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The Technical University of Munich (TUM or TU Munich) (german: Technische Universität München) is a public
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
, with additional campuses in
Garching Garching bei München or Garching is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, featur ...

Garching
,
Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, and the capital of the Freising (district), Freising Districts of Germany, ''Landkreis'' (district), with a population of about 50,000. Location Freising is the oldest town between Rege ...

Freising
,
Heilbronn Heilbronn () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
,
Straubing Straubing () is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany. It is seat of the Districts of Germany, district of Straubing-Bogen. Annually in August the Gäubodenvolksfest, the second largest fair in Bavaria, is held. The city is locat ...
, and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
. A
technical university Technical may refer to: * Technical (vehicle), an improvised fighting vehicle * Technical analysis, a discipline for forecasting the future direction of prices through the study of past market data * Technical drawing, showing how something is co ...
that specializes in
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
,
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
, and the applied and
natural sciences Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...
, it is organized into 11 schools and departments, and supported by numerous research centers. A ''University of Excellence'' under the
German Universities Excellence Initiative The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities The ''Wissenschaftsrat'' (''WR''; Council of Science and Humanities) is an advisory body to the German Federal Government and the state (''Länder'') governments. It makes ...
, TUM is consistently ranked among the leading universities in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and its researchers and alumni include 17 Nobel laureates and 23
Leibniz Prize The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize (german: Förderpreis für deutsche Wissenschaftler im Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Programm der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft), in short Leibniz Prize, is awarded by the German Research Foundation The Germ ...
winners.


History


19th century

In 1868, King
Ludwig II of Bavaria Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary House of Wittelsbach, Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bava ...

Ludwig II of Bavaria
founded the ''Polytechnische Schule München'' with Karl Maximilian von Bauernfeind as founding director. The new school had its premises at Arcisstraße, where it is still located today. At that time, around 350 students were supervised by 24 professors and 21 lecturers. The institution was divided into six departments: The "General Department" (
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s,
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

humanities
,
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
and
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
), the "Engineering Department" (
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
and
surveying Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, art, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land survey ...

surveying
), the "Building Construction Department" (
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
), the "Mechanical-Technical Department" (
mechanical engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineerin ...

mechanical engineering
), the "Chemical-Technical Department" (
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
), and the "Agricultural Department". In 1877, the ''Polytechnische Schule München'' became the ''Technische Hochschule München'' (TH München), and in 1901 it was granted the right to award
doctorate A doctorate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...

doctorate
s. With an average of 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München became for a time Germany's largest
technical university Technical may refer to: * Technical (vehicle), an improvised fighting vehicle * Technical analysis, a discipline for forecasting the future direction of prices through the study of past market data * Technical drawing, showing how something is co ...
, ahead of the TH Berlin. In 1970 the institution was renamed ''Technische Universität München''.


20th century

In 1906,
Anna Boyksen
Anna Boyksen
became the first female student to enroll in
electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical enginee ...
, after the Bavarian government had allowed women to study at technical universities in the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
. In 1913,
Jonathan Zenneck Jonathan Adolf Wilhelm Zenneck (15 April 1871 – 8 April 1959) was a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical me ...
became director of the newly created Physics Institute. Martha Schneider-Bürger became the first German female
civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, w ...
to graduate from the university in 1927. During the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
, the TH München had to manage with scarce resources and was drawn into radical political struggles in the years of the November Revolution, the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, and
Adolf Hitler's rise to power Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Weimar Republic, Germany in September 1919 when Adolf Hitler, Hitler joined the political party then known as the ''Deutsche Arbeiterpartei'' – DAP (German Workers' Party). The name was changed in 1920 to ...
. In the winter semester of 1930/31, the
National Socialist German Students' League The National Socialist German Students' Union (German language, German: ''Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund'', abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level ...
became the strongest faction in the
General Students' Committee The General Students' Committee (German: Allgemeiner Studierendenausschuss) or AStA, is the acting executive board and the external representing agency of the (constituted) student body at universities A university () is an of (or ) and whi ...
(AStA) for the first time. In
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
, the
Führerprinzip The (; German language, German for 'leader principle') prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the Government of Nazi Germany. This principle can be most succinctly understood to mean that "the Hitler, Führer's word is abov ...
was also imposed on the universities. The autonomy of the TH München was substantially restricted. In 1933, the newly passed
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (german: Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to ''Berufsbeamtengesetz''), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-est ...
removed "non-
Aryan Aryan or Arya (, Indo-Iranian *''arya'') is a term originally used as an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each othe ...

