HOME

TheInfoList




The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest river in Italy and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the
Apennine Mountains The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (; grc-gre, links=no, Ἀπέννινα ὄρη or Ἀπέννινον ὄρος; la, Appenninus or  – a singular with plural meaning;''Apenninus'' (Greek or ) has the form of an adjective, which wou ...
in
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
and flowing through
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
,
Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , ...

Umbria
, and
Lazio Lazio (, ; ; la, Latium, ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the Central Italy, central peninsular section of the country, it has 5,864,321 inhabitants – making it the second most populated region o ...

Lazio
, where it is joined by the River
Aniene The Aniene (; la, Anio), formerly known as the Teverone, is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and bec ...

Aniene
, to the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
, between Ostia and
Fiumicino Fiumicino () is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio, central Italy, with a population of 80,500 (2019). It is famous for the presence of the Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport, the busies ...

Fiumicino
. It
drains a basin
drains a basin
estimated at . The river has achieved lasting fame as the main watercourse of the city of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, which was founded on its eastern banks. The river rises at
Mount Fumaiolo Mount Fumaiolo ( it, Monte Fumaiolo) is a mountain of the Apennine Mountains#Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, northern Apennines range of Italy located in the southernmost corner of the Emilia-Romagna region, c. 70 km from the town of Cesena. It is ...
in central Italy and flows in a generally southerly direction past
Perugia Perugia (, , ; lat, Perusia) is the capital city of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the River Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about north of Rome and southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part o ...

Perugia
and Rome to meet the sea at Ostia. Known in ancient times (in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
) as '' flavus'' ("the blond"), in reference to the yellowish colour of its water, the Tiber has advanced significantly at its mouth, by about , since Roman times, leaving the ancient port of
Ostia Antica Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia (Rome), Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome. "Ostia" (plur. of "ostium") is a derivation of "os" ...
inland."Tiber River". ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. 2006 However, it does not form a proportional
delta Delta commonly refers to: * Delta (letter) (Δ or δ), a letter of the Greek alphabet * River delta, a landform at the mouth of a river * D (NATO phonetic alphabet: "Delta"), the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet * Delta Air Lines, an Ame ...

delta
, owing to a strong north-flowing sea current close to the shore, to the steep shelving of the coast, and to slow
tectonic subsidence Tectonic subsidence is the sinking of the Earth's crust on a large scale, relative to crustal-scale features or the geoid The geoid () is the shape that the ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or ...
.


Sources

The
source Source or subsource or ''variation'', may refer to: Research * Historical document * Historical source * Source (intelligence) or subsource, typically a confidential provider of non open-source intelligence * Source (journalism), a person, public ...
of the Tiber consists of two
springs Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (mathematics), a geometric surface in the shape of a heli ...
away from each other on
Mount Fumaiolo Mount Fumaiolo ( it, Monte Fumaiolo) is a mountain of the Apennine Mountains#Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, northern Apennines range of Italy located in the southernmost corner of the Emilia-Romagna region, c. 70 km from the town of Cesena. It is ...
. These springs are called ''le Vene''. The springs are in a
beech Beech (''Fagus'') is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...

beech
forest above
sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of the numbers divided by how many numbers are in th ...

sea level
. During the 1930s,
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
had an antique
marble Marble is a metamorphic rock , a type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock (geology), rock to new types of rock, in a process called metamorphism upright=1.35, Schematic representation of ...

marble
Roman
column A column or pillar in architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Par ...

column
built at the point where the river rises, inscribed QUI NASCE IL FIUME SACRO AI DESTINI DI ROMA ("Here is born the river / sacred to the destinies of Rome"). An
eagle Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey Birds of prey, also known as raptors, include species of bird Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high ...

eagle
is on the top of the column, part of its
fascist symbolism Fascist symbolism is the use of certain images and symbols which are designed to represent aspects of fascism. These include national symbols of historical importance, goals, and political policies. The best-known is the swastika of Nazism. Comm ...
. The first miles of the Tiber run through Valtiberina before entering Umbria.


Etymology

The genesis of the name ''Tiber'' probably was pre-Latin, like the Roman name of Tibur (modern
Tivoli Tivoli may refer to: Buildings * Tivoli (Baltimore, Maryland), a mansion built about 1855 * Tivoli Building (Cheyenne, Wyoming), a historic downtown building * Tivoli Hotel in Pirie Street, Adelaide#History and notable buildings, Pirie Street, A ...
), and may be specifically
Italic
Italic
in origin. The same root is found in the Latin ''
praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt:orthonym, orthonym'' is the proper nam ...
'' ''
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...
''. Also,
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
variants of this praenomen are in ''Thefarie'' (borrowed from Faliscan ''*Tiferios'', lit. '(He) from the Tiber' < ''*Tiferis'' 'Tiber') and ''Teperie'' (via the Latin hydronym ''Tiber'')."Tiber". ''Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names''. John Everett-Heath.
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for fre ...

