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Tverskaya Street ( rus, Тверская улица, p=tvʲɪrˈskajə ˈulʲɪt͡sə), known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street (russian: улица Горького), is the main
radial Radial is a geometric term of location which may refer to: Mathematics and Direction * Vector (geometric), a line * Radius, adjective form of * Radial distance, a directional coordinate in a polar coordinate system * Radial set * A bearing from ...
street in
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
. The street runs Northwest from the central Manege Square in the direction of
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
and terminates at the
Garden Ring The Garden Ring, also known as the "B" Ring (russian: Садо́вое кольцо́, кольцо́ "Б"; transliteration: ''Sadovoye Koltso''), is a circular ring road A ring road (also known as circular road, beltline, beltway, circumf ...
, giving the name to
Tverskoy District Tverskoy District ( rus, Тверско́й райо́н, p=tvʲɪrˈskoj, a=Ru-Тверской.ogg) is a administrative divisions of Moscow, district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal cities of Russia, federal city of Moscow, Russ ...
. The route continues further as First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, Leningradsky Avenue and Leningradskoye Highway.


History and architecture


Middle Ages to 18th century

Tourists are told that Tverskaya Street existed as early as the 12th century. Its importance for the medieval city was immense, as it connected Moscow with its superior, and later chief rival,
Tver Tver ( rus, Тверь, p=tvʲerʲ) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative centre of Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.); 403,606 (Russian Census (2010), 2010 Census); 408,903 (Russian Census (20 ...

Tver
. At that time, the thoroughfare crossed the
Neglinnaya River The Neglinnaya ( rus, Неглинная, p=nʲɪˈɡlʲinːəjə), also known as Neglinka, Neglinna, Neglimna (Неглинка, Неглинна, Неглимна), is a 7.5 km underground river in the central part of Moscow Moscow ( , ...
. The first stone bridge across the Neglinnaya was set up in 1595. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Tverskaya Street was renowned as the centre of Moscow's social life. The nobility considered it fashionable to settle in this district. Among the
Palladian Palladian architecture is a European architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), ...
mansions dating from the reign of
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Christi ...
are the residence of the mayor of Moscow (1778–82, rebuilt in ), and the English Club (1780s). The mayor's residence among a number of other historic buildings was moved about 14 meters for the widening of the Gorky Street during Stalin's time. On the square before it stands a statue of the legendary founder of Moscow,
Yuri Dolgoruky Yuri I Vladimirovich ( rus, Юрий Владимирович, Yuriy Vladimirovich), commonly known as Yuri Dolgorukiy or the Long Arm ( rus, Юрий Долгорукий, Yuriy Dolgorukiy, meaning "Far-Reaching", c. 109915 May 1157) was the f ...
, erected for the city's 800th anniversary. During the imperial period, the importance of the thoroughfare was highlighted by the fact that it was through this street that the tsars arrived from the Northern capital to stay at their Kremlin residence. Several
triumphal arch A triumphal arch is a free-standing monumental structure in the shape of an arch An arch is a vertical curved structure that Span (architecture), spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizon ...

triumphal arch
es were constructed to commemorate coronation ceremonies. In 1792, the Tverskaya Square was laid out before the residence of the governor of Moscow as a staging ground for mass processions and parades. In 1947, the square was decorated with an equestrian statue of Prince Yury Dolgoruky, founder of Moscow.


19th century

During Pushkin's time, the Tverskaya was lined with five churches. The poet wove his impressions from the street into the following stanza of ''Eugene Onegin'': Towards the end of the 19th century, the street was reconstructed, with stately neoclassical mansions giving way to grandiose commercial buildings in an eclectic mixture of historical styles. A characteristic edifice of the time is the eclecticism, eclectic Hotel National, Moscow (1901-1903), whose interior is a landmark of Russian Art Nouveau. In 1888 the actor, theatre director and founder of the Moscow Art Theatre, Constantin Stanislavski, rented the Ginzburg House on the street and had it converted into a luxurious clubhouse with its own large stage and several exhibition rooms, in order to house his newly formed Constantin Stanislavski#The Society of Art and Literature, Society of Art and Literature. The Society gave its last performance there on 3 January 1891 and the building burnt down on the night of January 10.Benedetti (1999, 42).


