HOME

TheInfoList




Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient
Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient : , ) is a traditional and modern of , comprising most of the of the same name. Before the , Thessaly was known as Aeolia (, ), and appears thus in 's '. Thessaly of the in ...
: , ) is a traditional
geographic Geography (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is a ...
and modern
administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes th ...
of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the
Greek Dark Ages The Greek Dark Ages is the period of Greek history The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locate ...
, Thessaly was known as Aeolia (, ), and appears thus in
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
''. Thessaly became part of the
modern Greek state The history of modern Greece covers the history of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its larg ...
in 1881, after four and a half centuries of
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
rule. Since 1987 it has formed one of the country's 13
regions In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...
and is further (since the Kallikratis reform of 2011) sub-divided into five regional units and 25
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
. The capital of the region is
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
. Thessaly lies in northern Greece and borders the regions of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
on the north,
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic group, ethn ...
on the west,
Central Greece Continental Greece ( el, Στερεά Ελλάδα, ''Stereá Elláda''; formerly , ''Chérsos Ellás''), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic region of Greece. In English the ...

Central Greece
on the south, and the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
on the east. The Thessaly region also includes the
Sporades The (Northern) Sporades (; el, Βόρειες Σποράδες, , ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small ...
islands.


Name and etymology

Thessaly is named after the Thessalians, an ancient Greek tribe. The meaning of the name of this tribe is unknown, and many theories have been made about its etymology. According to the Dutch linguist Robert S. P. Beekes, the name predates Greek presence in the region and could come from
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
. The Greek linguist
Georgios Babiniotis Georgios Babiniotis ( el, Γεώργιος Μπαμπινιώτης; born 6 January 1939) is a Greek linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
also assigns the origin of the name of the Thessalians to pre-Greek times, although he does not try to explain its etymology. In Aromanian it is referred to as .


Mythology

In
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's epic, the ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
'', the hero
Odysseus Odysseus ( ; grc-gre, Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, OdysseúsOdyseús, ), also known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...

Odysseus
visited the kingdom of
Aeolus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief ...
, which was the old name for Thessaly. The Plain of Thessaly, which lies between
Mount Oeta Mount Oeta (; el, Οίτη, polytonic Greek orthographyThe orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC. Some time prior to that, one early form of Greek, Mycenaean la ...
/Othrys and
Mount Olympus Mount Olympus (; el, Όλυμπος, Ólympos, also , ) is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in ...

Mount Olympus
, was the site of the
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battles. In general, a battle is a military engagement that is well defined in duration, area, and force ...
between the
Titans In Greek mythology, the Titans (Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''Titânes'', , ''Titán'') were the pre-Olympian gods. According to the ''Theogony'' of Hesiod, they were the twelve children of the primordial parents Uranus (mythology), Uranus (Sky) and ...
and the Olympians. According to legend,
Jason Jason ( ; ) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

Jason
and the
Argonauts The Argonauts (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ) ...

Argonauts
launched their search for the
Golden Fleece#REDIRECT Golden Fleece n red-figure calyx krater, c. 340–330 BC In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece ( el, Χρυσόμαλλο δέρας, ''Chrysómallo déras'') is the wool, fleece of the golden-woolled,, ''Khrusómallos''. winged Sheep, ...

Golden Fleece
from the Magnesia Peninsula.


History


Ancient history

Thessaly was home to extensive
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
and
Chalcolithic The Chalcolithic (),The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) , p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective ''Archaeology'' of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, ...

Chalcolithic
cultures around 6000–2500 BC (see
Cardium pottery Cardium pottery or Cardial ware is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen ab ...
,
Dimini Dimini ( el, Διμήνι; older form: ''Diminion'') is a village near the city of Volos Volos ( el, Βόλος ) is a coastal port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. L ...
and
Sesklo Sesklo ( el, Σέσκλο; rup, Seshklu) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to th ...
). Mycenaean settlements have also been discovered, for example at the sites of
Iolcos Iolcus (; also rendered ''Iolkos'' ; grc, Ἰωλκός and Ἰαωλκός; grc-x-doric, Ἰαλκός; ell, Ιωλκός) is an ancient , a modern village and a former in , Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part ...
,
Dimini Dimini ( el, Διμήνι; older form: ''Diminion'') is a village near the city of Volos Volos ( el, Βόλος ) is a coastal port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. L ...
and
Sesklo Sesklo ( el, Σέσκλο; rup, Seshklu) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to th ...
(near
Volos Volos ( el, Βόλος ) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greece, Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki. It is the sixth most populous city of Greece, and the capital of the Magnesia (regiona ...

