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The Ukrainian alphabet is the
set of letters
set of letters
used to write
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
, the official language of
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. It is one of the national variations of the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
. The modern Ukrainian alphabet consists of 33 letters. In Ukrainian, it is called (; tr. ''Ukrayins’ka abetka''), from the initial letters ''A (Cyrillic), а'' (tr. ''a'') and ''Be (Cyrillic), б'' (tr. ''b''); (tr. ''alfavit''); or, archaically, (tr. ''azbuka''), from the acrophonic early Cyrillic letter names (tr. ''az'') and (tr. ''buki''). Ukrainian text is sometimes Romanization, romanised: written in the Latin alphabet, for non-Cyrillic readers or transcription systems. See romanization of Ukrainian, romanisation of Ukrainian for details of specific romanisation systems. There have also been several historical proposals for a native Latin alphabet for Ukrainian, but none have caught on.


Alphabet

The alphabet comprises thirty-three letters, representing thirty-eight phonemes (meaningful units of sound) and an additional sign: the apostrophe. Ukrainian orthography (the rules of writing) is based on the phonemic principle, with one letter generally corresponding to one phoneme. The orthography also has cases in which semantic, historical, and morphological principles are applied. In the Ukrainian alphabet the "Ь" could also be the last letter in the alphabet. Twenty letters represent consonants (, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ), ten vowels (, , , , , , , , , ), and two semivowels (й/Short I, yot, and ). The soft sign has no meaning when written by itself, but when written after a consonant, it indicates that the consonant is soft (Palatalization (phonetics), palatalized). Also, alveolar consonants are palatalized when followed by certain vowels: , , , , , , , and are softened when they are followed by a "soft" vowel: , , , . See iotation. The apostrophe negates palatalization in places that it would be applied by normal orthographic rules. It also appears after labial consonants in some words, such as "name". And it is retained in transliterations from the Latin alphabet: (Côte d'Ivoire) and (O'Toole (surname), O'Toole). There are other exceptions to the phonemic principle in the alphabet. Some letters represent two phonemes: , or , and , , when they do not palatalize a preceding consonant. The digraph (orthography), digraphs and are normally used to represent single affricates and . Palatalization of consonants before , , is indicated by writing the corresponding letter , , instead (but palatalization before is usually not indicated). Compared to other Cyrillic alphabets, the modern Ukrainian alphabet is most similar to those of the other East Slavic languages: Belarusian alphabet, Belarusian, Russian alphabet, Russian, and Rusyn language#Alphabet, Rusyn. It has retained the two early Cyrillic letters і (i) and I (Cyrillic), izhe () to represent related sounds and as well as the two historical forms Ye (Cyrillic), e () and Ukrainian Ye, ye (). Unique letters are the following: *Ge with upturn, ge (), used for the less-common Voiced velar plosive, velar plosive sound, whereas in Ukrainian the common Cyrillic represents a Voiced glottal fricative, glottal fricative, . *Yi (Cyrillic), yi () or . The apostrophe is similarly used in Belarusian orthography, while the same function is served in Russian by the hard sign (): compare Ukrainian and Belarusian vs. Russian ("object").