Oxford University Press
2005.
Legendary king Tiberinus, ninth in the king-list of
Alba Longa Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
, was said to have drowned in the River Albula, which was afterward called ''Tiberis''. The myth may have explained a memory of an earlier, perhaps pre-Indo-European name for the river, "white" (''alba'') with sediment, or "from the mountains" from pre-Indo-European word "alba, albion" mount, elevated area. ''Tiberis/Tifernus'' may be a pre-Indo-European substrate word related to
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...
''tifos'' "still water", Greek phytonym ''τύφη'' a kind of swamp and river bank weed (''
Typha angustifolia ''Typha angustifolia'' L. (also lesser bulrush, narrowleaf cattail or lesser reedmace) is a Perennial plant, perennial herbaceous plant of genus ''Typha''. This cattail is an "obligate wetland" species that is commonly found in the northern hemis ...

Typha angustifolia
''),
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...
hydronym A hydronym (from el, ὕδρω, , "water" and , , "name") is a type of toponym Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''toponyms Toponymy, also toponymics or toponom ...
s ''Tibilis, Tebro'' and
Numidian Numidia (Berber languages, Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from modern-day Algeria, but later expanding across what is today known as Tunisia, Libya, ...
''Aquae Tibilitanae''. Yet another etymology is from *dubri-, water, considered by Alessio as
Sicel The Sicels (; la, Siculi; grc, Σικελοί ''Sikeloi'') were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank ...
, whence the form Θύβρις later Tiberis. This root *dubri- is widespread in Western Europe e.g. Dover, Portus Dubris.


History

According to legend, the city of Rome was founded in 753 BC on the banks of the Tiber about from the sea at .
Tiber Island The Tiber Island ( it, Isola Tiberina, Latin: ''Insula Tiberina'') is the only river island in the part of the Tiber which runs through Rome. Tiber Island is located in the southern bend of the Tiber. The island is boat-shaped, approximately lo ...

Tiber Island
, in the center of the river between
Trastevere Trastevere () is the 13th ''Rioni of Rome, rione'' of Rome: it is identified by the initials R. XIII and it is located within the Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin ''trans Tiberim'', meaning literally "beyond the Tiber". Its coat of arms ...

Trastevere
and the ancient city center, was the site of an important ancient
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
and was later bridged. Legend says Rome's founders, the twin brothers
Romulus and Remus In Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' m ...

Romulus and Remus
, were abandoned on its waters, where they were rescued by the she-wolf, Lupa. The river marked the boundary between the lands of the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...

Etruscans
to the west, the
Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of the ancient Italian Peninsula, also inhabiting Latium north of the An ...
to the east and the
Latins The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Definition La ...
to the south. , born in
Romagna Romagna ( rgn, Rumâgna) is an Italy, Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennine Mountains, Apennines to the south- ...

Romagna
, adjusted the boundary between
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
and
Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna (, , both also ; ; egl, Emégglia-Rumâgna or ''Emîlia-Rumâgna''; rgn, Emélia-Rumâgna) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy, administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions ...

Emilia-Romagna
, so that the springs of the Tiber would lie in Romagna. The Tiber was critically important to Roman trade and commerce, as ships could reach as far as upriver; some evidence indicates that it was used to ship grain from the Val Teverina as long ago as the fifth century BC. It was later used to ship stone, timber, and foodstuffs to Rome. During the
Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public ...
of the third century BC, the harbour at Ostia became a key naval base. It later became Rome's most important port, where
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
,
olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

olive oil
, and
wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flow ...

wine
were imported from Rome's colonies around the Mediterranean. Wharves were also built along the riverside in Rome itself, lining the riverbanks around the
Campus Martius The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian language, Italian ''Campo Marzio'') was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent. In the Middle Ages, it was the most populous area of Rome. The IV Rioni of Rome, rione of ...

Campus Martius
area. The Romans connected the river with a sewer system (the ''
Cloaca Maxima The Cloaca Maxima ( lat, Cloaca Maxima, lit. ''Greatest Sewer'') was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Built during either the Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient ...
'') and with an underground network of tunnels and other channels, to bring its water into the middle of the city. Wealthy Romans had garden-parks or ''horti'' on the banks of the river in Rome through the first century BC. These may have been sold and developed about a century later. The heavy sedimentation of the river made maintaining Ostia difficult, prompting the emperors
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial p ...

