliamentary system. It consists of the Monarchy in Australia, Queen, repre ...

Parliament of Victoria
consists of the lower house
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...

Legislative Assembly
, the upper house
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Ex ...

Legislative Council
and the
Queen of Australia The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
. Eighty-eight members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to four-year terms from single-member electorates. In November 2006, the Victorian Legislative Council elections were held under a new multi-member proportional representation system. The State of Victoria was divided into eight electorates with each electorate represented by five representatives elected by
Single Transferable Vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are de ...
. The total number of upper house members was reduced from 44 to 40 and their term of office is now the same as the lower house members—four years. Elections for the Victorian Parliament are now fixed and occur in November every four years. Prior to the 2006 election, the Legislative Council consisted of 44 members elected to eight-year terms from 22 two-member electorates.


Premier and cabinet

The
Premier of Victoria The premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The premier is appointed by the governor of Victoria, and is the leader of t ...
is the leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Premier is the public face of government and, with cabinet, sets the legislative and political agenda. Cabinet consists of representatives elected to either house of parliament. It is responsible for managing areas of government that are not exclusively vested in the Commonwealth, by the
Australian Constitution The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it ...
, such as education, health and law enforcement. The current Premier of Victoria is
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
.


Governor

Executive authority is vested in the
Governor of Victoria The Governor of Victoria is the representative of the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of sta ...
who represents and is appointed by
Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Queen Elizabeth II
,
Queen of Australia The monarchy of Australia refers to the institution in which a person serves as Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent) ...
. The post is usually filled by a retired prominent Victorian. The governor acts on the advice of the premier and cabinet. The current Governor of Victoria is
Linda Dessau Linda Marion Dessau, (born 8 May 1953) is an Australian jurist, barrister, and the 29th and current Governor of Victoria since 1 July 2015. She is the first female and the first Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli ...

Linda Dessau
.


Constitution

Victoria has a written constitution enacted in 1975, but based on the 1855 colonial constitution, passed by the United Kingdom Parliament as the ''Victoria Constitution Act 1855'', which establishes the Parliament as the state's law-making body for matters coming under state responsibility. The Victorian Constitution can be amended by the Parliament of Victoria, except for certain "entrenched" provisions that require either an absolute majority in both houses, a three-fifths majority in both houses, or the approval of the Victorian people in a referendum, depending on the provision.


Politics

Victorians, and Melburnians in particular, are considered by some analysts to be more progressive than other Australians. The state recorded the highest ''Yes'' votes of any state in the republic referendum and same-sex marriage survey. Victorians are said to be "generally socially progressive, supportive of multiculturalism, wary of extremes of any kind". Premier
Daniel Andrews Daniel Michael Andrews (born 6 July 1972) is an Australian politician who has been the 48th Premier of Victoria The Premier of Victoria is the head of Government of Victoria, government in the States and territories of Australia, Australian ...
leads the
Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is the major centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language ...
that won the November 2014 Victorian state election. The centre-left
Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor and historically spelt Labour, is the major centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language ...
(ALP), the centre-right
Liberal Party of Australia The Liberal Party of Australia is a major Centre-right politics, centre-right list of political parties in Australia, political party in Australia, one of the two Major party, major parties in politics of Australia, Australian politics, along w ...
, the rural-based
National Party of Australia The National Party of Australia (NPA), also known as The Nationals or The Nats, is an Australian political party. Traditionally representing graziers, farmers, and regional voters generally, it began as the Australian Country Party (ACP) in 1 ...
, and the left-wing environmentalist
Australian Greens The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, are a confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, ...
are Victoria's main political parties. Traditionally, Labor is strongest in Melbourne's working and middle class western, northern and inner-city suburbs, and the regional cities of
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...

Ballarat
,
Bendigo Bendigo is a city in Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddes ...

Bendigo
and
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...

Geelong
. The Liberals' main support lies in Melbourne's more affluent eastern suburbs and outer suburbs, and some rural and regional centres. The Nationals are strongest in Victoria's North Western and Eastern rural regional areas. The Greens, who won their first lower house seats in 2014, are strongest in inner Melbourne.


Federal government

Victorian voters elect 50 representatives to the
Parliament of Australia The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...

Parliament of Australia
, including 38 members of the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...

House of Representatives
and 12 members of the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
. Since 18 May 2019, the ALP has held 21 Victorian house seats, the Liberals 12, the Nationals three, the Greens one, and one held by an Independent. As of 1 July 2019, the Liberals have held five senate seats, the Nationals one, the ALP four, and the Greens two.


Local government

Victoria is incorporated into 79 municipalities for the purposes of local government, including 39 shires, 32 cities, seven rural cities and one borough. Shire and city councils are responsible for functions delegated by the Victorian parliament, such as city planning, road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.


