HOME

TheInfoList




The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an
executive department The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch of the federal government of the United States. They are analogous to Ministry (government department), minis ...
of the U.S. federal government responsible for the nation's
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
and
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
. Equivalent to the
ministry of foreign affairs In many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, neg ...
of other nations, its primary duties are advising the
U.S. president The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodime ...

U.S. president
, administering
diplomatic missions A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newsp ...
, negotiating international treaties and agreements, and representing the U.S. at the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
. The department is headquartered in the
Harry S Truman Building The Harry S Truman Building is the headquarters of the United States Department of State. It is located in Washington, D.C., and houses the office of the United States Secretary of State. The Truman Building is located in the Foggy Bottom neighborh ...
, a few blocks from the
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
, in the
Foggy Bottom Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D.C., located west of the White House and downtown Washington, in the Washington, D.C. (northwest), Northwest quadrant. It is bounded roughly by 17th Str ...
neighborhood of
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
; "Foggy Bottom" is thus sometimes used as a
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
. Established in 1789 as the first administrative arm of the U.S. executive branch, the State Department is considered among the most powerful and prestigious executive agencies. It is led by the secretary of state, a member of the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
who is nominated by the president and
confirmed A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant created in baptism. It is an affirmation of commitment and belief. Those bei ...
by the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
. Analogous to a
foreign minister A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a in charge of a 's and . The formal title of the top official varies between countries. In the United States it is "Secretar ...
, the secretary of state serves as the federal government's chief diplomat and representative abroad, and is the first Cabinet official in the
order of precedence An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance and can be applied to individuals, groups, or organizations. Most often it is used in the context of people by many organizations and governments, for very formal and state oc ...
and in the
presidential line of succession File:Gerald R. Ford is sworn in as President - NARA - 6923692.jpg, upright=.90, Chief Justice of the United States, Chief Justice Warren Burger administering the Presidential Oath of Office to President Gerald Ford following the Watergate scandal# ...
. The position is currently held by
Antony Blinken Antony John Blinken (born April 16, 1962) is an American government official and diplomat serving as the 71st United States secretary of state since January 26, 2021. He previously served as Deputy National Security Advisor (United States), deput ...

Antony Blinken
who was appointed by President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, he served as the 47th Vice Pres ...

Joe Biden
and confirmed by the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
on January 26, 2021 by a vote of 78–22. As of 2019, the State Department maintains 273 diplomatic posts worldwide, second only to China's
Ministry of Foreign Affairs In many countries, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government department responsible for the state's diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, neg ...
. It also manages the
US Foreign Service The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic serviceDiplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government A government is the system or grou ...
, provides diplomatic training to US officials and military personnel, exercises partial jurisdiction over
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination of which they are not natives or where they do not possess in order to settle as or citizens. , , and other short-term stays in a destination country do not fall under ...
, and provides various services to Americans, such as issuing
passport A passport is an official travel documentA travel document is an identity document issued by a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the c ...

passport
s and
visas Visa most commonly refers to: * Visa Inc., a US multinational financial and payment cards company ** Visa Debit Visa Debit is a major brand of debit card issued by Visa Inc., Visa in many countries around the world. Numerous banks and financial ...
, posting foreign travel advisories, and advancing commercial ties abroad. The department administers the oldest US civilian intelligence agency, the
Bureau of Intelligence and Research The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reaso ...
, and maintains a law enforcement arm, the
Diplomatic Security Service The United States Diplomatic Security Service (DSS or DS) is the federal law enforcement and security arm of the U.S. Department of State. It is responsible primarily for protecting diplomatic assets, personnel, and information, and combating ...
.


History


Origin and early history

The
U.S. Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first t ...

U.S. Constitution
, drafted September 1787 and
ratified Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally. Ratification defines the international act in which a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intend ...
the following year, gave the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
responsibility for conducting the federal government's affairs with foreign states. To that end, on July 21, 1789, the First Congress approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs, which President
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
signed into law on July 27, making the department the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned it a variety of domestic duties, including managing the United States Mint, keeping the
Great Seal of the United States The Great Seal is a principal National symbols of the United States, national symbol of the United States. The phrase is used both for the physical seal (device), seal itself, which is kept by the United States Secretary of State, and more genera ...

