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Venetian or Venetan ( or ), is a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...

Romance language
spoken by Venetians in the northeast of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
,Ethnologue mostly in the
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
region of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it, centered in and around
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, which carries the
prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films *Prestige (film), ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed ...
dialect. It is sometimes spoken and often well understood outside Veneto, in
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capit ...
,
Friuli Friuli ( fur, Friûl) is an area of with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 1,000,000 . It comprises the major part of the autonomous region , i.e. the administrative of , , and , excluding . Names The multiethnic ...
, the
Julian March Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March (Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South S ...
,
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
, and some towns of
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
and
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
(
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
) by a surviving autochthonous Venetian population, and
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, and
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
by Venetians in the diaspora. Although referred to as an Italian dialect ( vec, diałeto, links=no, it, dialetto) even by some of its speakers, Venetian is a separate language with many local varieties. Its precise place within the Romance language family remains controversial. Both
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living language A language is a structured system of communicatio ...
and
Glottolog ''Glottolog'' is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany (between 2015 and 2020 at the Max Planck Institute for ...
group it into the Gallo-Italic branch. , Avolio and
Treccani The ''Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti'' ( Italian for "Italian Encyclopedia of Science, Letters, and Arts"), best known as ''Treccani'' for its developer Giovanni Treccani or ''Enciclopedia Italiana'', is an Italian-language ...
however reject a Gallo-Italic classification. Tagliavini places it in the
Italo-Dalmatian The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Lati ...
branch of languages.


History

Like all Italian dialects in the , Venetian is descended from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
and influenced by the
Italian language Italian (''italiano'' or ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Italian is the most direct descendant of Latin, arguab ...

Italian language
. Venetian is attested as a written language in the 13th century. There are also influences and parallelisms with
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...

Albanian
in words such as (fork), (to fork), (chair) and (T-shirt). The language enjoyed substantial prestige in the days of the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
, when it attained the status of a
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
in the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Notable Venetian-language authors include the playwrights Ruzante (1502–1542),
Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (, also , ; 25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793) was an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italy's most famous and best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the play ...

Carlo Goldoni
(1707–1793) and
Carlo Gozzi__NOTOC__ Portrait of Carlo Gozzi Carlo, Count Gozzi (; 13 December 1720 – 4 April 1806) was a Venetian playwright A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. Etymology The word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old Englis ...

Carlo Gozzi
(1720–1806). Following the old Italian theatre tradition (), they used Venetian in their comedies as the speech of the common folk. They are ranked among the foremost Italian theatrical authors of all time, and plays by Goldoni and Gozzi are still performed today all over the world. Other notable works in Venetian are the translations of the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
'' by
Giacomo Casanova Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (, ; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italians, Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, ''Histoire de ma vie'' (''Story of My Life''), is regarded as one of the most authentic s ...
(1725–1798) and Francesco Boaretti, the translation of the ''
Divine Comedy The ''Divine Comedy'' ( it, Divina Commedia ) is a long Italian narrative poem by Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 1321), w ...

Divine Comedy
'' (1875) by Giuseppe Cappelli and the poems of
Biagio Marin Biagio Marin (1891–1985) was a Italian people, Venetian poet, best known from his poems in the Venetian language, which had no literary tradition until then. In his writings he never obeyed rhetoric or poetics. He only employed a few hundred w ...
(1891–1985). Notable too is a manuscript titled '' Dialogo de Cecco di Ronchitti da Bruzene in perpuosito de la stella Nuova'' attributed to Girolamo Spinelli, perhaps with some supervision by
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the ...

Galileo Galilei
for scientific details. Several VenetianItalian dictionaries are available in print and online, including those by Boerio, Contarini, Nazari and Piccio. As a
literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
, Venetian was overshadowed by
Dante Alighieri Dante Alighieri (), probably baptized Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri and often referred to simply as Dante (, also ; – 14 September 1321), was an Italian poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from t ...

Dante Alighieri
's
Tuscan dialect Tuscan ( it, dialetto toscano ; it, vernacolo, label=locally) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages ...
(the best known writers of the Renaissance, such as
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
,
Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (, , ; 16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He was known par excellence as the Certaldese, and one of the most important figur ...

Boccaccio
and , were Tuscan and wrote in the Tuscan language) and
languages of France Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language An official language, also called state language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ...
like the
Occitano-Romance languages The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese ( ca, llengües occitanoromàniques, oc, lengas occitanoromanicas, an, lenguas/llenguas occitanorománicas), or rarely East Iberian, is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Catala ...
and the
langues d'oïl The ''langues d'oïl'' (; ) are a dialect continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a series of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties are mutually intelligible In linguistics ...
. Even before the demise of the Republic, Venetian gradually ceased to be used for administrative purposes in favor of the Tuscan-derived Italian language that had been proposed and used as a vehicle for a common Italian culture, strongly supported by eminent Venetian humanists and poets, from
Pietro Bembo Pietro Bembo, ( la, Petrus Bembus; 20 May 1470 – 18 January 1547) was an Italian scholar A scholar is a person who pursues academic and intellectual activities, particularly those that develop expertise in an area of Studying, study. A scho ...