History


Early Cyrillic alphabet

The
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
was a writing system developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century, to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. It was named after Saint Cyril the Philosopher, Saint Cyril, who with his brother Saint Methodius of Thessaloniki, Methodius had created the earlier Glagolitic Slavonic script. Cyrillic was based on Greek uncial script, and adopted Glagolitic letters for some sounds which were absent in Greek — it also had some letters which were only used almost exclusively for Greek words or for their Cyrillic numerals, numeric value: Fita, Ѳ, Omega (Cyrillic), Ѡ, Psi (Cyrillic), Ѱ, Ksi (Cyrillic letter), Ѯ, Izhitsa, Ѵ. The early Cyrillic alphabet was brought to Kievan Rus’ at the end of the first millennium, along with Christianity and the Old Church Slavonic language. The alphabet was adapted to the local spoken Old East Slavic language, leading to the development of indigenous East Slavic literary language alongside the liturgical use of Church Slavonic. The alphabet changed to keep pace with changes in language, as regional dialects developed into the modern Ukrainian, Belarusian language, Belarusian and Russian language, Russian languages. Spoken Ukrainian has an unbroken history, but the literary language has suffered from two major historical fractures. Various reforms of the alphabet by scholars of Church Slavonic, Ruthenian language, Ruthenian, and Russian languages caused the written and spoken word to diverge by varying amounts. Etymological rules from Greek and South Slavic languages made the orthography imprecise and difficult to master. Meletiy Smotrytsky, Meletii Smotrytskyi's Slavonic Grammar of 1619 was very influential on the use of Church Slavonic, and codified the use of the letters Я (''ja''), Е (''e''), and Ґ (''g''). Various Russian alphabet reforms were influential as well, especially Peter the Great's Civil Script of 1708 (the ''Grazhdanka''). It created a new alphabet specifically for non-religious use, and adopted Latin-influenced letterforms for type. The Civil Script eliminated some archaic letters (Ksi (Cyrillic), Ѯ, Psi (Cyrillic), Ѱ, Omega (Cyrillic), Ѡ, Yus, Ѧ), but reinforced an etymological basis for the alphabet, influencing Mykhaylo Maksymovych's nineteenth-century Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galician ''Maksymovychivka'' script for Ukrainian, and its descendant, the ''Pankevychivka'', which is still in use, in a slightly modified form, for the Rusyn language in Carpathian Ruthenia.


Nineteenth-century reforms

In reaction to the hard-to-learn etymological alphabets, several reforms attempted to introduce a phonemic Ukrainian orthography during the nineteenth century, based on the example of Vuk Karadžić's Serbian Cyrillic. These included Oleksii Pavlovskyi's 1818 ''Grammar of the Little Russian Dialect'', Panteleimon Kulish's ''Kulishivka'' alphabet used in his 1857 ''Notes on Southern Rus and ''Hramatka'', the ''Drahomanivka'' alphabet promoted in the 1870s by Mykhailo Drahomanov, and Yevhen Zhelekhivskyi's ''Zhelekhivka'' alphabet from his 1886 ''Little-Russian–German Dictionary'', which standardized the letters ї (''ji'') and ґ (''g''). A Ukrainian cultural revival of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries stimulated literary and academic activity in both Dnieper Ukraine and western Ukraine (Austrian-controlled Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galicia). In Galicia, the Polish-dominated local government tried to introduce a Latin alphabet for Ukrainian, which backfired by prompting a heated "War of the Alphabets", bringing the issue of orthography into the public eye. The Cyrillic script was favoured, but conservative Ukrainian cultural factions (the Old Ruthenians and Ukrainian Russophiles, Russophiles) opposed publications which promoted a pure Ukrainian orthography. In Dnieper Ukraine, proposed reforms suffered from periodic bans of publication and performance in the Ukrainian language. One such decree was the notorious 1876 Ems Ukaz, which banned the Kulishivka and imposed a Russian orthography until 1905 (called the ''Yaryzhka'', after the Russian letter yery ы). The Kulishivka was adopted by Ukrainian publications, only to be banned again from 1914 until after the February Revolution of 1917. The Zhelekhivka became official in Galicia in 1893, and was adopted by many eastern Ukrainian publications after the Revolution. The People's Republic of Ukraine adopted official Ukrainian orthographies in 1918 and 1919, and Ukrainian publication increased, and then flourished under Skoropadsky's Ukrainian State, Hetmanate. Under the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Bolshevik government of Ukraine, Ukrainian orthographies were confirmed in 1920 and 1921.