Great Seal of the United States
, and administering the
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...
. President
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...

Washington
signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties gradually were transferred to various federal departments and agencies established in the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as serving as keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision. On September 29, 1789, Washington appointed
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and who served as the third from 1801 to 1809. He had previously served as the second under and as the first under ...

Thomas Jefferson
of
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a in the and regions of the , between the and the . The geography and climate of the are shaped by the and the , which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capit ...

Virginia
, then Minister to France, as the first U.S. Secretary of State.
John Jay John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of ...

John Jay
had been serving as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the
Confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in i ...
since before Washington took office; he would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. Reflecting the fledgling status of the US at the time, Jefferson's department comprised only six personnel, two diplomatic posts (in London and Paris), and 10 consular posts.


Eighteenth to nineteenth centuries

For much of its history, the State Department was composed of two primary administrative units: the diplomatic service, which staffed US
legation A legation was a diplomatic representative office of lower rank than an embassy A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organization present in another state to represent the sending state or organi ...
s and embassies, and the consular service, which was primarily responsible for promoting American commerce abroad and assisting distressed American sailors. Each service developed separately, but both lacked sufficient funding to provide for a career; consequently, appointments to either service fell on those with the financial means to sustain their work abroad. Combined with the common practice of appointing individuals based on politics or patronage, rather than merit, this led the department to largely favor those with political networks and wealth, rather than skill and knowledge.


Twentieth century reforms and growth

The Department of State underwent its first major overhaul with the Rogers Act of 1924, which merged the diplomatic and consular services into the
Foreign ServiceDiplomatic service is the body of diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect ...
, a professionalized personnel system under which the Secretary of State is authorized to assign
diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
s abroad. An extremely difficult Foreign Service examination was also implemented to ensure highly qualified recruits, along with a merit-based system of promotions. The Rogers Act also created the Board of the Foreign Service, which advises the Secretary of State on managing the Foreign Service, and the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service, which administers the examination process. The post-Second World War period saw an unprecedented increase in funding and staff commensurate with the US's emergence as a superpower and its competition with the Soviet Union in the subsequent Cold War. Consequently, the number of domestic and overseas employees grew from roughly 2,000 in 1940 to over 13,000 in 1960. In 1997,
Madeleine Albright Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová; May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the 64th United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state implements foreign policy for the ...

Madeleine Albright
became the first woman appointed Secretary of State and the first foreign-born woman to serve in the Cabinet.


Twenty-first century

The 21st century saw the department reinvent itself in response to the rapid
digitization DigitizationDefinition of digitization
at WhatIs.com
is the process of converting ...

digitization
of society and the global economy. In 2007, it launched an official blog, Dipnote, as well as a
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical di ...

Twitter
account of the same name, to engage with a global audience. Internally, it launched a
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a ...

wiki
,
Diplopedia Diplopedia, billed as the Encyclopedia of the United States Department of State The United States Department of State (DOS), or State Department, is an executive department of the U.S. federal government responsible for the nation's foreign p ...
; a suggestion forum called the
Sounding Board A sounding board, also known as a tester and abat-voix is a structure placed above and sometimes also behind a pulpit A pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
; and a professional networking software, "Corridor". In May 2009, the Virtual Student Federal Service (VSFS) was created to provide remote internships to students. The same year, the Department of State was the fourth most desired employer for undergraduates according to ''
BusinessWeek ''Bloomberg Businessweek'', previously known as ''BusinessWeek'', is an American weekly business magazine, published 50 times a year. Since 2009, the magazine is owned by New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is t ...
''. From 2009 to 2017, the State Department launched ''21st Century Statecraft,'' with the official goal of "complementing traditional foreign policy tools with newly innovated and adapted instruments of statecraft that fully leverage the technologies of our interconnected world." The initiative was designed to utilize digital technology and the Internet to promote foreign policy goals; examples include promoting an
SMS SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is ...