Pietro Bembo
(1470–1547), a crucial figure in the development of the
Italian language Italian (''italiano'' or ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Italian is the most direct descendant of Latin, arguab ...

Italian language
itself, to
Ugo Foscolo Ugo Foscolo (; 6 February 177810 September 1827), born Niccolò Foscolo, was an Italian writer, revolutionary and a poet. He is especially remembered for his 1807 long poem ''Dei Sepolcri''. Early life Foscolo was born in Zakynthos in the Ionia ...

Ugo Foscolo
(1778–1827). Virtually all modern Venetian speakers are diglossic with Italian. The present situation raises questions about the language's survival. Despite recent steps to recognize it, Venetian remains far below the threshold of inter-generational transfer with younger generations preferring standard Italian in many situations. The dilemma is further complicated by the ongoing large-scale arrival of immigrants, who only speak or learn standard Italian. Venetian spread to other continents as a result of mass migration from the
Veneto region it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demograp ...
between 1870 and 1905, and between 1945 and 1960. Venetian migrants created large Venetian-speaking communities in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
(see
Talian Talian may refer to: *Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is also spoken in ...
), and
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
(see
Chipilo Venetian dialect Chipilo Venetian, or Chipileño, is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century immigrants to Mexico from the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. The immigrants settled in the State of Puebla, foundin ...
), where the language is still spoken today. In the 19th century large-scale immigration towards
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...

Trieste
and
Muggia Muggia ( vec, label= Venetian, Triestine dialect The Triestine dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different typ ...

Muggia
extended the presence of the Venetian language eastward. Previously the dialect of Trieste had been a Ladin or Eastern Friulian dialect known as Tergestino. This dialect became extinct as a result of Venetian migration, which gave rise to the dialect of Venetian spoken there today. Internal migrations during the 20th century also saw many Venetian-speakers settle in other regions of Italy, especially in the Pontine Marshes of southern
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
where they populated new towns such as Latina,
Aprilia Aprilia is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer founded immediately after World War II in Noale, Italy by Alberto Beggio. The company started as a manufacturer of bicycles and moved on to manufacture scooter (motorcycle), scooters and small-capa ...
and
Pomezia Pomezia () is a municipality (''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Pomezia
, forming there the so-called " Venetian-Pontine" community (''comunità venetopontine''). Currently, some firms have chosen to use Venetian language in advertising as a famous beer did some years ago (, "only the name is foreign"). In other cases advertisements in Veneto are given a "Venetian flavour" by adding a Venetian word to standard Italian: for instance an airline used the verb ( , "it is always bigger") into an Italian sentence (the correct Venetian being ) to advertise new flights from Marco Polo Airport. In 2007, Venetian was given recognition by the
Regional Council of Veneto The Regional Council of Veneto (''Consiglio Regionale del Veneto'') is the regional parliament of Veneto. The Council, which has its seat at Palazzo Ferro Fini, located along the Grand Canal (Venice), Grand Canal in Venice. was first elected in 1 ...

Regional Council of Veneto
with regional law no. 8 of 13 April 2007 "Protection, enhancement and promotion of the linguistic and cultural heritage of Veneto". Though the law does not explicitly grant Venetian any official status, it provides for Venetian as object of protection and enhancement, as an essential component of the cultural, social, historical and civil identity of Veneto.


Geographic distribution

Venetian is spoken mainly in the Italian regions of
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
and
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (man), it, Friulana (woman), it, Giuliano (man), it, Giuliana (woman) , population_note= , population_blank1_title= , population_blank1= , demographics_type1= , demographics1_footnotes= , demographics1_title1= , demographics1_info1= , d ...
and in both
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, lin ...

Slovenia
and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
(
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
,
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
and the
Kvarner Gulf The Kvarner Gulf (, or , la, Sinus Flanaticus or ), sometimes also Kvarner Bay, is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian Littoral mainland. The bay is a part of Croatia's internal wate ...
). Smaller communities are found in
Lombardy Lombardy ( ; it, Lombardia ; lmo, Lombardia, , ) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the Northwest Italy, northwest of the country, with an area of . About 10 million people live in Lombardy, forming more than one-sixth of It ...
(
Mantua Mantua ( ; it, Mantova ; Lombard language, Lombard and la, Mantua) is a city and ''comune'' in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the Province of Mantua, province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua was designated as the Italian Capital of Culture ...

