HOME

TheInfoList




The Aerospace Corporation is an American nonprofit corporation that operates a
federally funded research and development center Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are public-private partnerships which conduct research and development Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the c ...
(FFRDC) in
El Segundo, California El Segundo (; ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigua ...
. The corporation provides technical guidance and advice on all aspects of space missions to military, civil, and commercial customers. As the FFRDC for national-security space, Aerospace works closely with organizations such as the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosph ...

United States Air Force
Space and Missile Systems Center The Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) is the United States Space Force The United States Space Force (USSF) is the outer space, space military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. Armed Forces, one of t ...

Space and Missile Systems Center
(SMC) and the
National Reconnaissance Office The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an United States feder ...
(NRO) to provide "objective technical analyses and assessments for space programs that serve the national interest". Although SMC and NRO are the primary customers, Aerospace also performs work for civil agencies such as
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
and
NOAA The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce The United States Department of Commerce is an executive department The Unite ...
as well as international organizations and governments in the national interest.


History

On July 1, 1954, the Western Development Division (WDD) of the United States Air Force was established, under the command of Brig. Gen. Bernard A. Schriever. WDD was responsible for the development of the
intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen figure prominently in the foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbow ...
. The Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (RW) was identified as the civilian organization responsible for systems engineering for the ICBM program. Their Space Technology Laboratories (STL) was responsible for all missile tasks. Despite early successes, there was criticism from both government and industry on the role RW played as a system engineer, in particular, that RW held a privileged position with the Air Force. In 1958 RW merged with Thompson Products to become
TRWTRW may refer to: * TRW Inc., former US aerospace and automotive company, purchased by Northrop Grumman ** TRW Automotive, spun off from TRW Inc., later ZF TRW Automotive Holdings Corp. * The Real World (TV series), ''The Real World'' (TV series), a ...
and the Space Technology Laboratories became an independent subsidiary of TRW, but concerns regarding conflicts of interest persisted. In September 1959,
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
issued ''House Report 1121'' which recommended that STL be converted into a non-profit institution. Congress wanted the establishment of an organization, free from conflict of interest, to aid the Air Force in "applying the full resources of modern science and technology to the problem of achieving those continuing advances in
ballistic missiles A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory Projectile motion is a form of motion (physics), motion experienced by an launched object. Ballistics ( gr, βάλλειν, ba'llein, lit=to throw) is the science of dynamics (mechanics), dyna ...
and military space systems." On June 3, 1960, Aerospace was established under the laws of the State of
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
as a nonprofit corporation. On June 25, 1960, at a press conference held at the U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missile Division headquarters in El Segundo, California, Lt. Gen. Bernard A. Schriever announced the "formation of a new nonprofit organization, The Aerospace Corporation, to serve the Air Force in the scientific and technical planning and management of missile-space programs." Among the earliest projects it supported were the
Dyna-Soar
Dyna-Soar
orbital spaceplane,
Project Mercury Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated directly by the ...
, and the man-rating of the
Atlas (rocket) Atlas is a family of US missiles and space launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the International Space Station A launch vehicle or carrier rocket i ...
intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen figure prominently in the foreground at right where they drive away the French crossbow ...
. The Aerospace Corporation provided general systems engineering and technical direction for the
Titan II The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a with a minimum of primarily designed for (delivering one or more ). Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons ...
missile, first tested in 1962, which became the launch vehicle for
Project Gemini Project Gemini () was NASA's second human spaceflight program. Conducted between projects Project Mercury, Mercury and Apollo program, Apollo, Gemini started in 1961 and concluded in 1966. The Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten ...
. Other notable projects of the 1960s include the advanced ballistic re-entry system (ABRES), the Air Force's
Manned Orbiting Laboratory The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) was part of the United States Air Force (USAF) human spaceflight program in the 1960s. The project was developed from early USAF concepts of crewed space stations as reconnaissance satellites, and was a succe ...
(MOL), the
Defense Satellite Communications System The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) is a United States Space Force The United States Space Force (USSF) is the outer space, space military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. Armed Forces, one of ...
(DSCS), and the
Defense Support Program The Defense Support Program (DSP) is a program of the United States Space Force that operated the reconnaissance satellites which form the principal component of the ''Satellite Early Warning System'' used by the United States. DSP satellites ...
(DSP). During the 1970s, Aerospace began performing advanced space program analysis and program studies for
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
's development of the Space Transportation System (STS), more commonly known as the
space shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable low Earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an Earth-centered orbit near the planet, often specified as having a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * ...