Volos
). In Archaic and
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
times, the lowlands of Thessaly became the home of baronial families, such as the
Aleuadae The Aleuadae ( grc, Ἀλευάδαι) were an ancient Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth d ...
of
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
or the Scopads of Crannon. In the summer of 480 BC, the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
invaded Thessaly. The Greek army that guarded the
Vale of Tempe The Vale of Tempe ( el, Κοιλάδα των Τεμπών) is a gorge in the Tempi (municipality), Tempi municipality of northern Thessaly, Greece, located between Mount Olympus, Olympus to the north and Mount Ossa (Greece), Ossa to the south, an ...
evacuated the road before the enemy arrived. Not much later, Thessaly surrendered to the Persians. The Thessalian family of
Aleuadae The Aleuadae ( grc, Ἀλευάδαι) were an ancient Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth d ...
joined the Persians subsequently. In the 4th century BC, after the
Greco-Persian Wars The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empi ...
had long ended,
Jason of PheraeJason of Pherae ( grc-gre, Ἰάσων ὁ Φεραῖος) was the ruler of Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geograp ...
transformed the region into a significant military power, recalling the glory of Early Archaic times. Shortly after,
Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 382 – 21 October 336 BC) was the king (basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in cer ...
was appointed ''Archon'' of Thessaly, and Thessaly was thereafter associated with the Macedonian Kingdom for the next centuries. Thessaly later became part of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
as part of the province of
Macedonia Macedonia most commonly refers to: * North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in ...
; when that was broken up, the name resurfaced in two of its late Roman successor provinces: Thessalia Prima and Thessalia Secunda.


Byzantine period

Thessaly remained part of the East Roman "Byzantine" Empire after the collapse of Roman power in the west, and subsequently suffered many invasions, such as by the Slavic tribe of the Belegezites in the 7th century AD. The
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
had arrived in Europe in the late 550s.Fine, John V. A., Jr. 1983, ''Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey From the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century,'' University of Michigan Press They asserted their authority over many Slavs, who were divided into numerous petty tribes. Many Slavs were galvanized into an effective infantry force, by the Avars. In the 7th century the Avar-Slav alliance began to raid the Byzantine Empire, laying siege to Thessalonica and even the imperial capital
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
itself. By the 8th century,
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
had occupied most of the Balkans from Austria to the Peloponnese, and from the Adriatic to the Black seas, with the exception of the coastal areas and certain mountainous regions of the Greek peninsula. Relations between the Slavs and Greeks were probably peaceful apart from the (supposed) initial settlement and intermittent uprisings. Being agriculturalists, the Slavs probably traded with the Greeks inside towns. It is likely that the re-
Hellenization Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the adoption of Greek culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as t ...
had already begun by way of this contact. This process would be completed by a newly reinvigorated Byzantine Empire. With the abatement of Arab-Byzantine Wars, the Byzantine Empire began to consolidate its power in those areas of mainland Greece occupied by Proto-Slavic tribes. Following the campaigns of the Byzantine general
Staurakios Staurakios or Stauracius ( el, Σταυράκιος, links=no; early 790s – 11 January 812AD) was Byzantine Emperor from 26 July to 2 October 811. He was born in the early 790s, probably between 791 and 793, to Nikephoros I Nikephoros I ...
in 782–783, the Byzantine Empire recovered Thessaly, taking many Slavs as prisoners. Apart from military expeditions against Slavs, the re-Hellenization process begun under Nicephorus I involved (often forcible) transfer of peoples. Many Slavs were moved to other parts of the empire such as Anatolia and made to serve in the military. In return, many Greeks from Sicily and Asia Minor were brought to the interior of Greece, to increase the number of defenders at the Emperor's disposal and dilute the concentration of Slavs.


Late Medieval and Ottoman period

In 977 Byzantine Thessaly was raided by the
Bulgarian Empire In the medieval history of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarde ...