SMS
campaign to provide disaster relief to Pakistan, and sending DOS personnel to Libya to assist in developing Internet infrastructure and e-government.
Colin Powell Colin Luther Powell ( ; April 5, 1937 – October 18, 2021) was an American politician, statesman, diplomat, and United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Force ...

Colin Powell
, who led the department from 2001 to 2005, became the first African-American to hold the post; his immediate successor,
Condoleezza Rice Condoleezza "Condi" Rice ( ; born November 14, 1954) is an American diplomat, political scientist Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance Governance comprises all of ...

Condoleezza Rice
, was the second female Secretary of State and the second African-American.
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the from 2009 to 2013, as a from from 2001 to 2009, and as from 1993 to 2001 as the wife ...

Hillary Clinton
became the third female Secretary of State when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building. A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody, Clancy and the
Louis Berger Group Louis Berger (formerly known as Berger Group Holdings) is a full-service engineering, architecture, planning, environmental, program and construction management and economic development firm based in Morristown, New Jersey. Founded in 1953 in Harr ...
won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the
Office of Strategic Services The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency An intelligence agency is a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machiner ...

Office of Strategic Services
and was the first headquarters of the
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
.


Duties and responsibilities

The Executive Branch and the Congress have constitutional responsibilities for US foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead US foreign affairs agency, and its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances US objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It also provides an array of important services to US citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities — US representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering international crime, foreign military training programs, the services the department provides, and more — are paid for out of the foreign affairs budget, which represents little more than 1% of the total federal budget. The department's core activities and purpose include: * Protecting and assisting US citizens living or traveling abroad; * Assisting American businesses in the international marketplace; * Coordinating and providing support for international activities of other US agencies (local, state, or federal government), official visits overseas and at home, and other diplomatic efforts. * Keeping the public informed about US foreign policy and relations with other countries and providing feedback from the public to administration officials. * Providing automobile registration for non-diplomatic staff vehicles and the vehicles of diplomats of foreign countries having
diplomatic immunity Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity cannot be held liable for a violation of the law, in order to facilitate societal aims that outwei ...
in the United States. The Department of State conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Foreign Service personnel system for positions that require service abroad. Employees may be assigned to diplomatic missions abroad to represent the United States, analyze and report on political, economic, and social trends; adjudicate visas; and respond to the needs of US citizens abroad. The US maintains diplomatic relations with about 180 countries and maintains relations with many international organizations, adding up to over 250 posts around the world. In the United States, about 5,000 professional, technical, and administrative employees work compiling and analyzing reports from overseas, providing logistical support to posts, communicating with the American public, formulating and overseeing the budget, issuing passports and travel warnings, and more. In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of State works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the departments of Defense, Treasury, and Commerce. The department also consults with Congress about foreign policy initiatives and policies.


Organization


Secretary of State

The Secretary of State is the
chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of Corporate Executive, corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent Legal person, legal entity ...
of the Department of State and a member of the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
who answers directly to, and advises, the
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
. The secretary organizes and supervises the entire department and its staff.


Staff

Under the Obama administration, the website of the Department of State had indicated that the State Department's 75,547 employees included 13,855 foreign service officers; 49,734 locally employed staff, whose duties are primarily serving overseas; and 10,171 predominantly domestic civil service employees.


Other agencies

Since the 1996 reorganization, the Administrator of the
US Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. With a budget of ov ...
(USAID), while leading an independent agency, also reports to the Secretary of State, as does the US Ambassador to the United Nations.


Vacancies

As of November 2018, people nominated to ambassadorships to 41 countries had not yet been confirmed by the Senate, and no one had yet been nominated to ambassadorships to 18 additional countries (including Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Mexico, Egypt, Jordan, South Africa, and Singapore). In November 2019, a quarter of US embassies around the world—including Japan, Russia and Canada—still had no ambassador.