Education


Primary and secondary

Victoria's
state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, th ...
system dates back to 1872, when the colonial government legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory. The state's public secondary school system began in 1905. Before then, only private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian school education consists of seven years of primary schooling (including one preparatory year) and six years of secondary schooling. The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged over 17. Victorian children generally begin school at age five or six. On completing secondary school, students earn the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) or Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL). Students who successfully complete their VCE also receive an
ATAR The Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) is the primary criterion for domestic student entry into undergraduate courses in Australian public universities. It was gradually introduced to most states and territories in 2009-10 and has since ...
, to determine university admittance. Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Victoria Department of Educationbr>
Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied. Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman Catholic Church and independent schools similar to British public schools. Independent schools are usually affiliated with Protestant churches. Victoria also has several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools. Private schools also receive some public funding. All schools must comply with government-set curriculum standards. In addition, Victoria has six government
selective school A selective school is a school that admits students on the basis of some sort of selection criteria, usually academic. The term may have different connotations in different systems and is the opposite of a comprehensive school A comprehensive s ...
s,
Melbourne High School Melbourne High School is a government-funded single-sex academically selective secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify vario ...
for boys, MacRobertson Girls' High School for girls, the coeducational schools
John Monash Science School The John Monash Science School is a Education in Australia#Government schools, government-funded Mixed-sex education, co-educational academically Selective school, selective and specialist secondary school, secondary day school, located on the c ...
,
Nossal High School Nossal High School, also referred to as Nossal or NHS, is a Education in Australia#Government schools, Government-funded Mixed-sex education, co-educational Selective school, academically selective secondary school, secondary day school, located ...
and
Suzanne Cory High School Suzanne Cory High School (abbreviated as SCHS) is a Education in Australia#Government schools, government-funded Mixed-sex education, co-educational Selective school, academically selective secondary school, secondary day school, located in , in t ...
, and the
Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School (VCASS), is a government-funded co-educational Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education, or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education ...
. Students at these schools are exclusively admitted on the basis of an academic selective entry test. As of February 2019, Victoria had 1,529 public schools, 496 Catholic schools and 219 independent schools. Just under 631,500 students were enrolled in public schools, and just over 357,000 in private schools. Over 58 per cent of private students attend Catholic schools. More than 552,300 students were enrolled in primary schools and more than 418,600 in secondary schools. Retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 84.3 per cent for public school students and 91.5 per cent for private school students. Victoria has about 46,523 full-time teachers.


Tertiary education

Victoria has . The first to offer degrees, the
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in t ...

University of Melbourne
, enrolled its first student in 1855. The largest,
Monash University Monash University () is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Common ...
, has an enrolment of over 83,000 students—more than any other Australian university. The number of students enrolled in Victorian universities was 418,447 in 2018, an increase of 5.3% on the previous year. International students made up 40% of enrolments and account for the highest percentage of pre-paid university tuition fees. The largest number of enrolments were recorded in the fields of business, administration and economics, with nearly 30% of all students, followed by arts, humanities, and social science, with 18% of enrolments. Victoria has 12 government-run institutions of technical and further education (
TAFE In Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands o ...

TAFE
). The first vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute (established in 1839), which is now the
Melbourne Athenaeum The Athenaeum or Melbourne Athenaeum is an art and cultural hub in the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, i ...
. More than 1,000 adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In 2014, there were 443,000 students enrolled in vocational education in the state. By 2018, the number of students in the sector had dropped by 40 per cent to 265,000—a five-year low which the education department attributed to withdrawal of funding to low-quality providers and a societal shift to university education.


Libraries

The
State Library Victoria The State Library Victoria is the main library of the Australian state of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Co ...
is the State's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs. Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases. In addition,
local governments Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government ...
maintain local lending libraries, typically with multiple branches in their respective municipal areas.


Economy

The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product. The total
gross state product Gross regional domestic product (GRDP), gross domestic product of region (GDPR), or gross state product (GSP) is a statistic that measures the size of a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( ...
(GSP) at current prices for Victoria was A$459 billion in June 2020, with a GSP per capita of A$68,996. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state's biggest employer. The shift towards service industries in the preceding decades has seen manufacturing lose its mantle as Victoria's largest employer and income producer.


