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''The Times'' is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its sister paper ''
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in Britain's quality press market category. It was founded in 1821 as ''The New Observer''. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, whi ...
'' (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, in turn wholly owned by News Corp. ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'', which do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1966. In general, the political position of ''The Times'' is considered to be centre-right. ''The Times'' is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as ''
The Times of India ''The Times of India'', also known by its abbreviation ''TOI'', is an Indian English-language daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...
'', ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid d ...
'', and more recently, digital-first publications such as TheTimesBlog.com (Since 2017). In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as , or as , although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution. It is considered a
newspaper of record A newspaper of record is a major national newspaper with large newspaper circulation, circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered Authority, authoritative and independent; they are thus "newspapers of record by reput ...
in the UK. ''The Times'' had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019; in the same period, ''The Sunday Times'' had an average weekly circulation of 712,291. An American edition of ''The Times'' has been published since 6 June 2006. ''The Times'' has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2019, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.


History


1785 to 1890

''The Times'' was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as ''The Daily Universal Register,'' with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company for which he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. At that time, Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was reputedly faster and more precise (although three years later, it was proved less efficient than advertised). Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce books. The first publication of the newspaper ''The Daily Universal Register'' was on 1 January 1785. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to ''The Times''. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for
libel Defamation is the act of communicating to a third party false statements about a person, place or thing that results in damage to its reputation. It can be spoken (slander) or written (libel). It constitutes a tort or a crime. The legal defini ...
printed in ''The Times'', his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. ''The Times'' used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of ''The Times'' were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, ''The Times'' had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of ''The Times'' rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and constitutes, alongside Canary Wharf, the primary central bu ...
. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for ''The Times'' the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence. ''The Times'' was one of the first newspapers to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. William Howard Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was fought from October 1853 to February 1856 between Russian Empire, Russia and an ultimately victorious alliance of the Ottoman Empire, Second French Empire, France, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Uni ...
, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England.


1890 to 1981

''The Times'' faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser Walter, but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic Moberly Bell. During his tenure (1890–1911), ''The Times'' became associated with selling the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-d ...
'' using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by Horace Everett Hooper and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the ''Britannica's'' two owners, Hooper and Walter Montgomery Jackson, ''The Times'' severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper
magnate The magnate term, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", means a man from the higher nobility, a man who belongs to the high office-holders, or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ot ...
, Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe. In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914, Wickham Steed, the ''Times's'' Chief Editor, argued that the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. I ...
should enter
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
. On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed, ''The Times'' in an editorial endorsed the anti-Semitic fabrication '' The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion'' as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about ''The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'':
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".
The following year, when Philip Graves, the
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsargrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopo ...
(modern
Istanbul Istanbul ( , ; tr, İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople ( grc-gre, Κωνσταντινούπολις; la, Constantinopolis), is the List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, ...
) correspondent of ''The Times'', exposed ''The Protocols'' as a forgery, ''The Times'' retracted the editorial of the previous year. In 1922,
John Jacob Astor John Jacob Astor (born Johann Jakob Astor; July 17, 1763 – March 29, 1848) was a German-American businessman, merchant, real estate mogul, and investor who made his fortune mainly in a fur trade monopoly, by smuggling opium into China, an ...
, son of the 1st Viscount Astor, bought ''The Times'' from the Northcliffe estate. The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain. Candid news reports by Norman Ebbut from Berlin that warned of warmongering were rewritten in London to support the appeasement policy. Kim Philby, a double agent with primary allegiance to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of former transcontinental countries#Since 1700, transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, ...
, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución, link=no) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista, link=no) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebeli ...
of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence ( MI6) during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of former transcontinental countries#Since 1700, transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, ...
when discovery was inevitable in 1963. Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr was assistant editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials. In December 1944, when fighting broke out in
Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is a coastal city in the Mediterranean and is both the capital and largest city of Greece. With a population close to four million, it is also the seventh largest c ...
between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a ''Times'' leader sided with the Communists, leading
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman, soldier, and writer who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom twice, from 1940 to 1945 Winston Churchill in the Second World War, dur ...
to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. As a result of Carr's editorial, ''The Times'' became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny '' Daily Worker''" (the price of the Communist Party's ''Daily Worker'' being one penny). On 3 May 1966, it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the Royal Arms, which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. In the same year, members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson. His Thomson Corporation brought it under the same ownership as ''
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in Britain's quality press market category. It was founded in 1821 as ''The New Observer''. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, whi ...
'' to form Times Newspapers Limited. An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979. The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods. Several suitors appeared, including
Robert Maxwell Ian Robert Maxwell (born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch; 10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a Czechoslovak-born British media proprietor, Parliament of the United Kingdom, member of parliament (MP), suspected spy, and fraudster. Early i ...
,
Tiny Rowland Roland Walter "Tiny" Rowland (; 27 November 1917 – 25 July 1998) was a British businessman, corporate raider and the chief executive of the Lonmin, Lonrho conglomerate from 1962 to 1993. He gained fame from a number of high-profile takeover bi ...
and Lord Rothermere; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Robert Holmes à Court, another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy ''The Times'' in 1980.


