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Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; rm, Vuclina (); lmo, Valtelina or ; german: Veltlin; it, Valtellina) is a valley in the
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
region of northern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
, bordering
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
. Today it is known for its
ski center A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports. In Europe, most ski resorts are towns or villages in or adjacent to a ski area – a mountainous area with pistes (ski trails) and a ski lift system. In North A ...
,
hot spring A hot spring, hydrothermal spring, or geothermal spring is a Spring (hydrology), spring produced by the emergence of Geothermal (geology), geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust. While some of these springs contain wate ...
spas,
bresaola 230px, ''Bresaola della Valtellina'' (PGI/IGP), olives, a pickled onion and bread Bresaola (, also , , ) is air-dried, salted beef Beef is the culinary name for meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and k ...
,
cheese Cheese is a dairy product and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, Water buffalo, bu ...

cheese
s (in particular
Bitto Bitto ( lmo, Bit) is an Italian DOP (''Denominazione di origine controllata, Denominazione di Origine Protetta'') cheese produced in the Valtelline valley in Lombardy. It owes its name to the Bitto river. Bitto is produced only in the summer month ...

Bitto
, named after the river Bitto) and
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide, releasing heat in the process. Different v ...

wine
s. In past centuries it was a key
alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...

alpine
pass between northern Italy and
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
and control of the Valtellina was much sought after, particularly during the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western ...
as it was an important part of the
Spanish Road The Spanish Road was a military road and trade route in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, linking the Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, ...

Spanish Road
.


Geography

The most important
comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the ...
of the valley is
Sondrio Sondrio (; lmo, Sùndri; rm, Sunder; archaic german: Sünders or ; la, Sundrium) is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or muni ...

Sondrio
; the others major centers are
Aprica Aprica is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: Ci ...

Aprica
,
Morbegno Image:Morbegno0001.jpg, left, 300px, Façade of the church of San Giovanni Battista, Morbegno, San Giovanni Battista. Morbegno (; lmo, Murbegn ; german: Morbend) is a little town in the low Valtellina Valley in Italy, on the left side of the Adda R ...
,
Tirano Tirano ( lmo, Tiràn, german: Thiran) is a town in Valtellina Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; rm, Vuclina (); lmo, Valtelina or ; german: Veltlin; it, Valtellina) is a valley in the ...

Tirano
,
Bormio Bormio ( lmo, Bormi, rm, italic=yes, , german: Worms im Veltlintal) is a town and '' comune'' with a population of about 4,100 located in the Province of Sondrio, Lombardy region of the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Al ...
and
Livigno Livigno (; local lmo, Livígn ; german: Luwin) is a town, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...
. Although Livigno is on the northern side of the alpine
watershed Watershed is a hydrological term, which has been adopted in other fields in a more or less figurative sense. It may refer to: Hydrology * Drainage divide, the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins ** European watershed * Drainage basin, ...
, it is considered part of Valtellina as it falls within the
province of Sondrio The Province of Sondrio ( it, provincia di Sondrio) is in the Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
.


History


Antiquity and the middle ages

The region was conquered in 16 BC by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
. By the 5th century it was
Christianized Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and througho ...
with around ten
pieve In the Middle Ages, a pieve (, ; la, plebe, link=no) was a rural church ...

pieve
(rural churches with a
baptistery In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or ...
) under the
Diocese of Como The Catholic Diocese of Como ( la, Dioecesis Comensis) in northern Italy, has existed since the fourth century. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Milan. The bishops' seat is in Como Cathedral. Local legend credits the conversion of Como to th ...
. The
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Gr ...
gained control over the area after 720, but about fifty years later
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
gave the valley to Saint Denis Monastery near
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
. Later the valley returned to the Bishop of Como.


Early modern period

During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Valtellina belonged to the
Three Leagues The Three Leagues, sometimes referred to as Raetia, was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons). T ...
(the "Grey Leagues"), which was then a mutual-defense region independent of Switzerland but is now the easternmost
Swiss Canton The 26 cantons of Switzerland (german: Kanton; french: canton; it, cantone; Sursilvan Sursilvan (; also ''romontsch sursilvan'' ; Sursilvan, Vallader, Surmiran, Sutsilvan, and Rumantsch Grischun: ''sursilvan''; Puter: ''sursilvaun'') is a gro ...
of
Graubünden
Graubünden
. Graubünden is an area in which
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, Romansh,
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...