Headquarters

From 1790 to 1800, the State Department was headquartered in
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
, the
national capital A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
at the time. It occupied a building at Church and Fifth Street.Plischke, Elmer. ''U.S. Department of State: A Reference History.'' Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999, p. 45. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C., where it briefly occupied the Treasury Building and then the
Seven Buildings The Seven Buildings were seven townhouses constructed on the northwest corner of Pennsylvania Avenue NW and 19th Street NW in Washington, D.C., in 1796. They were some of the earliest residential structures built in the city. One of the Seven Buil ...
at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. The State Department moved several times throughout the capital in the ensuing decades, including six buildings in September 1800; the War Office Building west of the White House the following May;Michael, William Henry. ''History of the Department of State of the United States: Its Formation and Duties, Together With Biographies of Its Present Officers and Secretaries From the Beginning.'' Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1901, p. 12. the Treasury Building once more from September 1819 to November 1866; the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875; and the
State, War, and Navy Building The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB)—formerly known as the Old Executive Office Building (OEOB) and even earlier as the State, War, and Navy Building—is a U.S. government building situated just west of the White House in the U.S. ca ...

State, War, and Navy Building
in 1875. Since May 1947, the State Department has been based in the , which originally was intended to house the Department of Defense; it has since undergone several expansions and renovations, most recently in 2016. Previously known as the "Main State Building"'','' in September 2000 it was renamed in honor of
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the ...

Harry S. Truman
, who was a major proponent of internationalism and diplomacy. As the DOS is located in the
Foggy Bottom Foggy Bottom is one of the oldest late 18th- and 19th-century neighborhoods in Washington, D.C., located west of the White House and downtown Washington, in the Washington, D.C. (northwest), Northwest quadrant. It is bounded roughly by 17th Str ...
neighborhood of Washington, it is sometimes
metonym Metonymy () is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of pe ...
ically referred to as "Foggy Bottom".Alex Carmine. (2009.) ''Dan Brown's The Lost Symbol: The Ultimate Unauthorized and Independent Reading Guide'', Punked Books, p. 37. .Joel Mowbray. (2003.) ''Dangerous Diplomacy: How the State Department Threatens America's Security'', Regnery Publishing, p. 11. .


Programs


Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is a program of competitive, merit-based
grants Grant or Grants may refer to: Places *Grant County (disambiguation)Grant County may refer to: Places ;Australia * County of Grant, Victoria ;United States *Grant County, Arkansas *Grant County, Indiana *Grant County, Kansas *Grant County, K ...
for international educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists, founded by
United States Senator The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the ...
J. William Fulbright in 1946. Under the Fulbright Program, competitively selected US citizens may become eligible for scholarships to study, conduct research, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States. The program was established to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. The Fulbright Program provides 8,000 grants annually to undertake graduate study, advanced research, university lecturing, and classroom teaching. In the 2015–16 cycle, 17% and 24% of American applicants were successful in securing research and English Teaching Assistance grants, respectively. However, selectivity and application numbers vary substantially by country and by type of grant. For example, grants were awarded to 30% of Americans applying to teach English in Laos and 50% of applicants to do research in Laos. In contrast, 6% of applicants applying to teach English in Belgium were successful compared to 16% of applicants to do research in Belgium. The US Department of State's
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) of the United States Department of State fosters mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries around the world. It is responsible for the Uni ...
sponsors the Fulbright Program from an annual appropriation from the
U.S. Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States and consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Wa ...
. Additional direct and in-kind support comes from partner governments, foundations, corporations, and host institutions both in and outside the US The Fulbright Program is administered by cooperating organizations like the
Institute of International Education The Institute of International Education (IIE) is a 501(c) organization A 501(c) organization is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institu ...
. It operates in over 160 countries around the world. In each of 49 countries, a bi-national Fulbright Commission administers and oversees the Fulbright Program. In countries without a Fulbright Commission but that have an active program, the Public Affairs Section of the US Embassy oversees the Fulbright Program. More than 360,000 persons have participated in the program since it began. Fifty-four Fulbright alumni have won Nobel Prizes; eighty-two have won
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
s.