From 1981

In 1981, ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International. The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O'Neill. Murdoch gave legal undertakings to maintain separate journalism resources for the two titles. The Royal Arms was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a Europeans, European dynasty, royal house of Germans, German origin that ruled Hanover, Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain, and Kingdom of Ireland, ...
, who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded. After 14 years as editor, William Rees-Mogg resigned upon completion of the change of ownership. Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing Harold Evans as his replacement.Stewart, p. 51 One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print ''The Times'' since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the Wapping dispute of 1986, when ''The Times'' moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near Fleet Street) to new offices in Wapping. Robert Fisk, seven times British International Journalist of the Year, resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance. In June 1990, ''The Times'' ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. In 1992, it accepted the use of "Ms" for unmarried women "if they express a preference." In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. Over the next year, the broadsheet edition was withdrawn from
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, that is #Descriptions, variously described as ...
,
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...
, and the
West Country The West Country (occasionally Westcountry) is a loosely defined area of South West England, usually taken to include all, some, or parts of the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Bristol, and, less commonly, Wiltshire, Gloucesters ...
. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format. On 6 June 2005, ''The Times'' redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. According to its leading article "From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page. In a 2007 meeting with the
House of Lords The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the Bicameralism, upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by Life peer, appointment, Hereditary peer, heredity or Lords Spiritual, official function. Like the ...
Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control. In May 2008, printing of ''The Times'' switched from Wapping to new plants at Waltham Cross in Hertfordshire, and
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan county, metropolitan and ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in North West England, with a population of List of ceremonial counties of England, 1.38 million. It encompasses both banks of the Merse ...
and
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) is the most populous city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ' ...
, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time. On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the London 2012 Olympics and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, ''The Times'' added the suffix "of London" to its masthead. In March 2016, the paper dropped its rolling digital coverage for a series of 'editions' of the paper at 9am, midday and 5pm on weekdays. The change also saw a redesign for the paper's app for smartphones and tablets. In April 2018, IPSO upheld a complaint against ''The Times'' for its report of a court hearing in a Tower Hamlets fostering case. In April 2019, culture secretary Jeremy Wright said he was minded to allow a request by News UK to relax the legal undertakings given in 1981 to maintain separate journalism resources for ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times''. In 2019, IPSO upheld complaints against ''The Times'' over their article "GPS data shows container visited trafficking hotspot", and for three articles as part of a series on pollution in Britain's waterways – "No river safe for bathing", "Filthy Business" and "Behind the story". IPSO also upheld complaints in 2019 against articles headlined "Funding secret of scientists against hunt trophy ban", and "Britons lose out to rush of foreign medical students".


Content

''The Times'' features news for the first half of the paper; the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, a Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper. In April 2016, the cover price of ''The Times'' became £1.40 on weekdays and £1.50 on Saturdays.