Mantua
),
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capit ...
,
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
(
Rimini Rimini ( , ; rgn, Rémin; la, Ariminum) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It sprawls along the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia (the ancient ''Ariminus ...

Rimini
and
Forlì Forlì ( , ; rgn, Furlè ; la, Forum Livii) is a ''comune'' (municipality) and city in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna. The city is situated along the Via Emi ...
),
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...

Sardinia
(
Arborea Arborea is a town and '' comune'' in the province of Oristano The Province of Oristano ( it, provincia di Oristano, sc, provìntzia de Aristanis) is a Provinces of Italy, province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital ...
,
Terralba Terralba ( sc, Terraba) is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functi ...
, ),
Lazio it, Laziale , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Lazio
( Pontine Marshes), and formerly in
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
(
Tulcea Tulcea (; Bulgarian language, Bulgarian, Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian: Тулча, ''Tulcha''; Greek language, Greek: Αιγισσός, ''Aegyssus''; Turkish language, Turkish: ''Tulça''; historical English: ''Tul ...

Tulcea
). It is also spoken in North and South America by the descendants of Italian immigrants. Notable examples of this are
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered ...

Argentina
and
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, particularly the city of
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a municipality in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an global city, alpha global city (as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Ga ...

São Paulo
and the
Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a ...
spoken in the
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
ian states of
Espírito Santo Espírito Santo (, , ; meaning "Holy Spirit") is a states of Brazil, state in Southeast Region, Brazil, southeastern Brazil. Its capital is Vitória, Brazil, Vitória, and its largest city is Serra (Brazil), Serra. With an extensive coastline, ...
,
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a municipality in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an global city, alpha global city (as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Ga ...
, Paraná,
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; "Great River of the South") is a States of Brazil, state in the South Region, Brazil, southern region of Brazil. It is the List of Brazilian states by population, fifth-most-populous state and the List of Brazilian states ...
and
Santa Catarina Santa Catarina may refer to: Places Brazil *Santa Catarina (state), one of Brazil's federal states *Santa Catarina (island), located in Santa Catarina state Cape Verde *Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, a municipality Curaçao *Santa Catarina, Curaç ...
. In
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...

Mexico
, the
Chipilo Venetian dialect Chipilo Venetian, or Chipileño, is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century immigrants to Mexico from the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. The immigrants settled in the State of Puebla, foundin ...
is spoken in the state of
Puebla Puebla ( en, Colony, settlement), officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla), is one of the 32 states which comprise the Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), ...

Puebla
and the town of
Chipilo Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico. It is located south of the state capital Puebla, Puebla, at a height of Above mean sea level, above sea level. Its official name is Chipilo de Francisco Javier Mina. The people of Chipilo are ...

Chipilo
. The town was settled by immigrants from the
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
region, and some of their descendants have preserved the language to this day. People from Chipilo have gone on to make satellite colonies in Mexico, especially in the states of
Guanajuato Guanajuato (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 32 states that make up the Federal Entities of Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially ...

Guanajuato
,
Querétaro Querétaro, formally Querétaro de Arteaga (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro de Arteaga ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro de Arteaga, links=no; Otomi language, Otomi: ''Hyodi Ndämxei''),), is one of the Politica ...

Querétaro
, and
State of Mexico The State of Mexico ( es, Estado de México; ), officially only Mexico ( es, México), is one of the 32 federal entities of the United Mexican States Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EU ...
. Venetian has also survived in the state of
Veracruz Veracruz (), formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave ( es, Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mex ...

Veracruz
, where other Italian migrants have settled since the late 19th century. The people of Chipilo preserve their dialect and call it , and it has been preserved as a variant since the 19th century. The variant of Venetian spoken by the () is northern Trevisàn-Feltrìn-Belumàt. In 2009, the Brazilian city of Serafina Corrêa, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, gave
Talian Talian may refer to: *Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect of the Venetian language, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is also spoken in ...
a joint official status alongside
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
. Until the middle of the 20th century, Venetian was also spoken on the Greek Island of
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch ...

Corfu
, which had long been under the rule of the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
. Moreover, Venetian had been adopted by a large proportion of the population of
Cephalonia Kefalonia or Cephalonia ( el, Κεφαλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th largest island in Greece after Crete, Euboea, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios. It i ...
, one of the
Ionian Islands The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including th ...

Ionian Islands
, because the island was part of the for almost three centuries.