Aryan
" staff or those married to "non-Aryans" from their positions, together with politically "undesirable" professors.
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
students no longer had equal rights and were not allowed to be enrolled after 1938. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the TH München conducted large scale armaments research in support of the war effort. Notable professors during this time include aircraft designer
Willy Messerschmitt Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt (; 26 June 1898 – 15 September 1978) was a Germany, German aircraft designer and manufacturer. In 1934, in collaboration with Walter Rethel, he designed the Messerschmitt Bf 109, which became the most ...
and
Walther Meissner Fritz Walther Meissner (German: ''Meißner'') (December 16, 1882 – November 16, 1974) was a German technical physicist. Meissner was born in Berlin to Waldemar Meissner and Johanna Greger. He studied mechanical engineering and physics at ...

Walther Meissner
.
Basic research Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a type of scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science s ...
continued to be conducted at a high level in many institutes, as individual professors, staff members and students dared disobedience and obstruction.
Nobel prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( , ; 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, busines ...
laureate
Hans Fischer Hans Fischer (; 27 July 1881 – 31 March 1945) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see ...
protected Jewish students from Nazi prosecution. He committed suicide shortly before the end of the war.


Post World War II

During the war, 80 percent of the university's facilities in Munich had been destroyed. Under these difficult conditions, teaching resumed in April 1946. In 1956, the construction of a
research reactor Research reactors are nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction 300px, A possible nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235 atom ...
in
Garching Garching bei München or Garching is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, featur ...
was the beginning of the Garching campus. In 1969, the physics department building was opened there, followed in 1977 by new buildings for the
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ...
and
geoscience Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science o ...
departments. In 1967, a
Faculty of Medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surg ...
was founded with campuses in Haidhausen (
Rechts der Isar Hospital The Rechts der Isar Hospital (''Hospital to the right of the Isar'') is a hospital in the Haidhausen district of Munich, Germany. It is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the TUM School of Medicine. Overview In Britain, ...
) and
Schwabing Schwabing is a borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar te ...

Schwabing
. By 1968, the TH München comprised six faculties, 8,400 students, and 5,700 staff. In 1972, the
Zentrale Hochschulsportanlage
Zentrale Hochschulsportanlage
, a 45-hectare sports center, was built on the grounds of the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhoo ...
. In 1970, the TH München was renamed to its present name ''Technische Universität München''. When the Bavarian Higher Education Act came into force in 1974, the six faculties were replaced by eleven departments. In 1992, the field of
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
was established as an independent Department of Informatics, having previously been part of the Department of Mathematics since 1967.


21st century

In 2002, TUM Asia was founded in Singapore, in cooperation with the
Nanyang Technological University The Nanyang Technological University (NTU) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
and the
National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (NUS) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
. It was the first time that a German university had established a subsidiary abroad. The Department of Sport and Health Sciences and the School of Management were established in 2002. The
Weihenstephan Weihenstephan is a part of Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, and the capital of the Freising (district), Freising Districts of Germany, ''Landkreis'' (district), with a population of about 50,000. Location F ...