Agriculture

During 2003–04, the gross value of Victorian agricultural production increased by 17% to $8.7 billion. This represented 24% of national agricultural production total gross value. As of 2004, an estimated 32,463 farms occupied around 136,000 square kilometres (52,500 sq mi) of Victorian land. This comprises more than 60% of the state's total land surface. Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops. More than 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) of Victorian farmland are sown for grain, mostly in the state's west. More than 50% of this area is sown for wheat, 33% for barley and 7% for oats. A further 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) is sown for hay. In 2003–04, Victorian farmers produced more than 3 million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley. Victorian farms produce nearly 90% of Australian pears and third of apples. It is also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Last year, 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were produced. More than 14 million sheep and 5 million lambs graze over 10% of Victorian farms, mostly in the state's north and west. In 2004, nearly 10 million lambs and sheep were slaughtered for local consumption and export. Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding. More than 108,000 tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth of the Australian total. Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia. It is home to 60% of Australia's 3 million dairy cattle and produces nearly two-thirds of the nation's milk, almost 6.4 billion litres. The state also has 2.4 million beef cattle, with more than 2.2 million cattle and calves slaughtered each year. In 2003–04, Victorian commercial fishing crews and aquaculture industry produced 11,634 tonnes of seafood valued at nearly A$109 million. Blacklipped
abalone Abalone ( or ; via Spanish ', from Rumsen ''aulón'') is a common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park ...

abalone
is the mainstay of the catch, bringing in A$46 million, followed by southern
rock lobster "Rock Lobster" is a song written by Fred Schneider Frederick William Schneider III (born July 1, 1951) is an American singer, songwriter, arranger, and musician, best known as the frontman of the rock band The B-52's, of which he is a foun ...
worth A$13.7 million. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia.


Manufacturing

Victoria has a diverse range of manufacturing enterprises and Melbourne is considered Australia's most important industrial city. The post-World War II manufacturing boom was fuelled by international investment; attracted to the state by the availability of cheap land close to the city and inexpensive energy from the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. Victoria produced 26.4% of total manufacturing output in Australia in 2015–16, behind New South Wales at 32.4%. Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable manufacturing activity, followed by food and beverage products, petrochemicals and chemicals. Prominent manufacturing plants in the state include the Portland and
Point Henry Moolap is a residential and industrial suburb of Geelong, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The name Moolap is derived from an Indigenous Australians, Aboriginal word for nearby Point Henry, moo-laa, thought to mean 'men gathering to go ...
aluminium smelters, owned by
Alcoa Alcoa Corporation (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is ...
;
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...
and Altona oil refineries; a major petrochemical facility at Laverton; and Victorian-based CSL, a global biotechnology company that produces vaccines and plasma products, among others. Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the
defence industry The arms industry, also known as the arms trade, is a global industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, ...
. Victoria proportionally relies on manufacturing more than any other state in Australia, constituting 8.6% of total state product; slightly higher than South Australia at 8.0%. However, this proportion has been declining for three decades; in 1990 at the time of the
early 1990s recession The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, ...
manufacturing constituted 20.3% of total state output. Manufacturing output peaked in absolute terms in 2008, reaching $28.8 billion and has slowly fallen over the decade to $26.8 billion in 2016 (−0.77% per annum). Since 1990, manufacturing employment has also fallen in both aggregate (367,700 to 274,400 workers) and proportional (17.8% to 9.0%) terms. The strong Australian dollar as a result of the 2000s mining boom, small population and isolation, high wage base and the general shift of manufacturing production towards developing countries have been cited as some of the reasons for this decline. Historically, Victoria has been a hub for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands
Ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
,
Toyota is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign st ...
and
Holden Holden, formerly known as General Motors-Holden, was an Australian automobile marque owned by General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing c ...

Holden
; however, closure announcements by all three companies in the 2010s has meant Australia will completely lose their car manufacturing industry by the end of 2017. Holden's announcement occurred in May 2013 following Ford's decision in December the previous year (Ford's Victorian plants, in Broadmeadows and Geelong, closed in October 2016). Toyota followed suit in February 2014 with an expected announcement as without Holden or Ford, local supply chains would struggle to create the economics of scale required to supply one manufacturer.


Land

Victoria adopted the
Torrens system Torrens title is a land registration Land registration generally describes systems by which matters concerning ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the A ...

Torrens system
of land registration with the ''Real Property Act 1862''. The Torrens system did not replace the common law system but applied only to new land grants and to land that has been voluntarily registered under the Act, and its successors. The common law system continues to apply to all other private landholdings.
Crown land Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies . It is the equivalent of an and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in s such as Cana ...

Crown land
held in Victoria is managed under the ''Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978'' and the ''Land Act 1958''.


Mining

Mining in Victoria contributes around A$6 billion to the gross state product (~2%) but employs less than 1% of workers. The Victorian mining industry is concentrated on energy producing minerals, with
brown coal Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of Rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at ...
, petroleum and
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

gas
accounting for nearly 90% of local production. The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of
Gippsland Gippsland is a rural In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary ...
in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the
Latrobe Valley The Latrobe Valley is an inland geographical district and urban area of the Gippsland region in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The traditional owners are the Braiakaulung people, Brayakaulung of the Gunai language, Gun ...
. In the 2005–06 fiscal year, the average gas production was over per day (M cuft/d) and represented 18% of the total national gas sales, with demand growing at 2% per year. In 1985, oil production from the offshore Gippsland Basin peaked to an annual average of per day. In 2005–2006, the average daily oil production has declined to /d, but despite the decline Victoria still produces almost 19.5% of crude oil in Australia.
Brown coal Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of Rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at ...
is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. The region is home to the world's largest known reserves of brown coal. Despite being the historic centre of Australia's gold rush, Victoria today contributes a mere 1% of national gold production. Victoria also produces limited amounts of
gypsum Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral The sulfate minerals are a class of mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with ...

gypsum
and
kaolin Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...

kaolin
.