Classification

Venetian is a Romance language and thus descends from
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
. Its classification has always been controversial: According to Tagliavini, for example, it is one of the
Italo-Dalmatian languages The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Lati ...
and most closely related to
Istriot Istriot is a Romance languages, Romance language spoken by about 400 people in the southwestern part of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia, particularly in Rovinj and Vodnjan. It should not be confused with the Venetian_language#Regional_variants, I ...
on the one hand and
Tuscan Tuscan may refer to: Places * A person from, or something of, from, or related to Tuscany, a region of Italy * Tuscan Archipelago Currency * Tuscan pound * Tuscan florin Linguistics * Etruscan language, an extinct language which gives its name t ...
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
on the other. Some authors include it among the
Gallo-Italic languages The Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages Languages of Italy#Northern Italy, of northern Italy. They are Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lomb ...

Gallo-Italic languages
, and according to others, it is not related to either one. Although both Ethnologue and Glottolog group Venetian into the Gallo-Italic languages, the linguists
Giacomo Devoto Giacomo Devoto (19 July 1897 – 25 December 1974) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, ...

Giacomo Devoto
and Francesco Avolio and the
Treccani The ''Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti'' ( Italian for "Italian Encyclopedia of Science, Letters, and Arts"), best known as ''Treccani'' for its developer Giovanni Treccani or ''Enciclopedia Italiana'', is an Italian-language ...
encyclopedia reject the Gallo-Italic classification. Although the language region is surrounded by
Gallo-Italic languages The Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages Languages of Italy#Northern Italy, of northern Italy. They are Piedmontese language, Piedmontese, Lombard language, Lomb ...

Gallo-Italic languages
, Venetian does not share some traits with these immediate neighbors. Some scholars stress Venetian's characteristic lack of Gallo-Italic traits () or traits found further afield in
Gallo-Romance languages The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin ...

Gallo-Romance languages
(e.g.
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evol ...
, French,
Franco-Provençal Franco-Provençal (also Francoprovençal, Patois, Gaga, Savoyard, Arpitan or Romand) is a dialect group within Gallo-Romance languages, Gallo-Romance originally spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy. Franco- ...
) or the
Rhaeto-Romance languages Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a purported subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. ...

Rhaeto-Romance languages
(e.g. Friulian, Romansh). For example, Venetian did not undergo vowel rounding or nasalization, palatalize and , or develop rising diphthongs and , and it preserved final syllables, whereas, as in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, Venetian diphthongization occurs in historically open syllables. On the other hand, it is worth noting that Venetian does share many other traits with its surrounding Gallo-Italic languages, like interrogative clitics, mandatory unstressed
subject pronouns Subject ( la, subiectus "lying beneath") may refer to: Philosophy *''Hypokeimenon'', or ''subiectum'', in metaphysics, the "internal", non-objective being of a thing **Subject (philosophy), a being that has subjective experiences, subjective consc ...
(with some exceptions), the "to be behind to" verbal construction to express the
continuous aspect The continuous and progressive aspects ( abbreviated and ) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects. In the grammars of many ...
("El xé drìo magnàr" = He is eating, lit. he is behind to eat) and the absence of the absolute past tense as well as of . In addition, Venetian has some unique traits which are shared by neither Gallo-Italic, nor Italo-Dalmatian languages, such as the use of the
impersonal passive The impersonal passive voice is a verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''hap ...
forms and the use of the auxiliary verb "to have" for the reflexive voice (both traits shared with
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
). Modern Venetian is not a close relative of the
extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biol ...
Venetic language Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent a ...
spoken in Veneto before Roman expansion, although both are
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of ...
, and Venetic may have been an language, like
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
, the ancestor of Venetian and most other
languages of Italy The languages of Italy are Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** ...
. The earlier Venetic people gave their name to the city and region, which is why the modern language has a similar name.


Regional variants

The main regional varieties and subvarieties of Venetian language: * ''Central'' (
Padua Padua ( ; it, Padova ; vec, Pàdova) is a city and ''comune'' in Veneto, northern Italy. Padua is on the river Bacchiglione, west of Venice. It is the capital of the province of Padua. It is also the economic and communications hub of the a ...
,
Vicenza Vicenza ( , ; ) is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , ...
,
Polesine Polesine (; vec, label=unified Venetian script, Połéxine ) is a geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledg ...
), with about 1,500,000 speakers *
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...
*''Eastern/Coastal'' (
Trieste Trieste ( , ; sl, Trst ; german: Triest ) is a city and seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (wher ...
,
Grado Grado may refer to: People * Cristina Grado (1939–2016), Italian film actress * Jonathan Grado (born 1991), American entrepreneur and photographer * Francesco De Grado (floruit, fl. 1694–1730), Italian engraver * Gaetano Grado, Italian mafios ...
,
Istria Istria ( ; Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also * Croatia (disambiguation) ...