Weihenstephan
departments were combined into the "Weihenstephan Centre of Life and Food Sciences" (WZW), which would later become the School of Life Sciences. With the establishment of the
School of Education In the United States and Canada, a School of Education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university that is devoted to scholarship in the field of education, which is an interdisciplinary branch of the social sciences encom ...
in 2009, the School of Governance in 2016 and the Department of Aerospace and Geodesy in 2018, the university comprises 15 schools and departments. Since the inception of the
German Universities Excellence Initiative The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities The ''Wissenschaftsrat'' (''WR''; Council of Science and Humanities) is an advisory body to the German Federal Government and the state (''Länder'') governments. It makes ...
in 2006, TUM has won every round of evaluation and the title ''University of Excellence''.


Campuses

TUM's academic faculties are divided amongst numerous campuses.


Munich

The historic Main Campus (''Stammgelände'') is located in
Maxvorstadt Maxvorstadt (Central Bavarian: ''Maxvorstod'') is a central borough of Munich, Bavaria, Germany and forms the Stadtbezirk (borough) 3 Maxvorstadt. Since 1992, this borough comprises the former boroughs 5, 6 and 7 (Maxvorstadt-Universität, Maxvor ...
, the central borough of Munich. Today, the departments of
Architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
, Civil, Geo and Environmental Engineering,
Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the la ...
and the Schools of
Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...
,
Governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...
,
Education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
are located here. The TUM School of Medicine is located at the site of its
university hospital A teaching hospital is a hospital A hospital is a health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudentia ...
, the
Rechts der Isar Hospital The Rechts der Isar Hospital (''Hospital to the right of the Isar'') is a hospital in the Haidhausen district of Munich, Germany. It is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the TUM School of Medicine. Overview In Britain, ...
, in the district of Haidhausen. The TUM Department of Sport and Health Sciences is located in the
Olympiapark The Olympiapark (English: Olympic Park) in Munich, Germany, is an Olympic Park which was constructed for the 1972 Summer Olympics. Located in the Oberwiesenfeld neighborhood of Munich, the Park continues to serve as a venue for cultural, social, ...
, the former site of the
1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics (), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhoo ...
.


Garching

The campus in
Garching Garching bei München or Garching is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, featur ...
, located around 10 km north of Munich, has grown to become the largest TUM campus. In the last decades, the departments of
Physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
,
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...
,
Mechanical Engineering Mechanical engineering is an engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineerin ...
,
Informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe Informatics Europe is the European association of university departments and research laborat ...
and
Mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
have all relocated from their former buildings in the Main Campus. They have since been joined by numerous research institutes, including the
Max Planck Institutes The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (german: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of Germany, German research ins ...
for
Plasma Physics Plasma () 1, where \nu_ is the electron gyrofrequency and \nu_ is the electron collision rate. It is often the case that the electrons are magnetized while the ions are not. Magnetized plasmas are ''anisotropic'', meaning that their properties ...
,
Astrophysics Astrophysics is a science that employs the methods and principles of physics in the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Among the subjects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxy, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and ...
, Extraterrestrial Physics and
Quantum Optics #REDIRECT Quantum optics#REDIRECT Quantum optics Quantum optics is a branch of atomic, molecular, and optical physics dealing with how individual quanta of light, known as photons, interact with atoms and molecules. It includes the study of the p ...
, the Forschungsreaktor München II (FRM II), the headquarters of the
European Southern Observatory The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is an intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental research organisation made up of 16 me ...
(ESO), and the
Leibniz Supercomputing Centre The Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) (german: Leibniz-Rechenzentrum) is a supercomputing centre on the Campus Garching The Campus Garching (german: Hochschul- und Forschungszentrum Garching) is a campus of the Technical University of Munic ...
, one of the fastest
supercomputer upright=1.5, Computing power of the top 1 supercomputer each year, measured in FLOPS A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is commonly mea ...

supercomputer
s in Europe. A landmark of the Garching campus is the Oskar von Miller Tower, a
meteorological Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the ...
measurement tower with a height of 62 m. The Garching campus is connected to
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
by the
Autobahn The Autobahn (; German plural ) is the federal controlled-access highway network. A controlled-access highway is a type of highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land betwe ...
and the
Munich U-Bahn The Munich U-Bahn (german: U-Bahn München) is an Railway electrification system, electric rail Rapid transit, rapid transit network in Munich, Germany. The system began operation in 1971, and is operated by the municipally owned Münchner Verkeh ...
. It has its own
fire department A fire department (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United Sta ...
.