Bulgarian Empire
. In 1066 dissatisfaction with the taxation policy led the Aromanian and Bulgarian population of Thessaly to revolt against the Byzantine Empire under the leadership of a local lord,
Nikoulitzas DelphinasNikoulitzas Delphinas ( el, Νικουλιτζάς Δελφινάς was an 11th-century Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinc ...
. The revolt, which began in
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
, soon expanded to
Trikala Trikala ( el, Τρίκαλα; rup, Trikolj) is a city in northwestern Thessaly, Greece, and the capital of the Trikala (regional unit), Trikala regional unit. The city straddles the Lithaios river, which is a tributary of Pineios (Thessaly), Pin ...

Trikala
and later northwards to the Byzantine-Bulgarian border. In 1199–1201 another unsuccessful revolt was led by
Manuel Kamytzes Manuel Kamytzes Komnenos Doukas Angelos ( gr, Μανουήλ Καμύτζης Κομνηνός Δούκας Ἄγγελος; after 1202) was a Byzantine general who was active in the late 12th century, and led an unsuccessful rebellion in 1201 ...
, son-in-law of Byzantine emperor
Alexios III Angelos Alexios III Angelos ( gkm, Ἀλέξιος Γ′ Ἄγγελος; 1211) was Byzantine Emperor from March 1195 to 17/18 July 1203. He reigned under the name Alexios Komnenos, associating himself with the Komnenos dynasty (from which he was descen ...
, with the support of
Dobromir Chrysos Dobromir, known to the Byzantines as Chrysos ( mk, Добромир Хрс, bg, Добромир Хриз, el, Δοβρομηρός Χρύσος), was a leader of the Vlachs and Bulgarian Slavs in eastern Macedonia during the reign of the Byza ...
, the autonomous ruler of
Prosek Prosek ( Macedonian alphabet: Просек), also known as Stenae (in Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in South ...
. Kamytzes managed to establish a short-lived principality in northern Thessaly, before he was overcome by an imperial expedition. Following the
siege of Constantinople The following is a list of sieges of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), Basileuous ...
and the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the
Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Islam, Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first defeating th ...
in April 1204, Thessaly passed to
Boniface of Montferrat Boniface I, usually known as Boniface of Montferrat ( it, Bonifacio del Monferrato, link=no; el, Βονιφάτιος Μομφερρατικός, ''Vonifatios Momferratikos'') (c. 1150 – 4 September 1207), was the ninth Marquis of Montferrat ...
's
Kingdom of Thessalonica The Kingdom of Thessalonica () was a short-lived Crusader State The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade through conquest and political subterfuge. Four states were established: ...

Kingdom of Thessalonica
in the wider context of the ''
Frankokratia The ''Frankokratia'' ( el, Φραγκοκρατία, sometimes as Francocracy, "rule of the "), also known as ''Latinokratia'' ( el, Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the ") and, for the domains, ''Venetokratia'' or ''Enetokratia'' ( e ...
''. With his Greek ties, Boniface won the support of the Greek population and of various important Greek families. In 1212,
Michael I Komnenos Doukas Michael I Komnenos Doukas, Latinized as Comnenus Ducas ( el, Μιχαήλ Κομνηνός Δούκας, Mikhaēl Komnēnos Doukas), and in modern sources often recorded as Michael I Angelos, a name he never used, was the founder and first ruler ...
, ruler of
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic group, ethn ...
, led his troops into Thessaly. Larissa and much of central Thessaly came under Epirote rule, thereby separating Thessalonica from the Crusader principalities in southern Greece. Michael's work was completed by his half-brother and successor,
Theodore Komnenos Doukas Theodore Komnenos Doukas ( el, Θεόδωρος Κομνηνὸς Δούκας, ''Theodōros Komnēnos Doukas'', latinisation of names, Latinized as Theodore Comnenus Ducas, died 1253) was ruler of Despotate of Epirus, Epirus and Thessaly#Late ...

Theodore Komnenos Doukas
, who by 1220 completed the recovery of the entire region, and assigned ''pronoiai'' to aristocratic Greek families The
Vlachs "Vlach" ( or ), also "Wallachian" (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...
(Aromanians) of Thessaly (originally a chiefly
transhumant Transhumance is a type of pastoralism Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry where domesticated animals known as livestock are released onto large vegetated outdoor lands (pastures) for grazing, historically by nomadic people who mov ...
Romance-speaking The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European langua ...