Istria
,
Fiume Rijeka ( , , ; hu, Fiume, it, Fiume ; local Chakavian Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic regiolect or language A language is a st ...
) * ''Western'' (
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...
,
Trentino Trentino ( lld, Trentin) officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capit ...
) * ''Northern'' of the
Province of Treviso The Province of Treviso ('' it, Provincia di Treviso'') is a Provinces of Italy, province in the Veneto region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Treviso. The province is surrounded by Belluno in the north, Vicenza in the west, Padua in southwest ...
(most of the
Province of Pordenone The province of Pordenone ( it, provincia di Pordenone; ; vec, provincia de Pordenon) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admi ...
) * ''North-Central'' of the Province of Treviso (
Belluno Belluno (; lld, Belum; vec, Belùn), is a town and province in the Veneto region of northern Italy. Located about north of Venice, Belluno is the Capital (political), capital of the province of Belluno and the most important city in the Eas ...
, comprising
Feltre Feltre ( vec, Fèltre) is a town and ' of the in , northern . A hill town in the southern reaches of the province, it is located on the , about from its junction with the , and southwest from . The loom to the north of the town. An area inco ...
, ,
Cadore Cadore (; lld, Cadòr; vec, italic=yes, Cadór or, rarely, ''Cadòria''; german: italic=yes, Cadober or ''Kadober''; Sappada German: ''Kadour'';
Cadore
, and Zoldo Alto) All these variants are mutually intelligible, with a minimum 92% in common among the most diverging ones (Central and Western). Modern speakers reportedly can still understand Venetian texts from the 14th century to some extent. Other noteworthy variants are: * the variety spoken in
Chioggia Chioggia (; vec, Cióxa , locally ; la, Clodia) is a coastal town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and funct ...

Chioggia
* the variety spoken in the Pontine Marshes * the variety spoken in
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
* the
Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a ...
of
Antônio Prado Antônio Prado () is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is surrounded by the municipalities Ipê, Rio Grande do Sul, Ipê, Flores da Cunha, Vila Flores, Nova Roma do Sul, São Marcos, Nova Pádua, and Protásio Alves. It is ...
, Entre Rios, Santa Catarina and
Toledo, Paraná Toledo is a Municipalities of Brazil, municipality Brazil state of Paraná (state), Paraná. It is located in the region west near Cascavel, making this city a developing area on the Agribusiness, driven by its fertile soil and flat, which makes ...
, among other southern
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
ian cities * the
Chipilo Venetian dialect Chipilo Venetian, or Chipileño, is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century immigrants to Mexico from the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. The immigrants settled in the State of Puebla, foundin ...
( es, Chipileño) of
Chipilo Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico. It is located south of the state capital Puebla, Puebla, at a height of Above mean sea level, above sea level. Its official name is Chipilo de Francisco Javier Mina. The people of Chipilo are ...

Chipilo
, Mexico * Peripheral
creole language A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages into a new one within a fairly brief period of time: often, a evolved into a full-fledged language. While the concept is sim ...
s along the southern border (nearly extinct)


Grammar

Like most Romance languages, Venetian has mostly abandoned the Latin
case system Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of languag ...
, in favor of
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
s and a more rigid
subject–verb–object In linguistic typology Linguistic typology (or language typology) is a field of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for ...
sentence structure. It has thus become more analytic, if not quite as much as English. Venetian also has the Romance articles, both definite (derived from the Latin demonstrative ) and indefinite (derived from the numeral ). Venetian also retained the Latin concepts of
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is a ...
(masculine and feminine) and
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
(singular and plural). Unlike the Gallo-Iberian languages, which form plurals by adding ''-s'', Venetian forms plurals in a manner similar to standard Italian. Nouns and adjectives can be modified by suffixes that indicate several qualities such as size, endearment, deprecation, etc. Adjectives (usually postfixed) and articles are inflected to agree with the noun in gender and number, but it is important to mention that the suffix might be deleted because the article is the part that suggests the number. However, Italian is influencing Venetian language: In recent studies on Venetian variants in Veneto, there has been a tendency to write the so-called "evanescent L" as . While it may help novice speakers, Venetian was never written with this letter. In this article, this symbol is used only in Veneto dialects of Venetian language. It will suffice to know that in Venetian language the letter L in word-initial and intervocalic positions usually becomes a "palatal allomorph", and is barely pronounced. No native Venetic words seem to have survived in present Venetian, but there may be some traces left in the morphology, such as the
morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical item in a language. A morpheme is not a word. The difference between a morpheme and a word is that a morpheme bound and free morphemes, sometimes does not stand alone, but a word on this definition alw ...
-''esto''/''asto''/''isto'' for the past participle, which can be found in Venetic inscriptions from about 500 BC: * Venetian: ("I have done") * Venetian Italian: * Standard Italian:


Redundant subject pronouns

A peculiarity of Venetian grammar is a "semi-analytical" verbal flexion, with a compulsory "
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
subject pronoun" before the verb in many sentences, "echoing" the subject as an ending or a weak pronoun. Independent/emphatic pronouns (e.g. ), on the contrary, are optional. The clitic subject pronoun () is used with the 2nd and 3rd person singular, and with the 3rd person plural. This feature may have arisen as a compensation for the fact that the 2nd- and 3rd-person inflections for most verbs, which are still distinct in Italian and many other Romance languages, are identical in Venetian. The
Piedmontese language Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 ...
also has clitic subject pronouns, but the rules are somewhat different. The function of clitics is particularly visible in long sentences, which do not always have clear intonational breaks to easily tell apart vocative and imperative in sharp commands from exclamations with "shouted indicative". For instance, in Venetian the clitic marks the indicative verb and its masculine singular subject, otherwise there is an imperative preceded by a vocative. Although some grammars regard these clitics as "redundant", they actually provide specific additional information as they mark number and gender, thus providing number-/gender- agreement between the subject(s) and the verb, which does not necessarily show this information on its endings.


Interrogative inflection

Venetian also has a special ''interrogative'' verbal flexion used for direct questions, which also incorporates a redundant pronoun:


Auxiliary verbs

Reflexive tenses use the auxiliary verb ("to have"), as in English, the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also r ...

North Germanic languages
,Catalan, Spanish, Romanian and Neapolitan; instead of ("to be"), which would be normal in Italian. The past participle is invariable, unlike Italian:


Continuing action

Another peculiarity of the language is the use of the phrase (literally, "to be behind") to indicate continuing action: Another progressive form in some Venetian dialects uses the construction (lit. "to be there that"): * Venetian dialect: (lit. "My father he is there that he speaks"). The use of progressive tenses is more pervasive than in Italian; e.g. * English: "He wouldn't have been speaking to you". * Venetian: . That construction does not occur in Italian: ''*Non sarebbe mica stato parlandoti'' is not syntactically valid.


Subordinate clauses

Subordinate clauses have double introduction ("whom that", "when that", "which that", "how that"), as in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
: As in other Romance languages, the
subjunctive mood The subjunctive is a grammatical mood In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, ...
is widely used in
subordinate clause A subordinate clause, dependent clause or embedded clause is a clause that is embedded inside another clause. For instance, in the English sentence "I know that Bette is a dolphin", the clause "that Bette is a dolphin" occurs as the complement (ling ...
s.


Phonology


Consonants

Some dialects of Venetian have certain sounds not present in Italian, such as the interdental voiceless fricative , often spelled with , , , or , and similar to
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
''th'' in ''thing'' and ''thought''. This sound occurs, for example, in ("supper", also written ), which is pronounced the same as Castilian Spanish (which has the same meaning). The voiceless interdental fricative occurs in Bellunese, north-Trevisan, and in some Central Venetian rural areas around Padua, Vicenza and the mouth of the
river Po The Po ( , ; la, Padus or ; grc, Πάδος, Pádos, or , ; Ligurian language (ancient), Ancient Ligurian: or ) is the longest river in Italy. It is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps. The Po flows ...
. Because the pronunciation variant is more typical of older speakers and speakers living outside of major cities, it has come to be socially stigmatized, and most speakers now use or instead of . In those dialects with the pronunciation , the sound has fallen together with ordinary , and so it is not uncommon to simply write (or between vowels) instead of or (such as ). Similarly some dialects of Venetian also have a voiced interdental fricative , often written (as in 'he cries'); but in most dialects this sound is now pronounced either as (Italian ''voiced-Z''), or more typically as (Italian ''voiced-S'', written , as in ); in a few dialects the sound appears as and may therefore be written instead with the letter , as in . Some varieties of Venetian also distinguish an ordinary vs. a weakened or
lenited In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
("evanescent") , which in some orthographic norms is indicated with the letter ; in more conservative dialects, however, both and are merged as ordinary . In those dialects that have both types, the precise phonetic realization of depends both on its phonological environment and on the dialect of the speaker. Typical realizations in the region of Venice include a voiced velar approximant or glide (usually described as nearly like an "e" and so often spelled as ), when is adjacent (only) to back vowels (), vs. a null realization when is adjacent to a front vowel (). In dialects further inland may be realized as a partially vocalised . Thus, for example, 'gondola' may sound like , , or . In dialects having a null realization of intervocalic , although pairs of words such as , "school" and , "broom" are
homophonous A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning. A homophone may also differ in spelling. The two words may be spelled the same, as in ''rose'' (flower) and ''rose'' (past tense of '' ...
(both being pronounced ), they are still distinguished orthographically. Venetian, like Spanish, does not have the characteristic of standard Italian, Tuscan, Neapolitan and other languages of southern Italy; thus Italian ("slices"), ("ball") and ("pen") correspond to , , and in Venetian. The masculine singular noun ending, corresponding to ''-o''/''-e'' in Italian, is often unpronounced in Venetian after continuants, particularly in rural varieties: Italian ("full") corresponds to Venetian , Italian to Venetian . The extent to which final vowels are deleted varies by dialect: the central–southern varieties delete vowels only after , whereas the northern variety delete vowels also after dental stops and velars; the eastern and western varieties are in between these two extremes. The velar nasal (the final sound in English "song") occurs frequently in Venetian. A word-final is always velarized, which is especially obvious in the pronunciation of many local Venetian surnames that end in , such as ''Marin'' and ''Manin'' , as well as in common Venetian words such as ( "hand"), ( "fork"). Moreover, Venetian always uses in consonant clusters that start with a nasal, whereas Italian only uses before velar stops: e.g. "to sing", "winter", "to anoint", "to cope with". Speakers of Italian generally lack this sound and usually substitute a dental for final Venetian , changing for example to and to .