Claudius
and
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
to establish a new port on the Fiumicino in the first century AD. They built a new road, the ''
Via Portuensis Via Portuensis was an ancient Roman road, leading to the Portus constructed by Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to ...
,'' to connect Rome with Fiumicino, leaving the city by
Porta Portese Porta Portese is an ancient city gate, located at the end of Via Portuense, where it meets Via Porta Portese, about a block from the banks of the Tiber in the southern edge of the Rione Trastevere of Rome, Italy. The gate was built in 1644 as part ...

Porta Portese
(the port gate). Both ports were eventually abandoned due to silting. Several
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
s attempted to improve navigation on the Tiber in the 17th and 18th centuries, with extensive dredging continuing into the 19th century. Trade was boosted for a while, but by the 20th century, silting had resulted in the river only being navigable as far as Rome. The Tiber was once known for its floods — the Campus Martius is a
flood plain A floodplain or flood plain or bottomlands is an area of land adjacent to a river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.Goudi ...
and would regularly flood to a depth of . The river is now confined between high stone embankments, which were begun in 1876. Within the city, the riverbanks are lined by boulevards known as '' lungoteveri'', streets "along the Tiber". Because the river is identified with Rome, the terms "swimming the Tiber" or "crossing the Tiber" have come to be the
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
shorthand term for converting to
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
ism. This is most common if the person who converts had been
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
, the reverse of which is referred to as "swimming the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
" or "crossing the Thames". In ancient Rome,
executed Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone is punished with the death penalty is called a dea ...

executed
criminals were thrown into the Tiber. People executed at the
Gemonian stairs 300px, Map of the Capitoline Hill, indicating the probable location of the Gemonian Stairs at the time of the Roman Empire. The Gemonian Stairs ( la, Scalae Gemoniae, it, Scale Gemonie) were a flight of steps located in the ancient city of Rome. ...
were thrown in the Tiber during the later part of the reign of the emperor
Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Augustus (; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March AD 37) was the second Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Tiberius
. This practice continued over the centuries. For example, the corpse of
Pope Formosus Pope Formosus (896) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States whose pontificate lasted from 6 October 891 to his death. His reign as pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, t ...

Pope Formosus
was thrown into the Tiber after the infamous
Cadaver Synod The Cadaver Synod (also called the Cadaver Trial; la, Synodus Horrenda) is the name commonly given to the ecclesiastical trial of Pope Formosus, who had been dead for about 7 months, in the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome during January 897 ...

Cadaver Synod
held in 897.


Bridges

In addition to the numerous modern
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
s over the Tiber in Rome, there remain a few
ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...
bridges (now mostly pedestrian-only) that have survived in part (e.g., the
Ponte Milvio The Milvian (or Mulvian) Bridge ( it, Ponte Milvio or ; la, Pons Milvius or ) is a bridge over the Tiber File:Rome flood marker.jpg, Rome Historical marker, flood marker, 1598, set into a pillar of the Ospedale di Santo Spirito in Sassia, San ...
and the
Ponte Sant'Angelo Ponte Sant'Angelo, originally the Aelian Bridge or Pons Aelius, is a Roman bridge in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome ( ...
) or in whole ( Fabricius' Bridge). In addition to bridges, the Metro trains use tunnels.


Representations

Following the standard Roman depiction of rivers as powerfully built reclining male gods, the Tiber, also interpreted as a god named Tiberinus, is shown with streams of water flowing from his hair and beard.Tiber. ''Bloomsbury Dictionary of Myth'' (1996)


In Popular Culture

In the ''
Command & Conquer ''Command & Conquer'' (''C&C'') is a real-time strategy Real-time strategy (RTS) is a Video game genre, subgenre of strategy video games that do not progress incrementally in turn-based game, turns, but allow all players to play simultaneously, in ...
'' video game series, the alien mineral the game revolves around, Tiberium, was first discovered by, and named after, the Tiber River.


See also

*
Hollywood on the Tiber Hollywood on the Tiber is a phrase used to describe the period in the 1950s and 1960s when the Italian capital of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map ...


References


External links

{{coord, 41.7405, N, 12.2334, E, source:wikidata, display=title
Rivers of Italy {{CatAutoTOC Bodies of water of Italy Rivers of Europe by country, Italy Rivers by country, Ital ...
Rivers of the Apennines Drainage basins of the Tyrrhenian Sea Waterways of Italy Rivers of Emilia-Romagna Rivers of Lazio Rivers of Tuscany Rivers of Umbria Geography of Rome Metropolitan City of Rome Capital Topography of the ancient city of Rome Rivers of the Province of Perugia Rivers of the Province of Rieti Rivers of the Province of Terni Rivers of the Province of Viterbo Rivers of the Province of Arezzo Rivers of the Province of Forlì-Cesena Rivers of the Province of Rome Geography of Perugia