''Times2''

''The Times'' main supplement, every day, is the ''times2'', featuring various columns. It was discontinued in early March 2010, but reintroduced on 12 October 2010 after discontinuation was criticised. Its regular features include a puzzles section called ''Mind Games''. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called ''T2'' and previously ''Times 2''. The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings, and theatre reviews. The newspaper employs Richard Morrison as its classical music critic.


''The Game''

''The Game'' is included in the newspaper on Mondays, and details all the weekend's football activity (
Premier League The Premier League (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited) is the highest level of the men's English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Foo ...
and Football League Championship, League One and League Two.) The Scottish edition of ''The Game'' also includes results and analysis from
Scottish Premier League The Scottish Premier League (SPL) was the Scottish football league system, top level league competition for professional Association football, football clubs in Scotland. The league was founded in 1998, when it broke away from the Scottish Foo ...
games. During the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior List of men's national association football teams, men's national teams of the members of the ' (FIFA), the ...
and
UEFA Union of European Football Associations (UEFA ; french: Union des associations européennes de football; german: Union der europäischen Fußballverbände) is one of six continental bodies of governance in association football Associati ...
Euros there is a daily supplement of The Game.


Saturday supplements

The Saturday edition of ''The Times'' contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: ''Sport'', ''Saturday Review'' (arts, books, TV listings and ideas), ''Weekend'' (including travel and lifestyle features), ''Playlist'' (an entertainment listings guide) and ''The Times Magazine'' (columns on various topics).


''The Times Magazine''

''The Times Magazine'' features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include Giles Coren, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005 and Nadiya Hussain, winner of '' The Great British Bake Off''.


Online presence

''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' have had an online presence since 1996, originally at ''the-times.co.uk'' and ''sunday-times.co.uk'', and later at ''timesonline.co.uk''. There are now two websites: ''thetimes.co.uk'' is aimed at daily readers, and the ''thesundaytimes.co.uk'' site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also
iPad The iPad is a brand of iOS and iPadOS-based tablet computers that are developed by Apple Inc., Apple Inc. The iPad was conceived before the related iPhone but the iPhone was developed and released first. Speculation about the development, ...
and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010, News UK has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' online. Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million. In April 2009, the ''timesonline'' site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day. In October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to ''The Times'' digital products. A Reuters Institute survey in 2021 put the number of digital subscribers at around 400,000, and ranked ''The Times'' as having the sixth highest trust rating out of 13 different outlets polled. The Times Digital Archive is available by subscription.


Ownership

''The Times'' has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785: * 1785 to 1803 – John Walter * 1803 to 1847 – John Walter, 2nd * 1847 to 1894 – John Walter, 3rd * 1894 to 1908 – Arthur Fraser Walter * 1908 to 1922 – Lord Northcliffe * 1922 to 1966 – Astor family * 1966 to 1981 – Roy Thomson * 1981 to present – News UK (formerly News International, a wholly owned subsidiary of News Corp, run by Rupert Murdoch) File:John walter.jpg, John Walter, the founder of ''The Times'' File:John Walter II.jpg, John Walter, 2nd File:John Walter 1818–1894.jpg, John Walter, 3rd File:Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe - Project Gutenberg eText 15305.jpg, Lord Northcliffe File:Roy Thomson Cropped.jpg, Roy Thomson File:Rupert Murdoch - Flickr - Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer.jpg, Rupert Murdoch


Readership

At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, ''The Times'' had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'', is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was fou ...
''. By November 2005, ''The Times'' sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British " quality" newspaper (after ''The Daily Telegraph'', which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. By March 2014, average daily circulation of ''The Times'' had fallen to 394,448 copies, compared to ''The Daily Telegraphs 523,048, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast '' The Sun'', the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, and the ''Daily Mail'', the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period. ''The Sunday Times'' has a significantly higher circulation than ''The Times'', and sometimes outsells ''The Sunday Telegraph''. In January 2019, ''The Times'' had a circulation of 417,298 and ''The Sunday Times'' 712,291. In a 2009 national readership survey, ''The Times'' was found to have the highest number of ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London of any of the "quality" papers.