Modern history

Between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the rise of Stalinist architecture in mid-1930s, the street acquired three modernist buildings - constructivist architecture, constructivist Izvestia Building by Grigory Barkhin (1925–1927, Pushkin Square), Central Telegraph Building (1927-29, 7 Tverskaya), a modernist masterpiece by Ivan Rerberg, and a stern "black cube" of the Lenin Institute in Tverskaya Square (1926) by Stepan Chernyshyov. The street was renamed in 1932 for Maxim Gorky, the Russian writer and revolutionary admired by both Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin.Parks, Michael.
"Gorky Street Loses Name as Muscovites Reach for Past"
Los Angeles Times (July 29, 1990).
Further expansion occurred in line with Joseph Stalin's 1935 master plan. During that period, all the churches and most other historic buildings were torn down in order to widen the street and replace low-rise buildings with larger, early Stalinist apartment blocks and government offices. Arkady Mordvinov, who handled this ambitious project, retained some historical buildings, like the ornately decorated Savvinskoye Podvorye by Ivan Sergei Kuznetsov, Ivan Kuznetsov. This building was moved to a new foundation North from the new street line, and is now completely enclosed inside Mordvinov's Stalinist block at 6, Tverskaya Street. The project was only partially completed before World War II; more Stalinist blocks appeared in the 1940s and 1950s, still leaving a lot of 19th-century buildings. Most of them were torn down later, with a few exceptions like Yermolova Theatre still standing. Hotel Intourist, a 22-story tower built in 1970, was demolished in 2002 and replaced by the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Moscow. When Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power, he encouraged a return to the country's old Russian names. Thus, the street's name became "Tverskaya Street" again, after a 55-year interlude as Gorky Street.


Layout and functions

Tverskaya Street runs from the Manege Square through the
Tverskoy District Tverskoy District ( rus, Тверско́й райо́н, p=tvʲɪrˈskoj, a=Ru-Тверской.ogg) is a administrative divisions of Moscow, district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal cities of Russia, federal city of Moscow, Russ ...
and the crossing with the Boulevard Ring, known as Pushkin Square, to the
Garden Ring The Garden Ring, also known as the "B" Ring (russian: Садо́вое кольцо́, кольцо́ "Б"; transliteration: ''Sadovoye Koltso''), is a circular ring road A ring road (also known as circular road, beltline, beltway, circumf ...
. Its extension, First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, continues further on Northwest right up to Belorussky Rail Terminal (Tverskaya Zastava Square), changing its name again into Leningradsky Prospekt. It keeps the same direction before diverging into Volokolamskoye Shosse and Leningradskoye Shosse (''Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Highway''). Tverskaya Street is the most expensive shopping street in Moscow and Russia. According to an index published by global real estate company Colliers International in 2008, it is now the third most expensive street in the world, based on commercial rental fees. It is the center of the city's Nightlife (activity), nightlife and entertainment.


Reconstruction plan, 2007-2009

Plans for the reconstruction of the Tverskaya radius into a grade-separated freeway, already under way in remote parts of the route (see Leningradsky_Prospekt#Highway_construction.2C_2005–2008, Leningradsky Prospekt Reconstruction for a complete schedule), have been authorized for Tverskaya Zastava and Pushkin Square in April, 2007, to be completed in 2009. Work is already underway at the first location. Both squares will acquire complex multi-level, grade-separated crossings and underground shopping malls, despite objections from preservationists and traffic experts.


See also

* List of upscale shopping districts


References


Sources

* Benedetti, Jean. 1999. ''Stanislavski: His Life and Art''. Revised edition. Original edition published in 1988. London: Methuen. . {{coord, 55, 45, 26, N, 37, 36, 53, E, display=title, region:RU-MOW_type:landmark_source:dewiki Streets in Moscow Tourist attractions in Moscow Shopping districts and streets in Russia Tverskoy District Maxim Gorky