Service industry

The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as financial and professional services; health care and social assistance, education, transportation, IT and communication services, government services and wholesale and retail trade. Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. As of 2015–16, service industries employed over three-quarters of Victorian workers and more than three-quarters of the state's GSP. Finance and insurance as a group provide more value-add to the economy than any other economic activity in Victoria while health care and social assistance employ the most workers.


Tourism

Some major tourist destinations in Victoria are: * The metropolis of Melbourne, particular its inner city suburbs (known also for shopping tourism) and the attractions of the
city centre A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and ...
such as
Melbourne Zoo Melbourne Zoo is a zoo in Melbourne, Australia Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia Australia, officially the Com ...

Melbourne Zoo
,
Melbourne Museum Melbourne Museum is a natural and cultural history museum located in the Carlton Gardens The Carlton Gardens is a World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention admini ...

Melbourne Museum
, the
Melbourne Aquarium Sea Life Melbourne Aquarium is a Southern Ocean and Antarctic aquarium in central Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of t ...

Melbourne Aquarium
and Scienceworks, tourism precincts such as
Melbourne Docklands Docklands (also known as Melbourne Docklands to differentiate it from London Docklands had not yet been built. and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock London Docklands is the riverfront and former docks in London. It is located i ...

Melbourne Docklands
, Southbank and St Kilda as well as cultural and sporting tourist icons such as
Arts Centre Melbourne Arts Centre Melbourne, originally known as the Victorian Arts Centre and briefly called the Arts Centre, is a Performing arts center, performing arts centre consisting of a complex of theatres and concert halls in the Melbourne Arts Precinct, lo ...
, the
East End Theatre District The East End Theatre District is a precinct within the Melbourne city centre, and is bounded by Spring Street, Flinders Street, Swanston Street, and Lonsdale Street. The district is home to six of Melbourne's major theatres, including the Prin ...
, the
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest and list of most visited art museums in the world, most visited art ...
, the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park Yarra Park (35.469 hectares) is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct, the premier sporting precin ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
, also known as the
MCG Joseph McGinty Nichol (born August 9, 1968), known professionally as McG, is an American director, producer, and former record producer. He began his career in the music industry, directing music videos and producing various albums. He later ...

MCG
, and the
Eureka Tower Eureka Tower is a skyscraper located in the Southbank precinct of Melbourne, Victoria Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous city of the Sta ...

Eureka Tower
, with the highest observation deck in the Southern Hemisphere, Skydeck 88. * Victoria has more than 2000 kilometres of coastline with hundreds of beaches. * The Goldfields region featuring the historic cities of Ballarat,
Beechworth Beechworth is a well-preserved historical town located in the north-east of Victoria, Australia Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a States and territories of Australia, state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with ...
, Bendigo, , Maldon and Daylesford. * Natural attractions, such as The Twelve Apostles,
Wilsons Promontory The Wilsons Promontory, also known as Yiruk and Wamoon in the Gunai language, Gunai and Bunwurrung languages respectively, is a peninsula that forms the southernmost part of the Australian mainland, located in the state of Victoria (Australia) ...

Wilsons Promontory
, , the fairy penguins (particularly at
Phillip Island Phillip Island (Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung: ''Corriong'', ''Worne'' or ''Millowl'') is an Australian island about south-southeast of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The island is named after Arthur Phillip, Governor Arthur Ph ...
and St Kilda), the
Buchan Caves The Buchan Caves are a group of limestone caves that include the Royal Cave and the Fairy Cave, located south-west of , in the East Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. They have a total length of between , ...
and the
Gippsland Lakes The Gippsland Lakes are a network of lakes, marshes and lagoons in east Gippsland, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia covering an area of about . The largest of the lakes are Lake Wellington (Gunai language: ''Murla''), Lake King (Gunai ...

Gippsland Lakes
. * The
Dandenong Ranges The Dandenong Ranges (commonly just The Dandenongs) are a set of low mountain ranges, rising to 633 metres at Mount Dandenong, approximately east of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital ...

Dandenong Ranges
(in particular the
Puffing Billy Railway The Puffing Billy Railway is a Narrow gauge railway, narrow gauge heritage railway in the Dandenong Ranges in Melbourne, Australia. The primary starting point, operations and administration centre, main refreshment room (also selling souveni ...