Lombard
and
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
are all spoken, and hence during 16th century rule by Graubünden, the region became known variously as ''Veltlin,'' ''Westtirol'' (West
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompass ...
), and the ''Welsche Vogteien'' ("Romanic Bailiwicks"). During the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western ...
, the Valtellina was a theater of intense military and diplomatic struggle among
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
, the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), i ...

Habsburg
powers and the local authorities which culminated in the Valtellina war of 1620-1626. Control over the routes through the Valtellina to the passes between Lombardy and the Danube watershed was at stake as it formed part of the so-called
Spanish Road The Spanish Road was a military road and trade route in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, linking the Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, ...

Spanish Road
. The anti-Habsburg forces in the
Three Leagues The Three Leagues, sometimes referred to as Raetia, was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons). T ...
put together a court that between 1618 and 1620 handed down a number of convictions (often ''
in absentia is Latin for absence. , a legal term, is Latin for "in the absence" or "while absent". may also refer to: * Award in absentia * Declared death in absentia, or simply, death in absentia, legally declared death without a body * Election in absen ...
'') against Catholics in the Leagues and Valtellina.Graubünden's religious history
(PDF; 3.95 MB)
The harsh judgments of the anti-Habsburg Thusis court led to a conspiracy to drive the Protestants out of the valley. The leader of the conspiracy, Giacomo Robustelli of the Planta family, had ties to Madrid, Rome and Paris. On the evening of 18/19 July 1620, a force of Valtellina rebels supported by Austrian and Italian troops marched into
Tirano Tirano ( lmo, Tiràn, german: Thiran) is a town in Valtellina Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; rm, Vuclina (); lmo, Valtelina or ; german: Veltlin; it, Valtellina) is a valley in the ...

Tirano
and began killing Protestants. When they finished in Tirano, they marched to Teglio,
Sondrio Sondrio (; lmo, Sùndri; rm, Sunder; archaic german: Sünders or ; la, Sundrium) is an Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or muni ...

Sondrio
and further down the valley killing every Protestant that they found. Between 500Swiss History
accessed 16 January 2012
and 600 people were killed on that night and in the following four days. The attack drove nearly all the Protestants out of the valley, prevented further Protestant incursions and took the Valtellina out of the
Three Leagues The Three Leagues, sometimes referred to as Raetia, was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons). T ...
. The killings in Valtellina were part of the conflicts in Graubünden known as the '' Bündner Wirren'' or Confusion of the Leagues. In February 1623
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
,
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie ; it, Savoia ; pms, Savòja ; ) is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps. Situated on the cultural boundary between Franco-Provençal, Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), al ...

Savoy
, and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, del ...
signed the Treaty of Paris in which all three signatories agreed to re-establish the territory of Valtellina by attempting to remove Spanish forces stationed there.


18th and 19th centuries

In 1797 the growing power of the
First French Republic In the history of France, the First Republic (French: ''Première République''), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refe ...
created the
Cisalpine republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metrop ...
in Northern Italy. On 10 October 1797, the French supported a revolt in the Valtellina against the
Graubünden
Graubünden
(''Grisons'' in French and English), and it joined the
Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic ( it, Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metrop ...
. After the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was the most important international diplomatic conference in European history, reconstituting the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1815 the Valtellina became part of the
Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
, which was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire. In 1859 it came, together with Lombardy, to the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia ...
, and finally in 1861 it became part of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
. At the end of the 19th century there was substantial migration out of the Valtellina for reasons of the prevailing economically depressed conditions of the region and for young men to avoid
conscription Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service. Conscription ...
.Paull, John (2014
"Ernesto Genoni: Australia’s pioneer of biodynamic agriculture"
Journal of Organics, 1(1):57-81.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, smal ...

Australia
, especially
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Australia, state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the So ...

Western Australia
, was a popular destination for such migrants. Industrially, the area is famous as the home of the world's first mainline
electrified railway (the "Skokie Swift"), shown shortly before the conversion to third rail operation in September 2004. A railway electrification system supplies electric power to Rail transport, railway trains and trams without an on-board Prime mover (locomotive ...

electrified railway
. The electrification of the
Ferrovia della Valtellina The Ferrovia della Valtellina (Valtellina railway) is a railway line in Italy that runs from Lecco to Valtellina and Valchiavenna. It was opened in 1894 and electrified on the Three-phase AC railway electrification, three-phase system in 1902. It ...
took place in 1902, using
three-phase In electrical engineering, three-phase electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in delta (∆) or star (Y) (also ...
power at 3,600 V, with a maximum speed of 70 km/h. The system was designed by the brilliant Hungarian engineer Kálmán Kandó who was employed by main contractors the
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city ...
-based
Ganz The Ganz Works or Ganz ( or , ''Ganz companies'', formerly ''Ganz and Partner Iron Mill and Machine Factory'') was a group of companies operating between 1845 and 1949 in Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the List of cities and town ...