Unified orthography

In 1925, the Ukrainian SSR created a Commission for the Regulation of Orthography. During the period of Ukrainization in USSR, Soviet Ukraine, the 1927 International Orthographic Conference was convened in Kharkiv, from May 26 to June 6. At the conference, a standardized Ukrainian orthography and method for transliterating foreign words were established, a compromise between Galician and Soviet proposals, called the Kharkiv Orthography, or ''Skrypnykivka'', after Ukrainian Commissar of Education Mykola Skrypnyk. It was officially recognized by the Council of People's Commissars in 1928, and by the Lviv Shevchenko Scientific Society in 1929, and adopted by the Ukrainian diaspora. The Skrypnykivka was the first universally adopted native Ukrainian orthography. However, by 1930 Stalin's government started to reverse the Ukrainization policy as part of an effort to centralize power in Moscow. In 1933, the orthographic reforms were abolished, decrees were passed to bring the orthography steadily closer to Russian. His reforms discredited and labelled "nationalist deviation", Skrypnyk committed suicide rather than face a show trial and execution or deportation. The Ukrainian letter Ge with upturn, ge ґ, and the phonetic combinations ль, льо, ля were eliminated, and Russian etymological forms were reintroduced (for example, the use of -іа- in place of -ія-). An official orthography was published in Kyiv in 1936, with revisions in 1945 and 1960. This orthography is sometimes called ''Postyshivka'', after Pavel Postyshev, Stalin's official who oversaw the dismantling of Ukrainization. In the meantime, the Skrypnykivka continued to be used by Ukrainians in Galicia and the worldwide diaspora. During the period of Perestroika in the USSR, a new Ukrainian Orthographic Commission was created in 1987. A revised orthography was published in 1990, reintroducing the letter ge ''ґ''. It also revised the alphabetical order, moving the soft sign ''ь'' from the end of the alphabet, to a position before the letter ''ю'', which helps sort Ukrainian text together with Belarusian (following a proposal by L. M. Ivanenko of the Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics).


Letter names and pronunciation

Transliteration is according to the scholarly transliteration system used in linguistics. For other systems, see romanization of Ukrainian, romanisation of Ukrainian. Notes: The pronunciation of varies depending on context; it is labial before back vowels and labiodental before front vowels. It is also vocalised to in the syllable coda. Ge (ґ) was officially banned in the Soviet Ukraine from 1933 to 1990;Vakulenko, S.
1933 in history of Ukrainian language: current norm and spelling practice (on example of editorial policy of "Komunist" newspaper (1933 ій рік в історії української мови: чинна норма та правописна практика (на прикладі редакційної політики газети «Комуніст»))
Historians. 3 December 2012
it is missing from some computer character encodings and fonts, such as ISO-8859-5 and Code page 855, MS-DOS Cyrillic. The soft sign (ь) indicates the softening (Palatalization (phonetics), palatalization) of the preceding consonant letter. It was at the end of the alphabet before 1990, when the new official orthography changed its position. The apostrophe indicates that the consonant preceding a soft vowel is not Palatalization (phonetics), palatalized, when it otherwise would be. There are also Digraph (orthography), digraphs which are pronounced as a single sound: дж, which sounds like ''dg'' in ''knowledge'', and дз. Examples: джмiль (a bumble bee), бджoлa (a bee), дзвоник (a bell).


Letterforms and typography

In print, several letter case, lowercase Cyrillic letters resemble smaller versions of their corresponding letter case, uppercase forms. Handwritten Cyrillic cursive letterforms vary somewhat from their corresponding printed (typeset) counterparts, particularly for the letters г, д, и, й, and т. Unlike Latin script, in lieu of separate roman type, roman and italic type, italic fonts, a Cyrillic type face (, ) has upright ((, ) and cursive (курсивний, ) font forms (the latter of which later came to be called (, (). Several lowercase letters in the cursive printed form bear little resemblance to the corresponding lowercase letters in the upright printed form, more closely resembling the corresponding handwritten lowercase cursive forms instead, particularly for the letters г, д, и, й, п, and т. Quoted text is typically enclosed in unspaced guillemets (“angle-quotes”) as in Russian, or in lower and upper quotation marks as in Polish or German. ''Reference:'' Robert Bringhurst, Bringhurst, Robert (2002). ''The Elements of Typographic Style'' (version 2.5), pp. 262–264. Vancouver, Hartley & Marks. .


