HOME

TheInfoList




''To Have and Have Not'' is a novel by
Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, journalist, and sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory The iceberg theory or theory of o ...
published in 1937 by
Charles Scribner's Sons Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Henry James Henry James ( – ) was an American-British author. He is regarded as ...
. The book follows Harry Morgan, a fishing boat captain out of
Key West, Florida Key West ( es, Cayo Hueso) is an island in the Straits of Florida 250px, The Straits of Florida The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait ( es, Estrecho de Florida) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, t ...
. ''To Have and Have Not'' was Hemingway's second novel set in the United States, after '' The Torrents of Spring''. Written sporadically between 1935 and 1937, and revised as he traveled back and forth from Spain during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
, the novel portrays Key West and
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
in the 1930s, and provides a social commentary on that time and place. Hemingway biographer Jeffrey Meyers described the novel as heavily influenced by the
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
ideology Hemingway was exposed to by his support of the Republican faction in the Spanish Civil War while he was writing it. The work got a mixed critical reception. The novel had its origins in two short stories published earlier in periodicals by Hemingway ("One Trip Across" and "The Tradesman's Return") which make up the opening chapters, and a novella, written later, which makes up about two-thirds of the book. The narrative is told from multiple viewpoints, at different times, by different characters, and the characters' names are frequently supplied under the chapter headings to indicate who is narrating that chapter.


Plot

The novel depicts Harry as an ordinary working man of the
Depression Era The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, forced by dire economic forces into the
black-market A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a Secrecy, clandestine Market (economics), market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an ins ...
activity of running contraband between
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
and Florida. A wealthy fishing charter customer (one of the "Have's") bilks Harry by slipping away without paying after a three-week fishing trip, leaving Harry destitute. Stuck in Havana and motivated by the need to support his family, Harry then himself turns to crime. He makes a fateful decision to swindle would-be
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different count ...
immigrants seeking passage into Florida from Cuba. Instead of transporting them as agreed, he murders the Chinese middle-man and puts the men ashore in Cuba. Harry begins to ferry different types of illegal cargo between the two countries, including alcohol and Cuban revolutionaries. These events alternate with chapters that describe the dissolute lives of wealthy yacht owners. The
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
features prominently in the novel, forcing depravity and hunger on the poor residents of
Key West Key West ( es, Cayo Hueso) is an island in the Straits of Florida 250px, The Straits of Florida The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait ( es, Estrecho de Florida) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, t ...

Key West
(the "Have Not's") who are referred to locally as "
Conch Conch () is a common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is som ...
s".


Background and publication history

''To Have and Have Not'' began as a short story—published as "One Trip Across" in ''
Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
'' in 1934—introducing the character Harry Morgan. A second story was written and published in ''
Esquire Esquire (, ; abbreviated Esq.) is usually a courtesy title A courtesy title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a pr ...
'' in 1936, at which point Hemingway decided to write a novel about Harry Morgan. However, the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War delayed his work on it. ''To Have and Have Not'' was published by
Scribner's Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Henry James, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawli ...
on 15 October 1937 to a
first edition The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items ...

first edition
print-run of approximately 10,000 copies.Oliver, p. 327 ''Cosmopolitan'' published a section of the novel as "One Trip Across" in 1934; ''Esquire'' published a section as "The Tradesman's Return" in 1936. It was also published as an
Armed Services Edition Armed Services Editions (ASEs) were small paperback books of fiction and nonfiction that were distributed in the American military during World War II. From 1943 to 1947, some 122 million copies of more than 1,300 ASE titles were distributed to s ...
during WWII.


Film adaptations

The novel was adapted into a 1944 film starring
Humphrey Bogart Humphrey DeForest Bogart (; December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957), nicknamed Bogie, was an American film and stage actor. His performances in Classical Hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema is a term used in film criticism Film c ...
and
Lauren Bacall Lauren Bacall (; born Betty Joan Perske; September 16, 1924 – August 12, 2014) was an American actress. She was named the 20th-greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema by the American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) ...