Jefferson Science Fellows Program

The Jefferson Science Fellows Program was established in 2003 by the DoS to establish a new model for engaging the American academic science, technology, engineering and medical communities in the formulation and implementation of US foreign policy. The Fellows (as they are called, if chosen for the program) are paid around $50,000 during the program and can earn special bonuses of up to $10,000. The program's intent is to equip Fellows with awareness of procedural intricacies of the Department of State/USAID, to help with its daily operations. The program is applied for, follows a process starting in August, and takes about a year to learn a candidate's ranking results. Awards are not solely achievement based, but intelligence and writing skills should support one's suitability for the position as the committee determines. A candidate applies for the program online, which entails submitting a curriculum vitae, a statement of interest and a written essay. Opportunity is provided to upload letters of recommendations and nominations to support one's application.


Franklin Fellows Program

The Franklin Fellows Program was established in 2006 by the DoS to bring in mid-level executives from the
private sector The private sector is the part of the economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of indust ...
and
non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that o ...
s to advise the department and to work on projects. Fellows may also work with other government entities, including ,
White House The White House is the official residence and workplace of the president of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, D.C., NW in Washington, D.C., and has been the residence of every U.S. preside ...

White House
, and
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
agencies, including the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
,
Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an United States federal executive departments, executive department of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. federal government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks ...
, and
Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North Amer ...
. The program is named in honor of
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
, and aims to attract mid-career professionals to enrich and expand the department's capabilities. Unlike the Jefferson Science Fellows Program, a Franklin Fellowship is a year-long volunteer position for which one may obtain sponsor support or participate out of personal resources. Participation areas assigned to Franklin Fellows are determined by several factors, including issues of priority to the country as well as a candidate's degree of career seniority and personal interests.


Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSEALI)

''See also Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative'' The Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSEALI) (pronounced ) is a program of the DoS for emerging leaders from
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
. The program was launched by President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
in Manila in December 2013 as a way to strengthen leadership development, networking, and cultural exchange among emerging leaders within the age range of 18 to 35 years old from the 10 member-states of the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
and
Timor Leste East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country An island country or ...
. YSEALI's programs include competitive exchange fellowship programs to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, virtual and on-ground workshops within
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, and seed grant funding opportunities. The programs fall under the key core themes of
civic engagement Civic engagement or civic participation is any individual or group activity addressing issues of public concern. Civic engagement includes communities working together or individuals working alone in both political and non-political actions to ...
,
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services Social forestry in India, Social ...

sustainable development
,
economic development In the economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act o ...
,
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
, and the
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
. Notable alumni of YSEALI include
Vico Sotto Victor Ma. Regis "Vico" Nubla Sotto (; born June 17, 1989) is a Filipino politician serving as the 20th and incumbent mayor of Pasig , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the of the . According to the , it has a population of ...
, Syed Saddiq, , and Lee Chean Chung.


Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI)

''See also Young African Leaders Initiative'' The Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) is a program of the DoS for emerging young leaders in Africa. It was begun in 2010 by President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
to promote education and networking among emerging African leaders through the Mandela Washington Fellowship which brings them to study in the United States for six weeks, with follow-up resources, and student exchange programs. In 2014, the program was expanded to include four regional "leadership centers" in Ghana, Kenya, Senegal and South Africa.


Diplomats in Residence

Diplomats in Residence are career Foreign Service Officers and Foreign Service Specialist, Specialists located throughout the US who provide guidance and advice on careers, internships, and fellowships to students and professionals in communities they serve. Diplomats in Residence are located in 16 population-based regions throughout the United States.