Encoding Ukrainian

There are various character encodings for representing Ukrainian with computers.


ISO 8859-5

ISO 8859-5 encoding is missing the letter ''ґ''.


KOI8-U

KOI8-U stands for ''Код обміну інформації 8 бітний — український'', "Code for information interchange 8 bit — Ukrainian", analogous to "ASCII". KOI8-U is a Ukrainianized version of KOI8-R.


Windows-1251

Windows-1251 works for Ukrainian alphabet, as well as for other Cyrillic alphabets.


Unicode

Ukrainian falls within the Cyrillic (U+0400 to U+04FF) and Cyrillic Supplementary (U+0500 to U+052F) blocks of Unicode. The characters in the range U+0400–U+045F are basically the characters from ISO 8859-5 moved upward by 864 positions. In the following table, Ukrainian letters have titles indicating their Unicode information and HTML entity. In a visual browser you can hold the mouse pointer over the letter to see this information.


Web pages and XML

Elements in HTML and XML would normally have the Ukrainian language indicated using the IETF language tag uk (lang="uk" in HTML and xml:lang="uk" in XML). Although indicating the writing system is normally not necessary, this can be accomplished by adding a script subtag, for example to distinguish Cyrillic Ukrainian text (uk-Cyrl) from Romanization of Ukrainian, romanized Ukrainian (uk-Latn).


See also

*Bulgarian alphabet *
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
*Cyrillic alphabets *Euro-Ukrainian alphabet *Greek alphabet *Montenegrin alphabet *Romanization of Belarusian *Romanization of Bulgarian *Romanization of Greek *Romanization of Macedonian *Romanization of Russian *Romanization of Ukrainian *Russian alphabet *Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic *Serbian Cyrillic alphabet


Notes


References

* Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, eds. (1996). ''The World's Writing Systems'', pp 700, 702. Oxford University Press. . * Volodymyr Kubijovyč ed. (1963). "Ukrainian Writing and Orthography" in ''Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia'', vol 1, pp 511–520. Toronto, University of Toronto Press. .


Further reading

* Meletiy Smotrytsky, Meletiy Smotrytskyy (1619). ''Slavonic Grammar''.
Reprint edition
with Ukrainian interface.) * Ivan Ohienko (1918). ''Naiholovnishi pravyla ukrainskoho pravopysu''. Kyiv, UNR Ministry of Education. * Ivan Ohienko (1919). ''Holovnishi pravyla ukrainskoho pravopysu''. Kyiv, UNR Ministry of Education. * All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN, 1920). * People's Commissariat of Education (1921). * (1928) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kharkiv, Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. * (1936) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. * L. Bulakhovsky, ed. (1946). ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, May 8, 1945: Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. * (1960) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. * (1990) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. * (2007) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Naukova Dumka
Online version
* (2012) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Naukova Dumka

* (2015) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Kyiv, Naukova Dumka

*(2019) ''Ukrainskyi pravopys''. Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Home page
* Elias Shklanka, ''Ukrainian Primer''. New York: Knyho-Spilka. * Orest Dubas, ed., ''Mii naikrashchyi Slovnyk''. (Мій найкращий Словник), 2nd edition. Ukrainian adaptation of Richard Scarry's ''Best Word Book Ever''.


External links


The Cyrillic Charset Soup
— Roman Czyborra's site contains an exhaustive history of Cyrillic character set encoding schemes.
Проєкт нового “Українського правопису”
— Proposal for a new Ukrainian orthography (in Ukrainian). * At the Encyclopedia of Ukraine


Ukrajinśka Latynka
is the online project that promotes Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language. {{DEFAULTSORT:Ukrainian alphabet Cyrillic alphabets Ukrainian orthography, ca:Ucraïnès:L'alfabet ucraïnès de:Ukrainische Sprache#Alphabet