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The United States of the Ionian Islands ( el, Ἡνωμένον Κράτος τῶν Ἰονίων Νήσων, Inoménon-Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, ; it, Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department o ...
and
amical protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereig ...
of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864. The
successor state Succession of states is a theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic ...
of the
Septinsular Republic The Septinsular Republic ( el, Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Heptanēsos Politeia; it, Repubblica Settinsulare) was an oligarchic Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between ...
, it covered the territory of the
Ionian Islands The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including th ...

Ionian Islands
, in modern
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, and was ceded to Greece as a gift of Britain to the newly-enthroned
King George I
King George I
after the resolution for union with Greece had been proposed by the Party of Radicals.


History

Before the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
, the Ionian Islands had been part of the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
. When the 1797
Treaty of Campo Formio The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido Campoformido ( fur, Cjampfuarmit) is a town and ''comune'' in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, north-eastern Italy, with a population of 7743 (December 2019). It is notable for the Treaty of Campo Formio. ...
dissolved the Republic of Venice, they were annexed to the
French Republic France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of severa ...
. Between 1798 and 1799, the French were driven out by a joint Russo-
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
force. The occupying forces founded the
Septinsular Republic The Septinsular Republic ( el, Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Heptanēsos Politeia; it, Repubblica Settinsulare) was an oligarchic Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between ...
, which enjoyed relative independence under nominal Ottoman suzerainty and Russian control from 1800 until 1807. The Ionian Islands were then occupied by the French after the
treaty of Tilsit The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte ...

treaty of Tilsit
. In 1809, Britain defeated the French fleet off
Zakynthos Zakynthos (also spelled Zakinthos; el, Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos ; it, Zacinto ) or Zante meaning "amazing and loving" (, , ; el, Τζάντε, Tzánte ; from the Venetian form) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...

Zakynthos
island on 2 October, and captured
Kefalonia Kefalonia or Cephalonia ( el, Κεφαλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th largest island in Greece after Crete, Euboea, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios. It i ...

Kefalonia
,
Kythira Kythira (, ; el, Κύθηρα, , also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an Greek islands, island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula. It is traditionally listed as one of the seven main Io ...
, and Zakynthos. The British proceeded to capture
Lefkada Lefkada ( el, Λευκάδα, ''Lefkáda'', ), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to ...

Lefkada
in 1810. The island of
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek island Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group *Greek language, a branch ...

Corfu
remained occupied by the French until 1814. Under the s:Treaty between Great Britain and Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands, Treaty between Great Britain and [Austria, Prussia and] Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands (Treaty of Paris (1815), signed in Paris on 5 November 1815), as one of the treaties signed during the Treaty of Paris (1815), Peace of Paris (1815), Britain obtained a protectorate over the Ionian Islands, and under s:Treaty between Great Britain and Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands#ART.VII, Article VIII of the treaty the Austrian Empire was granted the same trading privileges with the Islands as Britain. As agreed in s:Treaty between Great Britain and Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands#ART.IV, Article IV of the treaty a "New Constitutional Charter for the State" was drawn up and was formalised with the ratification of the "Sir Thomas Maitland#Governor of Malta and of the Ionian Islands, Maitland constitution" on 26 August 1817, which created a federation of the seven islands, with Lieutenant-General Thomas Maitland (British Army officer), Sir Thomas Maitland its first "Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands". A few years later Greek nationalism, Greek nationalist groups started to form. Although their energy in the early years was directed to supporting their fellow Greek revolutionaries in the Greek War of Independence, revolution against the Ottoman Empire, they switched their focus to ''enosis'' with Greece following their independence. The Party of Radicals (Greek: Κόμμα των Ριζοσπαστών) founded in 1848 as a pro-enosis political party. In September 1848 there were skirmishes with the British Army, British garrison in Argostoli and Lixouri on
Kefalonia Kefalonia or Cephalonia ( el, Κεφαλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th largest island in Greece after Crete, Euboea, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios. It i ...