Typeface

''The Times'' is the originator of the widely used Times New Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of ''The Times'' in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006, ''The Times'' began printing headlines in a new typeface, Times Modern. ''The Times'' was printed in
broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid– compact formats. Description Many broadsheets measure ro ...
format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. ''The Sunday Times'' remains a broadsheet. In 1908, ''The Times'' started using the ''Monotype Modern'' typeface. ''The Times'' commissioned the
serif In typography, a serif () is a small line or stroke regularly attached to the end of a larger stroke in a letter or symbol within a particular font or family of fonts. A typeface or "font family" making use of serifs is called a serif typeface ( ...
typeface A typeface (or font family) is the design of lettering that can include variations in size, weight (e.g. bold), slope (e.g. italic), width (e.g. condensed), and so on. Each of these variations of the typeface is a font. There are list of type ...
'' Times New Roman'', created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype, in 1931. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing ''The Times'' for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The typeface was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of ''The Times''. Morison used an older typeface named Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. ''Times New Roman'' made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. ''The Times'' stayed with ''Times New Roman'' for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from
broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid– compact formats. Description Many broadsheets measure ro ...
to tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch typeface five times since 1972. However, all the new typeface have been variants of the original New Roman type: * ''Times Europa'' was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for ''The Times'', as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces. * ''Times Roman'' replaced ''Times Europa'' on 30 August 1982. * ''Times Millennium'' was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International. * ''Times Classic'' first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor ''Times Millennium''. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004. * ''Times Modern'' was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of ''Times Classic''. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The typeface was published by Elsner + Flake as ''EF Times Modern''; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.


Political alignment

Historically, the paper was not overtly pro- Tory or Whig, but has been a long time bastion of the British Establishment and empire. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of ''The Times'' in shaping the views of events of London's elite, writing:
For much more than a century ''The Times'' has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street.
''The Times'' adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. However, the newspaper reverted to the Conservatives for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con–Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic) candidates. For the 2001 general election, ''The Times'' declared its support for
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British former politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He pr ...
's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority. In 2004, according to MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour. For the 2010 general election, the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a
coalition A coalition is a group formed when two or more people or groups temporarily work together to achieve a common goal. The term is most frequently used to denote a formation of power in political or economical spaces. Formation According to ''A Gui ...
with the Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority. Its changes in political alignment make it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history. Some columnists in ''The Times'' are connected to the Conservative Party such as Daniel Finkelstein, Tim Montgomerie, Matthew Parris, and Matt Ridley, but there are also columnists connected to the Labour Party such as David Aaronovitch and Jenni Russell. ''The Times'' occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Democrat
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, Obama was the first Af ...
although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy. During the 2019 Conservative leadership election, ''The Times'' endorsed
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician, writer and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 20 ...
, and subsequently endorsed the Conservative Party in the general election of that year.


Libel cases against ''The Times''


Imam Abdullah Patel

In 2019, ''The Times'' published an article about Imam Abdullah Patel which wrongly claimed Patel had blamed Israel for the 2003 murder of a British police officer by a terror suspect in Manchester. The story also wrongly claimed that Patel ran a primary school that had been criticised by Ofsted for segregating parents at events, which Ofsted said was contrary to "British democratic principles". ''The Times'' settled Patel's defamation claim by issuing an apology and offering to pay damages and legal costs. Patel's solicitor, Zillur Rahman, said the case "highlights the shocking level of journalism to which the Muslim community are often subject".


Sultan Choudhury

In 2019, ''The Times'' published an article titled "Female Circumcision is like clipping a nail, claimed speaker". The article featured a photo of Sultan Choudhury beside the headline, leading some readers to incorrectly infer that Choudhury had made the comment. Choudhury lodged a complaint with the Independent Press Standards Organisation and sued ''The Times'' for libel. In 2020, ''The Times'' issued an apology, amended its article and agreed to pay Choudhury damages and legal costs. Choudhury's solicitor, Nishtar Saleem, said "This is another example of irresponsible journalism. Publishing sensational excerpts on a ‘free site’ whilst concealing the full article behind a paywall is a dangerous game".