Weihenstephan

The third TUM campus is located 35 km north of Munich in
Weihenstephan Weihenstephan is a part of Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, and the capital of the Freising (district), Freising Districts of Germany, ''Landkreis'' (district), with a population of about 50,000. Location F ...

Weihenstephan
,
Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, and the capital of the Freising (district), Freising Districts of Germany, ''Landkreis'' (district), with a population of about 50,000. Location Freising is the oldest town between Rege ...

Freising
. It hosts the School of Life Sciences.


Other locations

Additional TUM facilities are located in
Ottobrunn Ottobrunn () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivisio ...

Ottobrunn
( Department of Aerospace and Geodesy),
Straubing Straubing () is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany. It is seat of the Districts of Germany, district of Straubing-Bogen. Annually in August the Gäubodenvolksfest, the second largest fair in Bavaria, is held. The city is locat ...
,
Heilbronn Heilbronn () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
, and
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
.


TUM Asia

TUM operates a subsidiary in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
. In 2001, the ''German Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) – TUM Asia'' was founded in partnership with the
National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (NUS) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
and the
Nanyang Technological University The Nanyang Technological University (NTU) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
, offering a range of
Master's A master's degree (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
programs. In 2010, TUM Asia started offering bachelor's degrees in collaboration with the
Singapore Institute of Technology The Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT or Singaporetech) is the fifth autonomous university An autonomous university typically refers to a university that exercises independent control over its day-to-day operations and curriculum, as oppos ...
. In 2010, TUM and the
Nanyang Technological University The Nanyang Technological University (NTU) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
founded ''TUMCREATE'', a research platform for the improvement of Singapore's public transportation.


Academics


Schools and departments

As a
technical university Technical may refer to: * Technical (vehicle), an improvised fighting vehicle * Technical analysis, a discipline for forecasting the future direction of prices through the study of past market data * Technical drawing, showing how something is co ...
, the university specializes in
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
,
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
, and the applied and
natural sciences Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...
. Compared to a ''Volluniversität'' (a universal university), it lacks the ''
Geisteswissenschaft ''Geisteswissenschaften'' (, "sciences of mind") is a set of human sciences such as philosophy, history, philology, musicology, linguistics, theater studies, literary studies, media studies, and sometimes even theology and jurisprudence, that are ...
en'', including
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
and many branches of the
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s. As of 2020, the Technical University of Munich is organized into 15 schools and departments: Other institutions include the
Rechts der Isar Hospital The Rechts der Isar Hospital (''Hospital to the right of the Isar'') is a hospital in the Haidhausen district of Munich, Germany. It is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the TUM School of Medicine. Overview In Britain, ...
, the TUM Graduate School and the Bavarian School of Public Policy.