Kefalonia
, which led to a certain level relaxation in the enforcement of the protectorates laws, and freedom of the press as well. The island's populace did not hide their growing demands for enosis, and newspapers on the islands frequently published articles criticising British policies in the protectorate. On 15 August in 1849, another rebellion broke out, which was quashed by Sir Henry George Ward, who proceeded to temporarily impose martial law. On 26 November 1850, the Radical MP John Detoratos Typaldos proposed in the Ionian parliament the resolution for the enosis of the Ionian Islands with Greece which was signed by Gerasimos Livadas, Nadalis Domeneginis, George Typaldos, Frangiskos Domeneginis, Ilias Zervos Iakovatos, Iosif Momferatos, Telemachus Paizis, Ioannis Typaldos, Aggelos Sigouros-Dessyllas, Christodoulos Tofanis. In 1862, the party split into two factions, the "United Radical Party" and the "Real Radical Party". During the period of British rule, William Ewart Gladstone visited the islands and recommended their reunion with Greece, to the chagrin of the British government. On 29 March 1864, representatives of Great Britain, Greece, France, and Russia signed the Treaty of London, 1864, Treaty of London, pledging the transfer of sovereignty to Greece upon ratification; this was meant to bolster the reign of the newly installed King George I of Greece. Thus, on 28 May, by proclamation of the Lord High Commissioner, the Ionian Islands were united with Greece.


Languages

According to the second constitution of the Republic (1803), Greek was the primary official language, in contrast to the situation in the
Septinsular Republic The Septinsular Republic ( el, Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Heptanēsos Politeia; it, Repubblica Settinsulare) was an oligarchic Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between ...
. Italian was still in use, though, mainly for official purposes since the Venetian Republic. The only island in which Italian (Venetian language, Venetian) had a wider spread was Cephalonia, where a great number of people had adopted Venetian Italian as their first language.


States

The United States of the Ionian Islands was a federation. It included seven island states, each of which was allocated a number of seats in the parliament, the Ionian Senate:


Government

The British organised administration under the direction of a Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, Lord High Commissioner, appointed by the British government. In total, ten men served in this capacity, including William Ewart Gladstone, William Gladstone as a Lord High Commissioner Extraordinary (in office 1858–1859). The Ionian Islands had a bicameral legislature, titled the "Parliament of the United States of the Ionian Islands" and composed of a Ionian Assembly, Legislative Assembly and a Ionian Senate, Senate. Constitution of the Ionian Islands, Article VII The 1818 constitution also established a High Court of Appeal to be called the Supreme Council of Justice of the United States of the Ionian Islands, of which the president was to be known as the Chief Justice, who would rank in precedence immediately after the President of the Senate. The successive Chief Justices were: * John Kirkpatrick 1820–1835 * Sir James John Reid 1837–? * Sir Charles Sargent 1860–? * Patrick Colquhoun (lawyer), Sir Patrick MacChombaich de Colquhoun 1861–1864


See also

* List of Greek countries and regions * List of Lord High Commissioners of the Ionian Islands * Order of St Michael and St George, a British order of chivalry created in honour of the protectorate.


Footnotes


Further reading

* * Hannell, David. "The Ionian Islands under the British Protectorate: social and economic problems." ''Journal of Modern Greek Studies'' 7.1 (1989): 105–132
online
* Hannell, David. "A Case of Bad Publicity: Britain and the Ionian Islands, 1848–51." ''European History Quarterly'' 17.2 (1987): 131–143. * Knox, Bruce. "British policy and the Ionian Islands, 1847–1864: nationalism and imperial administration." ''English Historical Review'' 99.392 (1984): 503–529. * * Pagratis, Gerassimos D. "The Ionian Islands under British Protection (1815–1864)." in ''Anglo-Saxons in the Mediterranean. Commerce, Politics and Ideas (XVII–XX Centuries),'' (Malta, 2007) pp: 131–150
online
* Paschalidi, Maria. "Constructing Ionian identities: the Ionian Islands in British official discourses; 1815–1864" (PhD dissertation, UCL (University College London), 2010
online
* Schumacher, Leslie Rogne. "Greek Expectations: Britain and the Ionian Islands, 1815–64.” in ''Imperial Expectations and Realities: El Dorados, Utopias and Dystopias,'' edited by Andrekos Varnava, (Manchester University Press, 2015), pp. 47–65. [www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1wn0scs.8 online]


External links

*
The Constitution in Italian
* {{DEFAULTSORT:Ionian Islands, United States Of The United States of the Ionian Islands, States and territories established in 1815 States and territories disestablished in 1864 History of modern Greece Greece–United Kingdom relations 1815 establishments in the British Empire 1815 establishments in Europe 1864 disestablishments in Europe Former British colonies and protectorates in Europe