Puffing Billy Railway
). *
Healesville Sanctuary Healesville Sanctuary, formally known as the Sir Colin MacKenzie Sanctuary, is a zoo specialising in native Australian animals. It is located at Healesville in rural Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state o ...
, which specialises in local Australian species. * Towns along the Murray River and Riverina including
Echuca Echuca ( ) is a town on the banks of the Murray River and Campaspe River in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The border town of Moama is adjacent on the northern side of the Murray River in New South Wales. Echuca is the administrative ...
and
Mildura Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016. When nearby Wentworth, New South Wales, Wentworth, Irymple, Victor ...
including waterskiing. *
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...
and its famous Waterfront, Eastern Beach and Geelong West's Pakington Street * The
Bellarine Peninsula The Bellarine Peninsula (Wathawurrung language, Wathawurrung: ''Balla-wein'' or ''Biteyong'') is a peninsula located south-west of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, surrounded by Port Phillip, Corio Bay and Bass Strait. The peninsula, together w ...
which features vineyards and historic resort towns such as Queenscliff, Drysdale and Portarlington * The
Werribee Werribee is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, 32 km south-west of Melbourne's Melbourne City Centre, Central Business District, located within the City of Wyndham Local government areas of Victoria, local gove ...
Mansion and Werribee Open Range Zoo * The Surf Coast which features famous beaches such as
Bells Beach Bells Beach is a coastal locality of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia in Surf Coast Shire and a renowned Beach, surf beach, located 100 km south-west of Melbourne, on the Great Ocean Road near the towns of Torquay, Victoria, Torqua ...
,
Torquay Torquay ( ) is a seaside town in Devon, England, part of the unitary authority, unitary authority area of Torbay. It lies south of the county town of Exeter and east-north-east of Plymouth, on the north of Tor Bay, adjoining the neighbouring ...
and Lorne *
Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is ...

Mornington Peninsula
, particularly for its wineries in
Red HillRed Hill may refer to: Places Australia * Red Hill, Queensland, a suburb of Brisbane * Red Hill, Queensland (Western Downs Region), a locality * Red Hill, Victoria * Red Hill South, Victoria * Red Hill, Australian Capital Territory * Red Hill, West ...
and secluded beaches in Mount Eliza and Mornington, The Pillars in Mount Martha,
Arthur's Seat Arthur's Seat ( gd, Suidhe Artair, IPA: s̪ɯi.əˈaɾt̪ʰəɾʲ is an extinct volcano which is the main peak of the group of hills in Edinburgh, Scotland, which form most of Holyrood Park, described by Robert Louis Stevenson as "a hill for ...
and the coastal attractions of Portsea,
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Gulf of Naples, Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circu ...
and Flinders. *
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Australia. The river originates approximately east of the Melbourne central business district and flows towards it and out into Port Phillip Bay. T ...

Yarra Valley
(in particular
Healesville Sanctuary Healesville Sanctuary, formally known as the Sir Colin MacKenzie Sanctuary, is a zoo specialising in native Australian animals. It is located at Healesville in rural Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state o ...
and wineries). *
Great Ocean Road The Great Ocean Road is an Australian National Heritage listed stretch of road along the south-eastern coast of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainl ...

Great Ocean Road
, which features The Twelve Apostles, historic towns of
Port Fairy Port Fairy is a coastal town in south-western Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria ( ...

Port Fairy
and Portland, cliffs and whale watching and resort towns such as Lorne. * The Victorian Alpine Region, part of the
Australian Alps The Australian Alps comprise an interim Australian bioregion A bioregion is an ecologically Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organi ...
, particularly for
skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots are used in to p ...
* The Central Victorian Highlands, 'High country' are very well known for winter sports and bushwalking *
Wine regions Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...
across the entire state. Other popular tourism activities are gliding, hang-gliding, hot air ballooning and scuba diving. Major events that explore cultural diversity, music and sports play a big part in Victoria's tourism. The V8 Supercars and Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix at Phillip Island, the Grand Annual Steeplechase at Warrnambool and the
Australian International Airshow The Australian International Airshow, also called the Avalon Airshow, is a large air show held biennially at Avalon Airport, between Melbourne and Geelong in Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The event has a strong focus on military aviation, fea ...
at Avalon and numerous local festivals such as the popular
Port Fairy Folk Festival The Port Fairy Folk Festival is an annual four-day music festival based in the historic fishing village of Port Fairy Port Fairy is a coastal town in south-western Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Austral ...
,
Queenscliff Music Festival Queenscliff Music Festival is a live music festival held in the town of Queenscliff, Victoria, Queenscliff, located on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The festival began in 1997 and is held annually on the last ...
, Pako Festa in Geelong West, Bells Beach Surf Classic and the
Bright Bright may refer to: Common meanings *Bright, an adjective meaning giving off or reflecting illumination; see Brightness *Bright, an adjective meaning someone with intelligence People *Bright (surname) *Bright (given name) *Bright, the stage name ...