Lauren Bacall
. The film, directed by
Howard Hawks Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and screenwriter of the classic Hollywood era. Critic Leonard Maltin Leonard Michael Maltin (born December 18, 1950) is an American film critic ...
, changed the story's setting from Key West to
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
under the
Vichy regime Vichy ( oc, Vichèi) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, ...
, and made significant alterations to the plot, including removing themes involving
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of income In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), di ...
and
class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society consequent to socioeconomics, socio-economic competition among the social classes or between Affluenc ...
, and turning the story into a romantic thriller centering on the sparks going on between Harry Morgan and Marie Browning. It was one of the influences for ''
Bold Venture ''Bold Venture'' was a syndicated radio series starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall that aired from 1951 to 1952. Morton Fine and David Friedkin scripted the taped series for Bogart's Santana Productions. Synopsis Salty seadog Slate Shanno ...
'', a 1951–1952 syndicated radio series starring Bogart and Bacall. The second film version, titled '' The Breaking Point'' (1950), was directed by
Michael Curtiz Michael Curtiz ( ; born Manó Kertész Kaminer; December 24, 1886 April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and nume ...
and stars
John Garfield John Garfield (born Jacob Julius Garfinkle, March 4, 1913 – May 21, 1952) was an American actor who played brooding, rebellious, working-class characters. He grew up in poverty in New York City. In the early 1930s, he became a member of the G ...
and
Patricia Neal Patricia Neal (born Patsy Louise Neal, January 20, 1926 – August 8, 2010) was an American actress of stage and screen. A major star of the 1950s and 60s, she was the recipient of an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and two British Academy ...

Patricia Neal
with
Juano Hernandez Juano G. "Juano" Hernández (July 19, 1896 – July 17, 1970) was a Puerto Rican stage and film actor who was a pioneer in the African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group ...
as Morgan's partner. The movie shifted the action to southern California and made Garfield a former
PT Boat A PT boat (short for patrol torpedo boat) was a motor torpedo boat used by the United States Navy in World War II. It was small, fast, and inexpensive to build, valued for its maneuverability and speed but hampered at the beginning of the war ...
captain but is otherwise the most faithful to the original book. The third film version, titled ''
The Gun Runners ''The Gun Runners'' is a 1958 American film noir crime film Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime an ...

The Gun Runners
'' (1958), was directed by
Don Siegel Donald Siegel (; October 26, 1912 – April 20, 1991) was an American film and television director and producer. Siegel was described by ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City ...
and stars
Audie Murphy Audie Leon Murphy (20 June 1925 – 28 May 1971) was an American soldier, actor, songwriter, and rancher. He was one of the most decorated American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United Stat ...

Audie Murphy
in the Bogart/Garfield role and
Everett Sloane Everett H. Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American character actor, who worked in radio, theatre, films, and television. He was also a songwriter and theatre director. Early life Sloane was born in Manhattan on October ...
in Walter Brennan's part as the alcoholic sidekick, although Sloane's interpretation was less overtly comedic than Brennan's. The movie features a bravura performance by
Eddie Albert Edward Albert Heimberger (April 22, 1906 – May 26, 2005) was an American actor and activist. He was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor; the first nomination came in 1954 for his performance in ''Roman Holiday'', ...

Eddie Albert
as a charismatic villain.
Pauline Kael Pauline Kael (; June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art Th ...
and
Bosley Crowther Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. (July 13, 1905 – March 7, 1981) was an American journalist, author, and film critic for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide rea ...
have claimed that the ending was used for
John Huston John Marcellus Huston ( ; August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director, screenwriter, actor, and visual artist. He travelled widely, settling at various times in France, Mexico, and Ireland. Huston was a citizen of th ...
's film ''
Key Largo Key Largo ( es, Cayo Largo) is an island in the upper Florida Keys The Florida Keys are a coral island, coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost part of the continental United States. They b ...
'' (1948); Kael also said that "One Trip Across" was made into ''
The Gun Runners ''The Gun Runners'' is a 1958 American film noir crime film Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime an ...

The Gun Runners
'' (1958). In 1987 the
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
ian director
Nasser Taghvai Nasser Taghvai ( fa, ناصر تقوایی, also romanize Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...

Nasser Taghvai
adapted the novel into a nationalized version called ''
Captain Khorshid ''Captain Khorshid'' ( fa, ناخدا خورشید, Nakhoda Khorshid) is a 1987 Iranian film written and directed by Nasser Taghvai. It is based on Ernest Hemingway's 1937 novel ''To Have and Have Not'', but it moves the setting from Cuba to the sou ...
'' which took the events from Cuba to the shores of the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
. Season 1 episode 12 ("Fury at Rio Hondo") of the television show ''
Cheyenne The Cheyenne ( ) are an Indigenous people of the Great Plains Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribes and ...
'' is a shorter version of the same story set in Mexico in the Old West.


Citations


General references

* * * *


External links


Hemingway Archives
John F. Kennedy Library {{DEFAULTSORT:To Have And Have Not 1937 American novels American crime novels American novels adapted into films
American novels adapted into television shows {{CatAutoTOC television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. T ...
Books by Ernest Hemingway Charles Scribner's Sons books Novels by Ernest Hemingway Novels set in Cuba Novels set in Florida