Research

The Technical University of Munich is one of the most research-focused universities in Europe. This claim is supported by relevant rankings, such as the funding ranking of the
German Research Foundation The German Research Foundation (german: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft ; DFG ) is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * ...
and the research ranking of the
Centre for Higher Education The Centre for Higher Education (CHE) (german: Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung) is a German organization dedicated to higher education reform. Founded in 1994 by the Bertelsmann Stiftung The Bertelsmann Stiftung is an independent Found ...
. Under the
German Universities Excellence Initiative The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities The ''Wissenschaftsrat'' (''WR''; Council of Science and Humanities) is an advisory body to the German Federal Government and the state (''Länder'') governments. It makes ...
, TUM has obtained funding for multiple research clusters, including ''e-conversion'' (
energy technology Energy technology is an interdisciplinary engineering science having to do with the efficient, safe, environmentally friendly, and economical extraction, conversion, transportation, storage, and use of energy, targeted towards yielding high ef ...
), ''MCQST'' (
quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with ...
), ''ORIGINS'' (
astrophysics Astrophysics is a science that employs the methods and principles of physics in the study of astronomical objects and phenomena. Among the subjects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxy, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and ...
,
biophysics Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies approaches and methods traditionally used in physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), mot ...
and
particle physics Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which rel ...
), and ''SYNERGY'' (
neurology Neurology (from el, , "string, nerve" and the suffix , "study of") is a branch of dealing with . Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the and s (and their subdivisions, the ...
). In addition to the schools and departments, TUM has set up numerous
research centers A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science ...
with external cooperation partners. Integrative research centers (IRCs) combine research with teaching. They include the TUM Institute for Advanced Study (TUM-IAS), the Munich Center for Technology in Society (MCTS), the Munich Data Science Institute (MDSI), the Munich School of Engineering (MSE), the Munich School of BioEngineering (MSB), and the Munich School of Robotics and Machine Intelligence (MSRM). Corporate research centers (CRCs) carry out research independently of the schools and departments, cooperating with industry partners for application-driven research. They include the research reactor
FRM II The Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (Forschungsreaktor München II or FRM II) (german: Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz) is a leading German research reactor and neutron source, named in honor of the physicist Heinz Ma ...
, the Center for Functional Protein Assemblies (CPA), the Catalysis Research Center (CRC), the center for translational Cancer Research (TranslaTUM), the Walter Schottky Institute (WSI), the Hans Eisenmann-Zentrum for Agricultural Science, and the Institute for Food & Health (ZIEL).


Rankings

TUM is ranked first in Germany in the fields of
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
and
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
, and within the top three in the
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s. In the QS World Rankings, TUM is ranked 25th (worldwide) in engineering and technology, 28th in the
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s, 35th in
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
, and 50th place overall. It is the highest ranked German university in those subject areas. In the
Times Higher Education World University Rankings ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is e ...
, TUM stands at 38th place worldwide and 2nd place nationwide. Worldwide, it ranks 14th in computer science, 22nd in engineering and technology, and 23rd in the physical sciences. It is the highest ranked German university in those subject areas. In the
Academic Ranking of World Universities The ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'' (''ARWU''), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university ranking College and university rankings are rankings A ranking is a relationship between a set ...

Academic Ranking of World Universities
, TUM is ranked at 52nd place in the world and 2nd place in Germany. In the subject areas of
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ...
and engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, food science, biotechnology, and
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
, TUM is ranked first in Germany. In the 2020 Global University Employability Ranking of the Times Higher Education World Rankings, TUM was ranked 12th in the world and 3rd in Europe. TUM is ranked 7th overall in
Reuters Reuters (, ) is an international news organisation owned by Thomson Reuters. It employs around 2,500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters is one of the largest news agencies in the world. The agency w ...
' 2019 European Most Innovative University ranking. The TUM School of Management is triple accredited by the
European Quality Improvement System The EFMD Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) is a school accreditation system. It specializes in higher education institutions of management and business administration, run by the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD). EQUIS has ac ...
(EQUIS), the
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, also known as AACSB International, is an American professional organization A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional socie ...
(AACSB) and the
Association of MBAs The Association of MBAs (AMBA) is a global organisation founded in 1967 which focuses primarily on international business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration Business admin ...

Association of MBAs
(AMBA).


Partnerships

TUM has over 160 international partnerships, ranging from joint research activities to international study programs. Partners include: * Europe:
ETH Zurich (colloquially) , former_name = eidgenössische polytechnische Schule , image = ETH Zürich am Abend.jpg , image_size = , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and dis ...
, EPFL, ENSEA, École Centrale Paris, TU Eindhoven, Technical University of Denmark, Technical University of Vienna * United States: MIT, Stanford University, Northwestern University, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Illinois, Cornell University, University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Tech * Asia:
National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (NUS) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, ...
, Multimedia University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, University of Tokyo, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Amrita University, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, * Australia: Australian National University, University of Melbourne, RMIT University. Through the Erasmus+ program and its international student exchange program ''TUMexchange'', TUM students are provided by opportunities to study abroad.