Vowels

An accented ''á'' can also be pronounced as []. An intervocalic // can be pronounced as a [] sound.


Prosody

While written Venetian looks similar to Italian, it sounds very different, with a distinct lilting cadence, almost musical. Compared to Italian, in Venetian syllabic rhythms are more evenly timed, accents are less marked, but on the other hand tonal modulation is much wider and melodic curves are more intricate. Stressed and unstressed syllables sound almost the same; there are no long vowels, and there is no consonant lengthening. Compare the Italian sentence ''"go there with him"'' (all long/heavy syllables but final) with Venetian (all short/light syllables).


Sample etymological lexicon

As a direct descent of regional spoken Latin, Venetian lexicon derives its vocabulary substantially from Latin and (in more recent times) from Tuscan, so that most of its words are cognate with the corresponding words of Italian. Venetian includes however many words derived from other sources (such as Greek, Gothic, and German), and has preserved some Latin words not used to the same extent in Italian, resulting in many words that are not cognate with their equivalent words in Italian, such as:


Spelling systems


Traditional system

Venetian does not have an official writing system, but it is traditionally written using the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
— sometimes with certain additional letters or diacritics. The basis for some of these conventions can be traced to Old Venetian, while others are purely modern innovations. Medieval texts, written in Old Venetian, include the letters , and to represent sounds that do not exist or have a different distribution in Italian. Specifically: * The letter was often employed in words that nowadays have a voiced -sound (compare English ''xylophone''); for instance appears in words such as , , ("reason", "(holy) Cross" and "house"). The precise phonetic value of in Old Venetian texts remains unknown, however. * The letter often appeared in words that nowadays have a varying voiced pronunciation ranging from to or or even to ; even in contemporary spelling "down" may represent any of or even , depending on the dialect; similarly "young woman" could be any of , or , and "zero" could be , or . * Likewise, was written for a voiceless sound which now varies, depending on the dialect spoken, from to to , as in for example "sweet", now , "sweetness", now , or "hope", now . The usage of letters in medieval and early modern texts was not, however, entirely consistent. In particular, as in other northern Italian languages, the letters and were often used interchangeably for both voiced and voiceless sounds. Differences between earlier and modern pronunciation, divergences in pronunciation within the modern Venetian-speaking region, differing attitudes about how closely to model spelling on Italian norms, as well as personal preferences, some of which reflect sub-regional identities, have all hindered the adoption of a single unified spelling system. Nevertheless, in practice, most spelling conventions are the same as in Italian. In some early modern texts letter becomes limited to word-initial position, as in ("is"), where its use was unavoidable because Italian spelling cannot represent there. In between vowels, the distinction between and was ordinarily indicated by doubled for the former and single for the latter. For example, was used to represent ("he/she kisses"), whereas represented ("low"). (Before consonants there is no contrast between and , as in Italian, so a single is always used in this circumstance, it being understood that the will agree in voicing with the following consonant. For example, represents only , but represents .) Traditionally the letter was ambiguous, having the same values as in Italian (both voiced and voiceless affricates and ). Nevertheless, in some books the two pronunciations are sometimes distinguished (in between vowels at least) by using doubled to indicate (or in some dialects ) but a single for (or , ). In more recent practice the use of to represent , both in word-initial as well as in intervocalic contexts, has become increasingly common, but no entirely uniform convention has emerged for the representation of the voiced vs. voiceless affricates (or interdental fricatives), although a return to using and remains an option under consideration. Regarding the spelling of the vowel sounds, because in Venetian, as in Italian, there is no contrast between tense and lax vowels in unstressed syllables, the orthographic grave and acute accents can be used to mark both stress and vowel quality at the same time: ''à'' , ''á'' , ''è'' , ''é'' , ''í'' , ''ò'' , ''ó'' , ''ú'' . Different orthographic norms prescribe slightly different rules for when stressed vowels must be written with accents or may be left unmarked, and no single system has been accepted by all speakers. Venetian allows the
consonant cluster In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the metho ...
(not present in Italian), which is sometimes written or before ''i'' or ''e'', and or before other vowels. Examples include (Italian , "to clear up"), (, "plain clear"), (, "gun") and (, "
our Our or OUR may refer to: * The possessive form of "" * , in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany * , a village in Belgium * , a commune in France * , a government utility regulator in Jamaica * , a non-profit organization that helps rescue victims * ...