Romance-speaking
population) first appear in Byzantine sources in the 11th century, in the ''
Strategikon of Kekaumenos The ''Strategikon of Kekaumenos'' ( el, Στρατηγικὸν τοῦ Κεκαυμένου, la, Cecaumeni Strategicon) is a late 11th century Byzantine military manuals, Byzantine manual offering advice on warfare and the handling of public and ...
'' and
Anna Komnene Anna Komnene ( gr, Ἄννα Κομνηνή, Ánna Komnēnḗ; 1 December 1083 – 1150s), commonly Latinization of names, Latinized as Anna Comnena, was a Byzantine princess and author of the Alexiad, an account of the reign of her father, the B ...
's ''
Alexiad 222px, ... and the Crusaders Council The Alexiad ( el, Ἀλεξιάς, Alexias) is a medieval historical and biographical text written around the year 1148, by the Byzantine princess Anna Komnene, daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. It wa ...
''). In the 12th century, the Jewish traveller
Benjamin of Tudela Benjamin of Tudela ( he, בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, ; ar, بنيامين التطيلي ''Binyamin al-Tutayli'';‎ TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudel ...

Benjamin of Tudela
records the existence of the district of "Vlachia" near
Halmyros Almyros or Halmyros ( el, Αλμυρός, , , ) is a town and a municipality of the regional units of Greece, regional unit of Magnesia (regional unit), Magnesia, modern regions of Greece, region of Thessaly, Greece. It lies in the center of prosper ...
in eastern Thessaly, while the Byzantine historian
Niketas Choniates Niketas or Nicetas Choniates ( el, Νικήτας Χωνιάτης; c. 1155 – 1217), whose actual surname was Akominatos (Ἀκομινάτος), was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzan ...

Niketas Choniates
places "
Great Vlachia Great Wallachia or Great Vlachia ( el, Μεγάλη Βλαχία, Megálē Vlachía), or simply Vlachia ( el, link=no, Βλαχία, Vlachía), was a province in southeastern Thessaly in the late 12th century, and was used to denote the entire regi ...
" near
Meteora The Meteora (; el, Μετέωρα, ) is a rock formation in central Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; ...