Ganz
company.


Mussolini and the Valtellina Redoubt

During the last months of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and other diehard
fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum than the standard political right, particularl ...

fascist
leaders of the
Italian Social Republic The Italian Social Republic ( it, Repubblica Sociale Italiana, ; RSI), popularly and historically known as the Republic of Salò ( it, Repubblica di Salò ), was a German puppet state with limited recognition Recognition may refer to: *Award, ...

Italian Social Republic
(RSI) proposed making a "last stand" against the advancing Allied armies in the Valtellina. The Fascist Party secretary
Alessandro Pavolini Alessandro Pavolini (27 September 1903 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often ab ...
was the main proponent of the idea, which he first raised with Mussolini in September 1944. He pointed out that the valley was ringed with fortifications dating from
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...

World War I
, and had its own electricity generating capacity (hydroelectric). In the last months of 1944 Mussolini's government began moving munitions and food stores to the area. By January 1945, however, no firm decision to make a stand in the Valtellina had been taken. The
Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe.. "Germans are a Germanic (or Teutonic) people that are indigenous to Central Europe... Germanic tribes have inhabited Central Europe since a ...

Germans
, represented by Ambassador Rudolf Rahn, were opposed to the idea. In March, with the Allies advancing into the Po valley, Mussolini's Cabinet again discussed the idea. The RSI's military commander, Marshal
Rodolfo Graziani Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (; 11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italy, Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's ''Regio Esercito'' ("Royal Army"), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and d ...
, who believed the war was already lost, opposed the plan. This ensured that no serious military preparations were made. In early April Pavolini again raised the plan, which he called "the Epic of the 50,000," claiming that 50,000
Blackshirt The Voluntary Militia for National Security ( it, Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, MVSN), commonly called the Blackshirts ( it, Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: ''Camicia Nera'') or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally t ...
s would follow Mussolini if he made a stand in the Valtellina. The Germans, who by this time were negotiating with the Allies to surrender their armies in Italy, remained adamantly opposed. , the RSI's under-secretary for foreign affairs, pointed out that valley was already mostly in the hands of the partisans. By mid April, the Valtellina plan was no longer a realistic possibility. Although Mussolini continued to fantasise about dying a heroic death there, the plan had no serious support. When Mussolini left
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
on 25 April, heading north, it was assumed he was going to the Valtellina, but his intentions were never made clear. He told some people he would go to
Bolzano Bolzano ( or ; german: Bozen (formerly ), ; bar, Bozn; lld, Balsan or ) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. With a population of 108,245, Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol and the third lar ...
, in the
province of Bolzano South Tyrol is an Autonomous area, autonomous Provinces of Italy, province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous Regions of Italy, region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome ...
, to join up with German forces. In any event, Mussolini's capture on 27 April by the partisans at Dongo, barely short of the Valtellina, ended any possibility of a fascist last stand.Ray Moseley, ''The Last Days of Mussolini'', 269


Culture and language

The culture of the inhabitants of the region north of Morbegno in the Costiera dei Cech is believed to originate from the 8th-century
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
invasion of Italy; the local dialect used to be a mix of Romansch and
Lombard Language Lombard (native name ''lombard, lumbard'' or ''lumbàart'', depending on the orthography; or ) is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, ...

Lombard Language
. These days, however, only Italian and Lombard are spoken.