space shuttle
. Aerospace also began tests on airborne UHF terminals for the Air Force Satellite Communications System, AFSATCOM. In the mid-70s Aerospace assumed general systems engineering and integration responsibility for the
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) monitors meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics for the United States Department of Defense. The program is managed by the United States Space Force with on-orbit operatio ...
(DMSP). Beginning in 1973, a program office was established to assist the Air Force in the creation of the
Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
(GPS). In recognition of their GPS collaboration, Aerospace shared the 1992 Robert J. Collier Trophy, the nation's highest award for aeronautical achievement, "for the most significant development for safe and efficient navigation and surveillance of air and spacecraft since the introduction of radio navigation 50 years ago." Throughout the 1980s, Aerospace supported the
Inertial Upper Stage The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), originally designated the Interim Upper Stage, was a Multistage rocket, two-stage, Solid-propellant rocket, solid-fueled space launch system developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force beginning in 1976 for ...
(IUS), the
Strategic Defense Initiative The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), derisively nicknamed the "''Star Wars'' program", was a proposed missile defense Phased Array Ballistic Missile Early Warning System at RAF Fylingdales">Ballistic_Missile_Early_Warning_System.html" ; ...
(SDI), the
Milstar Milstar (Military Strategic and Tactical Relay)https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/budget/fy2000/dot-e/airforce/00milstar.html is a constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible st ...

Milstar
and
DSCS The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) is a United States Space Force satellite constellation that provides the United States with military communications to support globally distributed military users. Beginning in 2007, DSCS is bei ...
satellite communication systems, and antisatellite (ASAT) programs. They provided planning, design, and evaluation for the
Air Force Satellite Control Network The Satellite Control Network (SCN), operated by the United States Space Force's Space Delta 6, provides support for the operation, control, and maintenance of a variety of United States Department of Defense and some non-DoD satellites. This inv ...
(AFSCN) and the Consolidated Space Operations Center at
Schriever Air Force Base Schriever Space Force Base, previously Schriever Air Force Base Schriever Space Force Base, previously Schriever Air Force Base, Falcon Air Force Base, and Falcon Air Force Station, is a base of the United States Space Force located approxi ...
in Colorado. During this same time period, the company also provided systems engineering and integration for launch vehicles, including the
Atlas Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior">Joan_Blaeu.html" ;"title="world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu">world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior'', published in the first b ...
,
Titan II The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a with a minimum of primarily designed for (delivering one or more ). Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons ...
,
Titan IV Titan IV was a family of Heavy-lift launch vehicle, heavy-lift space launch vehicles developed by Martin Marietta and operated by the United States Air Force from 1989 to 2005. rocket launch, Launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force ...
, and
Delta II Delta II was an expendable launch system An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading ...
. In the 1990s, Aerospace participated in the planning and development of system requirements for the
Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle National Security Space Launch (NSSL) — formerly Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) from 1994 to 2019 — is a program of the United States Space Force The United States Space Force (USSF) is the outer space, space military branch, ...
(EELV) program, the next generation of launch vehicles. They continued to provide launch vehicle systems engineering for the
Atlas II Atlas II was a member of the Atlas Blaeu's world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''Atlas Maior">Joan_Blaeu.html" ;"title="world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu">world map, originally prepared by Joan Blaeu for his ''A ...
,
Delta III Delta III was an expendable launch vehicle An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its components are either destroyed during reentry or discarded in space. ...
, and
Titan IV Titan IV was a family of Heavy-lift launch vehicle, heavy-lift space launch vehicles developed by Martin Marietta and operated by the United States Air Force from 1989 to 2005. rocket launch, Launches were conducted from Cape Canaveral Air Force ...
B. Satellite program support included Wideband Gapfiller, Space Based Laser, the Ultrahigh-Frequency Follow-On program, and the Global Broadcast Service. Throughout the second half of the 90s, the corporation conducted independent assessments for the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a Modular design, modular space station (habitable satellite, artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (Uni ...