Meteora
. The term is also used by the 13th-century scholar
George Pachymeres Georgius Pachymeres ( el, Γεώργιος Παχυμέρης; 1242 – c. 1310) was a Byzantine Greek historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A hi ...
, and it appears as a distinct administrative unit in 1276, when the ''
pinkernes''Pinkernes'' ( grc, πιγκέρνης, pinkernēs), sometimes also ''epinkernes'' (, ''epinkernēs''), was a high Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy, court position. The term "Pinkernidsq" derives from the Greek lan ...
'' Raoul Komnenos was its governor ('' kephale''). From 1271 to 1318 Thessaly was an independent despotate that extended to
Acarnania Acarnania ( el, Ἀκαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a g ...
and
Aetolia Aetolia ( el, Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approxi ...
, run by the dynasty founded by
John I Doukas John I Doukas ( gr, Ἰωάννης Δούκας, Iōánnēs Doúkas), Latinized as Ducas, was an illegitimate son of Michael II Komnenos Doukas, Despot of Epirus in –1268. After his father's death, he became ruler of Thessaly Thessaly ( ...
. John ruled from 1271 until his death in 1289 and was succeeded by his sons Constantine and Theodore. At this time, Thessaly came under Byzantine suzerainty, though it largely retained its independence. After Constatine's death in 1303, it was ruled by
John II Doukas John II Doukas, also Angelos Doukas ( Latinized as Angelus Ducas) ( gr, Ἰωάννης Ἄγγελος Δούκας, Iōannēs Angelos Doukas), was ruler of Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek# ...
until his death in 1318. From 1306 to 1310, the
Almogavars Almogavars ( es, almogávares, an, almugávares, ca, almogàvers and pt, almogávares) is the name of a class of light infantry soldier from the Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Coro ...
or
Catalan Company The Catalan Company or the Great Catalan Company (Catalan: ''Gran Companyia Catalana'', Latin: ''Exercitus francorum'', ''Societatis exercitus catalanorum'', ''Societatis cathalanorum'', ''Magna Societas Catalanorum'') was a company of mercenaries ...
of the East (''Societas Catalanorum Magna''), plundered Thessaly. In 1310, they occupied a series of forts in the south. From there they departed to the
Duchy of Athens The Duchy of Athens (Greek language, Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, ''Doukaton Athinon''; Catalan language, Catalan: ''Ducat d'Atenes'') was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during ...
, called by the duke
Walter I Walter may refer to: People * Walter (name), both a surname and a given name * Walter Devaram, Indian IPS officer, Ex-DGP of Tamil nadu * Walter (wrestler) (born 1987), Austrian professional wrestler and trainer * Walter, standard author abbreviat ...
, whom they eventually killed in battle and took over the
Duchy of Athens The Duchy of Athens (Greek language, Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, ''Doukaton Athinon''; Catalan language, Catalan: ''Ducat d'Atenes'') was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during ...
. In 1318, with the death of John II, Thessalian independence came to an end, and the Almogavars occupied Siderokastron and southern Thessaly (1319) and formed the
Duchy of Neopatria The Duchy of Neopatras ( ca, Ducat de Neopàtria; gr, Δουκάτο Νέων Πατρών; la, Ducatus Neopatriae) was a Catalan Company, Catalan-dominated principality in southern Thessaly, established in 1319. Officially part of the Crown of ...
. The other parts of Thessaly either came under Byzantine rule or were ruled by their own nobility. These local magnates eventually started fighting amongst themselves. Those in the south, such as the Melissenos family of Volos, sought the help of the Catalans, while those in the north, such as the Gavrilopoulos family of Trikala, turned towards Byzantium. At this time, some of Thessaly's ports came under Venetian rule. In 1332, most of Thessaly was taken by the Byzantines following a campaign by Andronikos III Paleologos. He left its administration to Michael Monomachos, who governed it for the next 10 years. Groups of Albanians moved into Thessaly as early as 1268 as mercenaries of Michael II Komnenos Doukas, Michael Doukas. The Albanians, Albanian tribes of Bua (tribe), Bua, Malakasioi and Mazaraki were described as "unruly" nomads living in the mountains of Thessaly in the early 14th century in John VI Kantakouzenos, Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos’ ‘History’. They numbered approximately 12,000. Kantakouzenos describes a pact they made to serve the Byzantine Emperor and pay tribute to him ca. 1332 in exchange for using the lowland areas of Thessaly in the summer months. Albanian groups were given military holdings Fanari, Karditsa, Fanari in the 1330s and by the end of the 14th century and the Ottoman takeover of the region, they were an integral part of the military structures of Thessaly. Two of their military leaders known in Byzantine sources as Peter and John Sebastopoulos controlled the small towns of Pharsala and Domokos. In 1348, Thessaly was invaded and occupied by the Serbian Empire of Stefan Dušan, under the general Preljub. After the latter's death in 1356, the region was conquered by Nikephoros II Orsini, Nikephoros Orsini after he won the support of the local Greek population. After his death three years later, it was taken over by the self-proclaimed Serbian emperor Simeon Uroš. Simeon's son John Uroš succeeded in 1370 but abdicated in 1373, and Thessaly was administered by the Greek Angeloi-Philanthropenoi clan until the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
conquest c. 1393. Ottoman control began in the late 14th century with the capture of Larissa in 1392-93 and consolidated in the early 15th century. Nevertheless, Ottoman control was threatened throughout this era by groups of Greeks, Albanians and Aromanians who based themselves in the mountainous areas of Thessaly. Turahan Bey settled Yörük, Turkomans in the province and founded the town of Tyrnavos. The territory was ruled through the Sanjak of Tirhala administrative division during the Ottoman Greece, Ottoman period.