our
servant", , "hello", "goodbye"). The hyphen or apostrophe is used because the combination is conventionally used for the sound, as in Italian spelling; e.g. (, "stupid"); whereas before ''a'', ''o'' and ''u'' represents : (, "box"), (, "to hide"), (, "to forgive").


Proposed systems

Recently there have been attempts to standardize and simplify the script by reusing older letters, e.g. by using for and a single for ; then one would write for (" hird person singularkisses") and for ("low"). Some authors have continued or resumed the use of , but only when the resulting word is not too different from the Italian orthography: in modern Venetian writings, it is then easier to find words as and , rather than and , even though all these four words display the same phonological variation in the position marked by the letter . Another recent convention is to use (in place of older ) for the "soft" ''l'', to allow a more unified orthography for all variants of the language. However, in spite of their theoretical advantages, these proposals have not been very successful outside of academic circles, because of regional variations in pronunciation and incompatibility with existing literature. More recently, on December 14, 2017, the Modern International Manual of Venetian Spelling has been approved by the new Commission for Spelling of 2010. It has been translated in three languages (Italian, Venetian and English) and it exemplifies and explains every single letter and every sound of the Venetian language. The graphic accentuation and punctuation systems are added as corollaries. Overall, the system has been greatly simplified from previous ones to allow both Italian and foreign speakers to learn and understand the Venetian spelling and alphabet in a more straightforward way. The Venetian speakers of
Chipilo Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico. It is located south of the state capital Puebla, Puebla, at a height of Above mean sea level, above sea level. Its official name is Chipilo de Francisco Javier Mina. The people of Chipilo are ...

Chipilo
use a system based on
Spanish orthography Spanish orthography is the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselve ...

Spanish orthography
, even though it does not contain letters for and . The American linguist Carolyn McKay proposed a writing system for that variant based entirely on the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
alphabet. However, the system was not very popular.


Orthographies comparison


Sample texts


Ruzante returning from war

The following sample, in the old dialect of Padua, comes from a play by Ruzante ( Angelo Beolco), titled ("Dialogue of Ruzante who came from the battlefield", 1529). The character, a peasant returning home from the war, is expressing to his friend Menato his relief at being still alive:


The following sample is taken from the '' Perasto Speech'' (), given on August 23, 1797 at
Perast Perast ( sr-cyrl, Пераст) is an old town on the Bay of Kotor in Montenegro. It is situated a few kilometres northwest of Kotor and is noted for its proximity to the islets of St. George and Our Lady of the Rocks. History According to th ...

Perast
o, by Venetian Captain Giuseppe Viscovich, at the last lowering of the flag of the Venetian Republic (nicknamed the "Republic of
Saint Mark Mark the Evangelist ( la, Marcus; el, Μᾶρκος, Mârkos; Aramaic Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Imperial Aramaic: ; square script ) is a language that originated among the Arameans The Arameans (Old A ...
").


Francesco Artico

The following is a contemporary text by Francesco Artico. The elderly narrator is recalling the church choir singers of his youth, who, needless to say, sang much better than those of today
(see the full original text with audio)


Venetian lexical exports to English

Many words were exported to English, either directly or via Italian or French. The list below shows some examples of imported words, with the date of first appearance in English according to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.


See also

* Venetian literature *
Talian dialect Talian (or Brazilian Venetian, , , but ) is a dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a ...
*
Chipilo Venetian dialect Chipilo Venetian, or Chipileño, is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century immigrants to Mexico from the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. The immigrants settled in the State of Puebla, foundin ...
* — Venetian language magazine


References


Bibliography

* * * * *


External links


General grammar; comparison to other Romance languages; description of the Venetian dialect
* —samples of written and spoken Venetian by Francesco Artico

{{DEFAULTSORT:Venetian Language Languages of Veneto Languages of Friuli-Venezia Giulia Languages of Croatia