Bright
Autumn Festival amongst others. File:Urban river banks (Unsplash).jpg, The Melbourne skyline at night File:Brighton Beach and Beach Huts, Australia - panoramio (37).jpg,
Brighton Beach Brighton Beach is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone ...
bathing boxes File:Mornington Mills Beach W from carpark.jpg, Mornington Mills Beach File:Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges.jpg, Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges File:TwelveApostles-Gaz.jpg, The Twelve Apostles File:Sunset at Jan Juc, Torquay (6758802783).jpg,
Jan Juc Jan Juc is a suburb of Victoria next to Torquay, Victoria. At the Census in Australia#2016, 2016 census, Jan Juc had a population of 3,683. History Nearby Bellbrae was originally called Jan Juc but was renamed in 1923, so the Jan Juc Post Off ...
,
Torquay Torquay ( ) is a seaside town in Devon, England, part of the unitary authority, unitary authority area of Torbay. It lies south of the county town of Exeter and east-north-east of Plymouth, on the north of Tor Bay, adjoining the neighbouring ...


Transport

Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state; only the far northwest and the
Victorian Alps The Victorian Alps, also known locally as the High Country, is a large mountain system residing in the southeastern Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. Occupying the majority of eastern Victoria, it is the southwestern half of ...
lack permanent settlement. The Victorian road network services the population centres, with highways generally radiating from Melbourne and other major cities and rural centres with secondary roads interconnecting the highways to each other. Many of the highways are built to freeway standard ("M" freeways), while most are generally sealed and of reasonable quality.
Rail transport in Victoria Rail transport in Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and n ...
is provided by several private and public railway operators who operate over government-owned lines. Major operators include:
Metro Trains Melbourne Metro Trains Melbourne, often known simply as Metro, is the Franchise (rail), franchise operator of the Electrification (rail), electrified commuter rail, suburban passenger service on the Melbourne rail network. Metro Trains Melbourne is a jo ...
which runs an extensive, electrified, passenger system throughout Melbourne and suburbs;
V/Line V/Line is a government-owned corporation that operates regional passenger train and coach services in Victoria, Australia. It provides passenger train services on five commuter lines and eight long-distance routes from its major hub at Sout ...
which is now owned by the Victorian Government, operates a concentrated service to major regional centres, as well as long-distance services on other lines;
Pacific National Pacific National is one of Australia's largest rail freight businesses. History In February 2002, National Rail Corporation, National Rail's freight operations and rollingstock (owned by the Government of Australia, Federal, Government of New ...
,
CFCL Australia CFCL Australia (CFCLA) is an Australian locomotive and rolling stock leasing company operating in the rail freight market. CFCLA leases assets to a number of private rail operators in the local rail industry, predominantly on the defined standard ...
which operate freight services; Great Southern Rail which operates ''
The Overland ''The Overland'' is an Australian passenger train service between the state capitals of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population, most-populous ci ...

The Overland
'' Melbourne—Adelaide; and
NSW TrainLink NSW TrainLink is a train and coach operator in Australia, providing services throughout New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, along with limited interstate services into Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Queensland and South Australia ...
which operates XPTs Melbourne—Sydney. There are also several smaller freight operators and numerous tourist railways operating over lines which were once parts of a state-owned system. Victorian lines mainly use the
broad gauge A broad-gauge railway is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that u ...
. However, the interstate trunk routes, as well as a number of freight lines in the north and west of the state have been converted to
standard gauge A standard-gauge railway is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. V ...
. Two tourist railways operate over
narrow gauge A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge In rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle ...
lines, which are the remnants of five formerly government-owned lines which were built in mountainous areas. Melbourne has the world's largest
tram network Image:Hw lh.jpg, Preserved Linke-Hofmann-Busch tram, in Trams in Kraków, Kraków, Poland A tram (in North America streetcar or trolley) is a railroad car, rail vehicle that runs on tramway track public urban streets; some include segments ...
, currently operated by
Yarra Trams Yarra Trams is the trading name of the Trams in Melbourne, tram network in Melbourne, which is owned by VicTrack and leased to Yarra Trams by Public Transport Victoria on behalf of the Government of Victoria. The current franchise is operated by ...
. As well as being a popular form of public transport, over the last few decades trams have become one of Melbourne's major tourist attractions. There are also tourist trams operating over portions of the former
Ballarat Ballarat () is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Vic ...
and Bendigo systems. There are also tramway museums at Bylands and Haddon.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital and List of cities in Australia by population ...