Modern

In 1600, Thessaly Rebellion (1600), a short-lived rebellion broke out in the region. Rigas Feraios, the important Greek intellectual and forerunner of the Greek War of Independence was from the region. He was born in Velestino, near the ancient town of Pherae. In 1821, parts of Thessaly and Magnesia (regional unit), Magnesia participated in the initial uprisings in the Greek War of Independence, but these revolts were swiftly crushed. Thessaly became part of the modern Greek state in 1881, after the Convention of Constantinople (1881), Convention of Constantinople except the area around the town of Elassona, which remained in Ottoman hands until 1912. It was briefly captured by Ottomans during the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. After the Treaty of Constantinople (1897), Greece was forced to cede minor border areas and to pay heavy reparations. The remaining part of Thessaly held by the Ottomans was finally regained by the Greeks during the First Balkan War in 1912. During World War II, Thessaly was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy from April 1941 to September of 1943. After the Armistice of Cassibile, Nazi Germany, Germany occupied Thessaly until October 1944.


Language

The Aeolic Greek, Aeolic dialect of Greek was spoken in Thessaly. This included several local varieties, in particular the variants of Pelasgians#Language, Pelasgiotis and Thessaliotis. The language was not written. Apart from Greek, Aromanian and Arvanitika are also spoken in Thessaly. Some Aromanian dialects from the region have some unique peculiarities of their own, such as that of Krania, Elassona, Krania, which is one of the few with differential object marking (DOM) along with those dialects spoken at the west of Ohrid in North Macedonia.


Geography

Thessaly occupies the east side of the Pindus watershed, extending south from Macedonia to the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
. The northern tier of Thessaly is defined by a generally southwest-northeast spur of the Pindus range that includes
Mount Olympus Mount Olympus (; el, Όλυμπος, Ólympos, also , ) is the highest mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in ...

Mount Olympus
, close to the Macedonian border. Within that broken spur of mountains are several basins and river valleys. The easternmost extremity of the spur extends southeastward from Mount Olympus along the Aegean coast, terminating in the Magnesia Prefecture, Magnesia Peninsula that envelops the Pagasetic Gulf (also called the Gulf of Volos), and forms an inlet of the Aegean Sea. Thessaly's major river, the Pineios (Thessaly), Pineios, flows eastward from the central Pindus Range just south of the spur, emptying into the Thermaic Gulf. The
Trikala Trikala ( el, Τρίκαλα; rup, Trikolj) is a city in northwestern Thessaly, Greece, and the capital of the Trikala (regional unit), Trikala regional unit. The city straddles the Lithaios river, which is a tributary of Pineios (Thessaly), Pin ...

Trikala
and
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
lowlands form a Thessalian plain, central plain which is surrounded by a ring of mountains. It has distinct summer and winter seasons, with summer rains augmenting the fertility of the plains. This has led to Thessaly occasionally being called the "breadbasket of Greece". The region is well delineated by topographical boundaries. The Chasia and Kamvounia mountains lie to the north, the Mount Olympus massif to the northeast. To the west lies the Pindus mountain range, to the southeast the coastal mountains of Óssa and Pelion. Several tributaries of the Pineios flow through the region.


Climate

Most of the province has a Mediterranean climate, hot summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Csa''), but also found is a Semi-arid climate, cold semi-arid climate (''BSk'') including the capital
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
(on its Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean edge of category). Even in the north of Thessaly a rare humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') can be found, although it is different from a climate typically below or above the tropics, it also marks the limit of this rare ''Cf'' subtype on the Europe, European continent (e. g. the small village of Kalvia).


Demographics

According to the census conducted by ESYE in 2011, the population of the region of Thessaly is 732,762 and represents 6.8% of the total population of the country. A 2.8% decrease in the population since 2001 was noted, but Thessaly remains the third largest region in the country in terms of population. The population break-down is 44% urban, 40% agrarian, and 16% semi-urban. A decrease in the agrarian population has been accompanied by an increase in the semi-urban population. The metropolitan area of Larissa, the capital of Thessaly, is home to more than 230,000 people, making it the biggest city of the region. An Aromanian minority resides in Thessaly. This region, along with Epirus and Macedonia (region), Macedonia, are the regions with the biggest concentrations of Aromanians in Greece, Greek Aromanians. Another notable population group of Thessaly are the Karagounides, an ethnic Greek subgroup.