Cage

In December 2020, Cage and Moazzam Begg received damages of £30,000 plus costs in a libel case they had brought against ''The Times'' newspaper. In June 2020, a report in ''The Times'' had suggested that Cage and Begg were supporting a man who had been arrested in relation to a knife attack in Reading in which three men were murdered. ''The Times'' report also suggested that Cage and Begg were excusing the actions of the accused man by mentioning mistakes made by the police and others. In addition to paying damages, ''The Times'' printed an apology. Cage stated that the damages amount would be used to "expose state-sponsored Islamophobia and those complicit with it in the press. ... The Murdoch press empire has actively supported xenophobic elements and undermined principles of open society and accountability. ... We will continue to shine a light on war criminals and torture apologists and press barons who fan the flames of hate".


Sponsorships

''The Times'', along with the British Film Institute, sponsors "The Times" ''bfi'' London Film Festival. It also sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House, London.


Editors


Related publications

An Irish digital newspaper, digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 a
TheTimes.ie
A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland. The Irish edition was set to close in June 2019 with the loss of 20 jobs. ''The Times Literary Supplement'' (''TLS'') first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to ''The Times'', becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914. The ''TLS'' is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with ''The Times'', with its online version hosted on ''The Times'' website, and its editorial offices based in 1 London Bridge Street, London. Between 1951 and 1966, ''The Times'' published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, ''The Times Science Review''. ''The Times'' started a new, free, monthly science magazine, ''Eureka'', in October 2009. The magazine closed in October 2012. Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The flagship product is ''Times Atlas of the World, The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World''. In 1971, ''The Times'' began publishing the ''Times Higher Education Supplement'' (now known as the ''Times Higher Education'') which focuses its coverage on tertiary education.


In popular culture

In the dystopian future world of George Orwell's ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'', ''The Times'' has been transformed into an organ of the totalitarian ruling party. The book's lead character Winston Smith (Nineteen Eighty-Four), Winston Smith is employed in the task of rewriting past issues of the newspaper for the Ministry of truth, Ministry of Truth. Rex Stout's fictional detective Nero Wolfe is described as fond of solving the London ''Times'' crossword puzzle at his New York home, in preference to those of American papers. In the James Bond, James Bond series by Ian Fleming, James Bond (character), James Bond reads ''The Times''. As described by Fleming in ''From Russia, with Love (novel), From Russia, with Love'': ''The Times'' was "the only paper that Bond ever read."


See also

* History of journalism in the United Kingdom * List of the oldest newspapers


References


Further reading

* Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," ''English Historical Review'' (2013) 128#533 pp. 1037–1040. * - includes sections of black-and-white photographic plates, plus a few charts and diagrams in text pages. * Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. ''The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers'' (1980) pp. 320–29. * Morison, Stanley. ''The History of the Times: Volume 1: The Thunderer" in the Making 1785–1841. Volume 2: The Tradition Established 1841–1884. Volume 3: The Twentieth Century Test 1884–1912. Volume 4 [published in two parts]:The 150th Anniversary and Beyond 1912–1948.'' (1952) * Riggs, Bruce Timothy
"Geoffrey Dawson, editor of "The Times" (London), and his contribution to the appeasement movement" (PhD dissertation, U of North Texas, 1993) online
bibliography pp 229–33.


External links


Times (London, England) Collection
at the Harry Ransom Center *
''The Sunday Times'' site
* * (archives) * * Anthony Trollope's satir
on the mid-nineteenth century ''Times''
* Journalism Now: ''The Times'
Winchester University Journalism History project on ''The Times'' in the 19th century


including
History and Heritage section
detailing landmark ''Times'' atlases
Archive from 1785 to 2008
– full text and original layout, searchable (not free of charge, registration required) *
''The Times'' editor Robert Thomson lecture online: From the editorial desk of ''The Times'', RMIT School of Applied Communication Public Lecture series
{{DEFAULTSORT:Times, The The Times, Centre-right newspapers Conservative media in the United Kingdom National newspapers published in the United Kingdom Newspapers published in London News Corporation subsidiaries Newspapers established in 1785 1785 establishments in England 1785 establishments in Great Britain Daily newspapers published in the United Kingdom