Melbourne Airport
is the major domestic and international gateway for the state.
Avalon Airport Avalon Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, ...
is the state's second busiest airport, which complements Essendon and
Moorabbin Airport Moorabbin (Harry Hawker) Airport is a general aviation airport for light aircraft located in between the southern Melbourne suburbs of Heatherton, Victoria, Heatherton, Cheltenham, Victoria, Cheltenham, Dingley Village, Victoria, Dingley Village ...
s to see the remainder of Melbourne's air traffic. Hamilton Airport, Mildura Airport,
Mount Hotham Mount Hotham is a mountain in the Victorian Alps of the Great Dividing Range, located in the Australian state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The mountain is located approximately north east of Melbourne, from Sydney, and from Adelaide by ...
and Portland Airport are the remaining airports with scheduled domestic flights. There are no fewer than 27 other airports in the state with no scheduled flights. The
Port of Melbourne The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia. It is located in Melbourne, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria, and covers an area at the mouth of the Yarra River, downstream of Bolte B ...
is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia, and is located in Melbourne on the mouth of the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial stream, perennial river in south-central Victoria (Australia ...

Yarra River
, which is at the head of
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin languages, Kulin: ''Naarm Naarm''), or Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped enclosed bay on the central coast of southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait via a short, narr ...
. Additional seaports are at
Westernport Western Port, commonly but unofficially known as Western Port Bay, is a large Tide, tidal bay in southern Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia, opening into Bass Strait. It is the second largest bay in the States and territories of Australi ...
,
Geelong Geelong () ( Wathawurrung: ''Djilang''/''Djalang'') is a port city A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in ...
, and Portland. As of October 2013, smoking tobacco is prohibited in the sheltered areas of train stations, and tram and bus stops—between 2012 and 2013, 2002 people were issued with infringement notices. The state government announced a plan in October 2013 to prohibit smoking on all Victorian railway station platforms and raised tram stops.


Utilities


Energy

Victoria's major utilities include a collection of brown-coal-fired power stations, particularly in the Latrobe Valley. One of these was the recently decommissioned
Hazelwood Power Station The Hazelwood Power Station is a decommissioned Lignite, brown coal-fuelled thermal power station located in the Latrobe Valley of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Built between 1964 and 1971, the 1,600-megawatt-capacity power station ...

Hazelwood Power Station
, which was number 1 on the worldwide
List of least carbon efficient power stations This is a list of least carbon efficient power stations in selected countries. Lists were created by the WWF and lists the most polluting power stationPower Station or The Power Station may refer to: * Power station, a facility for the generatio ...
. The Victorian government is aiming to cut 40.6 mega tonnes of greenhouse gases emissions by 2025.


Water

Victoria's water infrastructure includes a series of dams and reservoirs, predominantly in Central Victoria, that hold and collect water for much of the state. The water collected is of a very high quality and requires little chlorination treatment, giving the water a taste more like water collected in a rainwater tank. In regional areas however, such as in the west of the state, chlorination levels are much higher. The Victorian Water Grid consists of a number of new connections and pipelines being built across the State. This allows water to be moved around Victoria to where it is needed most and reduces the impact of localised droughts in an era thought to be influenced by climate change. Major projects already completed as part of the Grid include the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline and the Goldfields Superpipe.