Major communities

*Karditsa, Kardítsa (Καρδίτσα) *Larissa, Lárisa (Λάρισα) *Trikala, Tríkala (Τρίκαλα) *Volos, Vólos (Βόλος) *Nea Ionia, Magnesia, Néa Ionía (Νέα Ιωνία) (Metropolitan area of Volos) *Elassona, Elassóna (Ελασσόνα) *Farsala, Fársala (Φάρσαλα)


Economy

The alluvial soils of the Pineios (Thessaly), Pineios Basin and its tributaries make Thessaly a vital agricultural area, particularly for the production of grain, cattle, and sheep. Modernization of agricultural practices in the mid-20th century has controlled the chronic flooding that had restricted agricultural expansion and diversification in the low-lying plains. Thessaly is the leading cattle-raising area of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, and Aromanian shepherds move large flocks of sheep and goats seasonally between higher and lower elevations. In the last few decades, there has been a rise in the cultivation of dried nuts such as almonds, pistachios, and walnuts, especially in the region of Almyros. An increase in the number of olive oil trees has been also observed. The nearly landlocked Gulf of Pagasai provides a natural harbor at
Volos Volos ( el, Βόλος ) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greece, Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki. It is the sixth most populous city of Greece, and the capital of the Magnesia (regiona ...

Volos
for shipping agricultural products from the plains and chromium from the mountains. The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 9.7 billion € in 2018, accounting for 5.2% of Greek economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 16,100 € or 53% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 65% of the EU average. The unemployment rate stood at 20.6% in 2017.


Transport

There are a number of highways such as European route E75, E75, and the main railway from Athens to Thessaloniki (Salonika) crosses Thessaly. The region is directly linked to the rest of Europe through International Airport of Central Greece, which is located in Nea Anchialos, a small distance from
Volos Volos ( el, Βόλος ) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greece, Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki. It is the sixth most populous city of Greece, and the capital of the Magnesia (regiona ...

Volos
and Larisa. Charter flights link the region and bring tourists to the wider area, mainly in Pelion and
Meteora The Meteora (; el, Μετέωρα, ) is a rock formation in central Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; ...

Meteora
. The new infrastructure includes a brand new terminal ready to serve 1500 passengers per hour and new airplanes.


Administration

Although the historical region of Thessaly extended south into Phthiotis and at times north into West Macedonia, today the term 'Thessaly' is identified with the modern Administrative Region which was established in the 1987 administrative reform. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, the powers and authority of the region were redefined and extended. Along with Central Greece (region), Central Greece, it is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Thessaly and Central Greece, based at
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
. The region of Thessaly is divided into five regional units (four were pre-Kallikratis prefectures of Greece, prefectures), Karditsa (regional unit), Karditsa, Larissa (regional unit), Larissa, Magnesia (regional unit), Magnesia, the
Sporades The (Northern) Sporades (; el, Βόρειες Σποράδες, , ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small ...
and Trikala (regional unit), Trikala, which are further subdivided into twenty-five Municipalities of Greece, municipalities. The region's governor is (New Democracy (Greece), New Democracy), who was elected in the 2010 Greek local elections, 2010 local elections and re-elected in 2014 Greek local elections, 2014 and 2019.


Ancient coinage

File:AR hemidrachm of Pharsalos.jpg, Silver hemidrachm of Pharsalos struck 450-400 BC File:AR hemidrachm of Trikka.jpg, Silver hemidrachm of Trikka struck 440-400 BC File:Münze des Thessalischen Bundes.jpg, Silver hemidrachm of Thessalian League struck 470-460 BC File:Bronze coin of Ekkarra.jpg, Bronze coin of Ekkarra struck 325-320 BC File:Bronze coin of Krannon.jpg, Bronze coin of Krannon struck 400-344 BC File:Hemidrachm, Pellina, Thessaly, 460-420 BC.jpg, Hemidrachm coin of Pelinna struck 460-420 BC


See also

*
Vale of Tempe The Vale of Tempe ( el, Κοιλάδα των Τεμπών) is a gorge in the Tempi (municipality), Tempi municipality of northern Thessaly, Greece, located between Mount Olympus, Olympus to the north and Mount Ossa (Greece), Ossa to the south, an ...
*List of traditional Greek place names *CERETETH, Center of Technology Thessaly


References


Sources

* * * *


External links

* * {{Authority control Thessaly, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union Administrative regions of Greece Northern Greece