International Space Station
, provided technical support for the Cassini spacecraft, and supported the acquisition of the
Space-Based Infrared System The Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) is a United States Space Force system intended to meet the United States' infrared space surveillance needs through the first two to three decades of the 21st century. The SBIRS program is designed to ...
(SBIRS) satellite constellation. Most recently, The Aerospace Corporation provided further technical assistance to EELV programs including the
Atlas V Atlas V is an expendable launch system An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle that can be launched only once, after which its components are either destroyed during reentry or discarded in space. E ...
and
Delta IV Delta IV is a group of five expendable launch system An expendable launch system (or expendable launch vehicle/ELV) is a launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhs ...
, and supported planning for Space Radar to provide global persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance to the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
. Aerospace has been involved in the analysis of concept designs for the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (SSTS). Aerospace plays an integral role in the development of the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) program that will replace the Milstar system. Another system that Aerospace was supporting is the Transformational Satellite Communications System MILSATCOM architecture to link military and reconnaissance communication networks. However, it was canceled per the recommendations of Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates due to DoD budgetary constraints. Aerospace remains a significant partner in the continuing evolution of the GPS system. Aerospace has been playing a leading role in the planning and acquisition of
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by the United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service division, supports weather for ...
for the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce that forecasts weather, monitors oceanic and atmospheric conditions, charts the seas, c ...
. In 2005, Aerospace supported the Air Force Affordable Responsive Spacelift (ARES) launch system demonstration program.


Capabilities

The Aerospace Corporation, as the
FFRDC Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are public-private partnerships which conduct research and development for the United States Government. Under Federal Acquisition Regulation]§ 35.017 FFRDCs are operated by universit ...
for national security space, primarily supports the
Space and Missile Systems Center The Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) is the United States Space Force The United States Space Force (USSF) is the outer space, space military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. Armed Forces, one of t ...

Space and Missile Systems Center
of the Air Force Space Command, as well as the
National Reconnaissance Office The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an United States feder ...
. Their 50-year history working side by side with these organizations has made Aerospace the national memory and data repository for launch and satellite systems. They provide scientific and engineering support for launch, space, and related ground systems that serve the national interest. The
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
has identified five core competencies for the Aerospace FFRDC: launch certification, system-of-systems engineering, systems development and acquisition, process implementation, and technology application. Aerospace also manages support to programs for
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce that forecasts weather, monitors oceanic and atmospheric conditions, charts the seas, c ...
(NOAA), as well as other civil and some commercial space customers. The Aerospace Corporation sponsors several annual conferences and workshops including planetary defense, space systems engineering, space power, and
spacecraft thermal control In spacecraft design, the function of the thermal control system (TCS) is to keep all the spacecraft's component systems within acceptable temperature ranges during all mission phases. It must cope with the external environment, which can vary in ...
.


Organization


Space Systems Group

The Space Systems Group works with the Air Force, government, and industry partners to develop military satellites and advanced national-security satellite systems. It oversees four major spacecraft and space system areas: communications, surveillance, weather, and navigation. Much emphasis is placed upon the life cycle for systems—as space programs are designed, acquired, and fielded. The Space Systems Group also includes Space Launch Operations which supports Air Force and NRO launch programs by monitoring and collecting data from national security launches. It is responsible for conducting the Aerospace independent launch readiness verification process for legacy and EELV launches. This group focuses on lessons learned, data, and best practices sharing among launch programs.