Military components


Department of State Air Wing

In 1978, the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) formed an office to use excess military and government aircraft to support counter-narcotics operations of foreign states. The first aircraft used was a crop duster used to eradicate illicit crops in Mexico in cooperation with local authorities. The separate Air Wing was established in 1986 as use of aviation assets grew in the war on drugs. The aircraft fleet grew from crop spraying planes to larger transports and helicopters to support ground troops and move personnel. As these operations became more involved in direct combat, the need for search and rescue and armed escort helicopters became evident. Operations in the 1980s and 1990s were primarily carried out in Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, Bolivia and Belize. Many aircraft have since been passed on to the governments involved, as they become able to take over the operations themselves. After the September 11 attacks and the subsequent War on terror, War on Terror, the Air Wing went on to expand its operations from mainly anti-narcotics operations to providing security support for United States nationals and interests, primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Safe transports for various diplomatic missions were undertaken, requiring acquisition of larger aircraft, such as Sikorsky S-61, Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight, Boeing Vertol CH-46, Beechcraft King Air and Bombardier Dash 8, De Haviland DHC-8-300. In 2011, the Air Wing was operating over 230 aircraft around the world, the main missions still being counter narcotics and transportation of state officials.


Naval Support Unit: Department of State

In 1964, at the height of the Cold War, Seabees were assigned to the State Department after listening devices were found in the Embassy of the United States in Moscow; this initial unit was called the "Naval Mobile Construction Battalion FOUR, Detachment November". The U.S. had just constructed a new embassy in Warsaw, and the Seabees were dispatched to locate "Covert listening device, bugs". This led to the creation of the Naval Support Unit in 1966, which was made permanent two years later. That year William Darrah, a Seabee of the support unit, is credited with saving the U.S. Embassy in Prague, Czechoslovakia from a potentially disastrous fire. In 1986, "as a result of reciprocal expulsions ordered by Washington and Moscow" Seabees were sent to "Moscow and Leningrad to help keep the embassy and the consulate functioning". The Support Unit has a limited number of special billets for select NCOs, E-5 and above. These Seabees are assigned to the Department of State and attached to Diplomatic Security. Those chosen can be assigned to the Regional Security Officer of a specific embassy or be part of a team traveling from one embassy to the next. Duties include the installation of alarm systems, CCTV cameras, electromagnetic locks, safes, vehicle barriers, and securing compounds. They can also assist with the security engineering in sweeping embassies (electronic counter-intelligence). They are tasked with new construction or renovations in security sensitive areas and supervise private contractors in non-sensitive areas. Due to Diplomatic protocol the Support Unit is required to wear civilian clothes most of the time they are on duty and receive a supplemental clothing allowance for this. The information regarding this assignment is very scant, but State Department records in 1985 indicate department security had 800 employees, plus 1,200 marines and 115 Seabees. That Seabee number is roughly the same today.


Expenditures

In Fiscal Year, FY 2010 the Department of State, together with "Other International Programs" (such as United States Agency for International Development, USAID), had a combined projected discretionary budget of $51.7 billion. The 2010 United States federal budget, United States Federal Budget for Fiscal Year 2010, entitled 'A New Era of Responsibility', specifically 'Imposes Transparency on the Budget' for the Department of State. The end-of-year FY 2010 DoS Agency Financial Report, approved by Secretary Clinton on November 15, 2010, showed actual total costs for the year of $27.4 billion. Revenues of $6.0 billion, $2.8 billion of which were earned through the provision of consular and management services, reduced total net cost to $21.4 billion. Total program costs for 'Achieving Peace and Security' were $7.0 billion; 'Governing Justly and Democratically', $0.9 billion; 'Investing in People', $4.6 billion; 'Promoting Economic Growth and Prosperity', $1.5 billion; 'Providing Humanitarian Assistance', $1.8 billion; 'Promoting International Understanding', $2.7 billion; 'Strengthening Consular and Management Capabilities', $4.0 billion; 'Executive Direction and Other Costs Not Assigned', $4.2 billion.


Audit of expenditures

The Department of State's Auditor independence, independent auditors are Kearney & Company. Since in FY 2009 Kearney & Company qualified its audit opinion, noting materiality (auditing), material financial reporting weaknesses, the DoS restated its 2009 financial statements in 2010. In its FY 2010 audit report, Kearney & Company provided an unqualified audit opinion while noting significant deficiencies, of controls in relation to financial reporting and budgetary accounting, and of compliance with a number of laws and provisions relating to financial management and accounting requirements. In response the DoS Chief Financial Officer observed that "The Department the equal of any large multi-national corporation."