Sport

Victoria is the home of
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
, with ten of the 18 Australian Football League (AFL) clubs based in the state. The AFL Grand Final is traditionally held at the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park Yarra Park (35.469 hectares) is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct, the premier sporting precin ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
on the last Saturday of September. The state has a public holiday the day before the Grand Final, which coincides with the AFL Grand Final parade. The
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
cricket team play in the national
Sheffield Shield The Sheffield Shield (currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Marsh Sheffield Shield) is the domestic first-class cricket competition of Australia. The tournament is contested between teams from the six states of Australia. Sheffield Shi ...
cricket competition. Victoria is represented in the
National Rugby League The National Rugby League (NRL), formed in 1998, is the pre-eminent rugby league Rugby league football, commonly known as just rugby league or simply league, rugby, football, or footy, is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thir ...
by the
Melbourne Storm The Melbourne Storm is a rugby league club based in Melbourne, Victoria in Australia, that participates in the National Rugby League. The first fully professional rugby league team based in the state, the Storm entered the competition in 1998. ...
and in
Super Rugby Super Rugby is a men's professional rugby union Rugby union, commonly known simply as rugby, is a close-contact team sport A team is a roup_(disambiguation),_group_of_individuals_(human_or_non-human)_working_together_to_achieve_thei_...
_by_the_Melbourne_Rebels._It_is_represented_in_the_National_Basketball_League_(Australia).html" ;"title="Melbourne_Rebels.html" ;"title="roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve thei ...
by the Melbourne Rebels">roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve thei ...
by the Melbourne Rebels. It is represented in the National Basketball League (Australia)">National Basketball League by Melbourne United and South East Melbourne Phoenix. It is also represented in soccer by Melbourne Victory, Melbourne City FC, Melbourne City and Western United FC, Western United in the A-League. Melbourne has held the 1956 Summer Olympics, 2006 Commonwealth Games and the FINA World Swimming Championship. Melbourne is also home to the Australian Open tennis tournament in January each year, the first of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, and the Australian Formula One Australian Grand Prix in March. It hosted the Australian Masters golf tournament from 1979 to 2015. Victoria's Bells Beach hosts one of the world's longest-running surfing competition, the Bells Beach SurfClassic, which is part of The ASP World Tour. The Melbourne Vixens and Collingwood Magpies Netball represent Victoria in the Suncorp Super Netball, National Netball League. Victoria's
Phillip Island Phillip Island (Boonwurrung language, Boonwurrung: ''Corriong'', ''Worne'' or ''Millowl'') is an Australian island about south-southeast of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia), Victoria. The island is named after Arthur Phillip, Governor Arthur Ph ...
is home of the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit which hosts the Australian motorcycle Grand Prix which features Grand Prix motorcycle racing, MotoGP (the world's premier motorcycling class), as well as the Australian round of the World Superbike Championship and the domestic V8 Supercar racing, which also visits Sandown Raceway and the rural Winton Motor Raceway circuit. Australia's most prestigious footrace, the Stawell Gift, is an annual event. Victoria is also home to the Aussie Millions poker tournament, the richest in the Southern Hemisphere. The main horse racing tracks in Victoria are Caulfield Racecourse, Flemington Racecourse and Sandown Racecourse. The Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival is one of the biggest horse racing events in the world and is one of the world's largest sporting events. The main race is for the $6 million Melbourne Cup, and crowds for the carnival usually exceed 700,000. Major professional teams include: *
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working ...
(Australian Football League, AFL): Carlton Football Club, Carlton, Collingwood Football Club, Collingwood, Essendon Football Club, Essendon, Geelong Football Club, Geelong Cats, Hawthorn Football Club, Hawthorn, Melbourne Football Club, Melbourne, North Melbourne Football Club, North Melbourne, Richmond Football Club, Richmond, St Kilda Football Club, St Kilda, Western Bulldogs * Basketball (National Basketball League (Australia), NBL): Melbourne United, South East Melbourne Phoenix * Cricket (Big Bash League, BBL): Melbourne Renegades, Melbourne Stars * Cricket (
Sheffield Shield The Sheffield Shield (currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Marsh Sheffield Shield) is the domestic first-class cricket competition of Australia. The tournament is contested between teams from the six states of Australia. Sheffield Shi ...
and Marsh One-Day Cup): Victoria cricket team * Netball (Suncorp Super Netball, NNL): Melbourne Vixens, Collingwood Magpies Netball, Collingwood Magpies * Rugby league (National Rugby League, NRL):
Melbourne Storm The Melbourne Storm is a rugby league club based in Melbourne, Victoria in Australia, that participates in the National Rugby League. The first fully professional rugby league team based in the state, the Storm entered the competition in 1998. ...
*Rugby union (
Super Rugby Super Rugby is a men's professional rugby union Rugby union, commonly known simply as rugby, is a close-contact team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve thei ...
): Melbourne Rebels *Association football, Soccer (A-League): Melbourne City FC, Melbourne City, Melbourne Victory, Western United FC, Western United


Sister states

Victoria has four sister city, sister states: * Jiangsu, China (1979) * Aichi Prefecture, Japan (1980) * Busan, South Korea (1994) * Sichuan, China (2016)


See also

* List of highways in Victoria * Protected areas of Victoria (Australia) * Vicmap Topographic Map Series


Explanatory notes


Geography


Demographics


References


Further reading


Victorian frontier history

* Jan Critchett (1990), ''A distant field of murder: Western district frontiers, 1834–1848'', Melbourne University Press (Carlton, Vic. and Portland, Or.) * Ian D Clark (1990), ''Aboriginal languages and clans: An historical atlas of western and central Victoria, 1800–1900'', Dept. of Geography & Environmental Science, Monash University (Melbourne), * Ian D Clark (1995), ''Scars in the landscape: A register of massacre sites in western Victoria, 1803–1859'', Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (Canberra), * Ian D Clark (2003), ''"That's my country belonging to me": Aboriginal land tenure and dispossession in nineteenth century Western Victoria'', Ballarat Heritage Services, Ballarat.


External links

*
Official Government tourism website

Victorian Places website

Tourism Victoria's Online Image Library

Victoria's Households Schemes
* {{Authority control Victoria (Australia), States and territories of Australia Former British colonies and protectorates in Oceania States and territories established in 1851 1851 establishments in Australia