Engineering and Technology Group

The Engineering and Technology Group is Aerospace's core science and engineering organization, providing cross-program technical support to a variety of military, civil, commercial, and corporate projects. Consisting of nearly half of the company's technical force, the group is made up of six specialty organizations: Laboratory Operations, Communications and Networking Division, Computers and Software Division, Electronics and Sensors Division, Systems Engineering Division, Vehicle Systems Division. Members of ETG assess and evaluate existing and new space technologies, investigate and resolve anomalies, and conduct research and development.


National Systems Group

The National Systems Group is responsible for systems engineering and integrations support for NRO space programs. Through methods such as technical and engineering analyses, concept design studies, and direct on-site support, they provide planning, development, and deployment services for reconnaissance space systems. NSG's focus is to apply a systems engineering approach to national intelligence programs to provide objective technical recommendations and solutions.


Defense Systems Group

The Defense Systems Group provides customer support to all national-security space programs. Activities within the group include requirements analysis, cross-mission planning and architecture development, strategic awareness planning, cross-program engineering, and systems acquisition development.


Civil Systems Group

The Civil Systems Group (also known as Vaeros), is a division of The Aerospace Corporation that supports both developing and operational civil space systems for
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
, the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA ) is an American scientific and regulatory agency within the United States Department of Commerce that forecasts weather, monitors oceanic and atmospheric conditions, charts the seas, c ...
(NOAA), as well as addressing difficult systems engineering problems in the military, civil, and commercial applications. Commercially, the group supports satellite owner-operators, spacecraft manufacturers, insurance companies, and space-consulting and legal firms. It plays a key role in spacecraft operations, acquisition planning, strategic planning, acquisition management, and risk assessment for operational, near-term and future NOAA satellite programs.


Specialty Centers


Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies

The company also maintains the Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies (CORDS). The group is unique in that it is the only one that systematically tests fallen
space debris Space debris (also known as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage) is defunct artificial objects in space—principally in Earth orbit A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth ...
in its laboratory, The size and shape of debris along with melting that occurs during reentry is analyzed with sophisticated computer software in an effort to reconstruct its fall. Information learned during analysis is used to help satellite developers "design for demise" or ensure that debris burns up more completely during reentry. The team received the 1992 NASA Group Achievement Award for their work on understanding the breakup characteristics of the
Space Shuttle external tank The Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle File:Soyuz TMA-5 launch.jpg, Russian Soyuz TMA-5 lifts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan heading for the International Space Station ...
.


Center for Space Policy and Strategy

The Center for Space Policy and Strategy was originally established in 2000 as a Center of Excellence for civil, commercial, and national space policy. In 2016, the Center was expanded.


Corporate governance


Chief executive officers

* 1960–77:
Ivan A. Getting Ivan Alexander Getting (January 18, 1912 – October 11, 2003) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empiric ...
* 1977–87: * 1987–91: Samuel Tennant * 1992–2001: Edward C. Aldridge Jr. * 2001–07: William F. Ballhaus, Jr. * 2008–16:
Wanda Austin Wanda M. Austin (born 1954) is a former president and CEO of The Aerospace Corporation, a leading architect for the nation’s national security space programs. She was both the first woman, and the first African-American, to hold this position. T ...

Wanda Austin
; President until August 1, 2016; CEO until October 1, 2016 * 2016–present: Steve Isakowitz; President as of August 1, 2016; CEO as of October 1, 2016


Board of Trustees


See also

*
TRACE Trace may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music * ''Trace'' (Son Volt album), 1995 * Trace (Died Pretty album), ''Trace'' (Died Pretty album), 1993 * Trace (band), a Dutch progressive rock band * The Trace (album), ''The Trace'' (album) Other ...
, a computer program developed by the Aerospace Corporation


References


External links

*
AEROSPACE CORPORATION
on USAspending.gov {{DEFAULTSORT:Aerospace Corporation Aerospace companies of the United States Federally Funded Research and Development Centers Research institutes in California Science and technology in Greater Los Angeles TRW Inc. Technology companies based in Greater Los Angeles Companies based in El Segundo, California Non-profit organizations based in Los Angeles Technology companies established in 1960 1960 establishments in California Collier Trophy recipients