Wines

In Valtellina, wines are produced mainly from ''Chiavennasca'' (the local name of
Nebbiolo Nebbiolo (, ; pms, nebieul ) is an Italian red wine Red wine is a type of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as m ...
grape variety This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, Zante currant, currant, sultana (grape), sultana). The term ''grape variety'' refers to cultivars rather than actu ...
) with other minor varieties such as
Rossola nera Rossola nera is a red Italian wine grape variety that has been growing in the Valtellina region of Lombardy (wine), Lombardy since at least the 17th century. In 2004 DNA profiling determined that the grape has a parent-offspring relationship with th ...
permitted up to 20% for the '' Denominazione di origine controllata'' (DOC) and 10% for the '' Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita'' (DOCG). Grapes are limited to a
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an ...
yield Yield may refer to: Measures of output/function Computer science * Yield (multithreading) is an action that occurs in a computer program during multithreading * See generator (computer programming) Physics/chemistry * Yield (chemistry), the amou ...
of 12
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), the current metric system, having the unit symbol kg. I ...
s/ha. The finished wine must be aged for at least 2 years prior to release (3 years if a '' Riserva'' bottling) with a minimum
alcohol level Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. It is a sim ...
of at least 11%. Yields for the DOCG wines are further restricted to a maximum of 8 tonnes/ha. While the aging requirements are the same as the DOC, the minimum alcohol level for the DOCG wine is 12%.P. Saunders ''Wine Label Language'' pg 143 Firefly Books 2004 The best-known villages for red wines are: Grumello, Sassella,
Inferno Inferno may refer to: * Hell, an afterlife place of suffering * Conflagration, a large uncontrolled fire Film * ''L'Inferno'', a 1911 Italian film * Inferno (1953 film), ''Inferno'' (1953 film), a film noir by Roy Ward Baker * Inferno (1973 fil ...
, Valgella, and . The village names are normally indicated on the label. Additionally there is an
Amarone Amarone della Valpolicella, usually known as Amarone (, ), is an Italian DOCG denomination of typically rich dry red wine made from the partially dried grapes A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry (botany), berry, of the deciduous woody v ...
style DOCG wine called Sforzato (Sfursat).


Tourism

One of the most notable tourist attractions of the area is the Bernina railway, Bernina Line (“Trenino Rosso”) of the Rhaetian Railway, which links the town of
Tirano Tirano ( lmo, Tiràn, german: Thiran) is a town in Valtellina Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; rm, Vuclina (); lmo, Valtelina or ; german: Veltlin; it, Valtellina) is a valley in the ...

Tirano
in the Valtellina with St. Moritz in Graubünden, Switzerland via the Bernina Pass. The mountains of the Valtellina offer numerous possibilities for sport activities: skiing and winter sports in
Bormio Bormio ( lmo, Bormi, rm, italic=yes, , german: Worms im Veltlintal) is a town and '' comune'' with a population of about 4,100 located in the Province of Sondrio, Lombardy region of the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Al ...
,
Aprica Aprica is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: Ci ...

Aprica
or
Livigno Livigno (; local lmo, Livígn ; german: Luwin) is a town, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides ...
, hiking and biking in the same locations and especially in the secondary valleys, and rock climbing in the Val Masino. The Rupe Magna, a unique large rock with more than 5,000 engraved figures dating from between the 4th and 1st millennia BCE, can be found at the Rock Engraving Park-Grosio, Rock Engraving Park in Grosio. File:Berninabahn zwischen Lagalb und Ospizio Bernina im Winter.jpg, Bernina Line of the Rhaetian Railway File:Tirano-Rhaetischer Bahnhof.jpg, Tirano - Bernina Line train station File:Parco Grosio La Rupe Magna.jpg, Rock Engraving Park-Grosio; Rupe Magna File:Parco Grosio Rupe Magna 5.jpg, Rock Engraving Park-Grosio; Rupe Magna


Val Poschiavo

In the lower part of the Val Poschiavo, the valley in the Graubünden canton of
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
that descends into the Valtellina at
Tirano Tirano ( lmo, Tiràn, german: Thiran) is a town in Valtellina Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; rm, Vuclina (); lmo, Valtelina or ; german: Veltlin; it, Valtellina) is a valley in the ...

Tirano
, similar wines are produced - but under different regulations such as appellation and the allowance of sugar addition, or chaptalization.


Notable people

Born in Valtellina: * Achille Compagnoni (Mountaineer) * Deborah Compagnoni (Alpine skier) * Arianna Fontana (Short track speed skater) * :it:Marco De Gasperi, Marco De Gasperi (Athlete, Skyrunner) * Fabio Meraldi (Ski mountaineer) * Giuseppe Piazzi (Priest, mathematician and astronomer) * Giulio Tremonti (Politician) * Luigi Torelli (Patriot)


See also

* Valtellina disaster


References

Further reading: F Pieth: Bündnergeschichte, 1982,


External links


An extensive history of the Valtellina area

Tourist information
{{Authority control Valleys of the Alps Valleys of Lombardy Geographical, historical and cultural regions of Italy Wine regions of Italy Wine regions of Switzerland