Central Foreign Policy File

Since 1973 the primary record keeping system of the Department of State is the Central Foreign Policy File. It consists of copies of official telegrams, airgrams, reports, memorandums, correspondence, diplomatic notes, and other documents related to foreign relations. Over 1,000,000 records spanning the time period from 1973 to 1979 can be accessed online from the National Archives and Records Administration.


Freedom of Information Act processing performance

In the 2015 Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act (United States), Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) (using 2012 and 2013 data), the State Department was the lowest performer, earning an "F" by scoring only 37 out of a possible 100 points, unchanged from 2013. The State Department's score was dismal due to its extremely low processing score of 23 percent, which was completely out of line with any other agency's performance.Making the Grade: Access to Information Scorecard 2015
March 2015, 80 pages, Center for Effective Government, retrieved March 21, 2016


See also

* Foreign policy of the United States * History of United States foreign policy * Timeline of United States diplomatic history * Awards of the United States Department of State * Diplomatic missions of the United States * Diplomatic Reception Rooms, US Department of State, Diplomatic Reception Rooms * Five Nations Passport Group * United States Foreign Service


Notes


References


Primary sources


''The Foreign Service Journal'', complete issues of the Consular Bureau's monthly news magazine, 1919-present

@StateDept
— official departmental Twitter account
State.gov
— official departmental website
2017—2021 State.gov
— Archived website and diplomatic records — Trump administration
2009—2017 State.gov
— Archived website and diplomatic records — Obama administration


Further reading

* Allen, Debra J. ''Historical Dictionary of US Diplomacy from the Revolution to Secession'' (Scarecrow Press, 2012), 1775–1861. * Bacchus, William I. ''Foreign Policy and the Bureaucratic Process: The State Department's Country Director System'' (1974 * Campbell, John Franklin. ''The Foreign Affairs Fudge Factory'' (1971) * Colman, Jonathan. "The ‘Bowl of Jelly’: The us Department of State during the Kennedy and Johnson Years, 1961–1968." ''Hague Journal of Diplomacy'' 10.2 (2015): 172-196.
online
* Dougall, Richardson, "The US Department of State from hull to Acheson." in ''The Diplomats, 1939-1979'' (Princeton University Press, 2019). 38-64
online
* * Keegan, Nicholas M. ''US Consular Representation in Britain Since 1790'' (Anthem Press, 2018). * Kopp, Harry W. ''Career diplomacy: Life and work in the US Foreign Service'' (Georgetown University Press, 2011). * Krenn, Michael. ''Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department, 1945-69'' (2015).* Leacacos, John P. ''Fires in the In-Basket: The ABC's of the State Department'' (1968) * McAllister, William B., et al. ''Toward "Thorough, Accurate, and Reliable": A History of the Foreign Relations of the United States Series'' (US Government Printing Office, 2015), a history of the publication of US diplomatic document
online
* Plischke, Elmer. ''U.S. Department of State: A Reference History'' (Greenwood Press, 1999) * Schake, Kori N. ''State of disrepair: Fixing the culture and practices of the State Department.'' (Hoover Press, 2013). * Simpson, Smith. ''Anatomy of the State Department'' (1967) * Warwick, Donald P. ''A Theory of Public Bureaucracy: Politics, Personality and Organization in the State Department'' (1975).


External links

*
Department of State
on Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, USAspending.gov
U.S. Department of State
in the Federal Register
Frontline Diplomacy: The Foreign Affairs Oral History Collection of the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training
from the Library of Congress * (historic archives) {{DEFAULTSORT:United States Department Of State United States Department of State, Foreign affairs ministries Foreign relations of the United States, State Department United States federal executive departments, State Ministries established in 1789 1789 establishments in the United States United States diplomacy