Student life

As of winter semester 2021, 48,000 students are enrolled at TUM, of whom 36% are Female education in STEM, female and 38% are international students.


Student initiatives

Various initiatives are run by students, including TEDxTUM, the ''TUM Speaker Series'' (past speakers having included Ban Ki-moon, Tony Blair, Bill Gates and Eric Schmidt), and ''IKOM'', a career fair. A notable student group is the WARR (TUM), Workgroup for Rocketry and Space Flight (WARR), which won all SpaceX Hyperloop pod competitions in 2017 through 2019. In 2021, TUM Boring, won the Not-a-Boring Competition, tunnel-boring competition sponsored by The Boring Company in Las Vegas, Nevada.


Student government

The Student Council is the main body for university-wide student representation. It elects the General Student Committee (AStA), which represents the professional, economic and social interests of the students, by the Bavarian Higher Education Act. Each school or department will also have a separate Departmental Student Council. Every year, university elections are held to elect student representatives in the Senate (the university's highest academic authority) and in the faculty councils.


Events

The Student Council organizes a number of annual festivals. ''TUNIX'' and ''GARNIX'' are week-long open air festivals held every summer. ''TUNIX'' is held at the Königsplatz, Munich, Königsplatz near the Munich campus, while ''GARNIX'' is held at the Garching campus. ''GLÜHNIX'' is a christmas market held in front of the Department of Mechanical Engineering every December. ''MaiTUM'' is a Bavarian Maifest, held at the Main Campus in May each year. The Student Council also organizes numerous events, including the student-run ''TU Film'' cinema, the ''Hörsaal Poetry slam, Slam'', the ''Benefizkabarett'', and the MeUP Party#Parties for teenagers and young adults, party. Departmental Student Councils also organize their own events, such as ''Unity'', ''esp'', and the ''Brückenfest''.


Campus life

The (ZHS) is the largest university sports facility in Germany, offering hundreds of different sports programs. Music ensembles at TUM include the TUM Chamber Orchestra, the TUM Jazz band, Jazz Band, the TUM Choir, and the ''Symphonisches Ensemble München'', a full-size symphony orchestra.


Notable people


Nobel Prize laureates

16 Nobel Prize winners have studied, taught or researched at the TUM: * 1927 – Heinrich Otto Wieland, Chemistry (bile acids) * 1929 – Thomas Mann, Literature (''Buddenbrooks'') * 1930 –
Hans Fischer Hans Fischer (; 27 July 1881 – 31 March 1945) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see ...
, Chemistry (constitution and synthesis of haemin and chlorophyll) * 1961 – Rudolf L. Mößbauer, Physics (Mößbauer effect) * 1964 – Konrad Emil Bloch, Physiology or Medicine (mechanism and Cholesterol Reduction, regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism) * 1973 – Ernst Otto Fischer, Chemistry (sandwich complexes) * 1985 – Klaus von Klitzing, Physics (quantum Hall effect) * 1986 – Ernst Ruska, Physics (electron microscope) * 1988 – Johann Deisenhofer and Robert Huber, Chemistry (crystal structure of an integral membrane protein) * 1989 – Wolfgang Paul, Physics (ion trap) * 1991 – Erwin Neher, Physiology or Medicine (function of single ion channels in cells) * 2001 – Wolfgang Ketterle, Physics (Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of Alkali metal, alkali atoms) * 2007 – Gerhard Ertl, Chemistry (chemical processes on solid Surface science, surfaces) * 2016 – Ben Feringa, Bernard L. Feringa (TUM Institute for Advanced Study, TUM-IAS fellow), Chemistry (molecular machine) * 2017 – Joachim Frank, Chemistry (cryo-electron microscopy)


Scientists

* Friedrich L. Bauer, computer scientist, known for the Stack (abstract data type), stack data structure * Rudolf Bayer, computer scientist, known for the B-tree and Red–black tree * Rudolf Diesel, engineer, inventor of the Diesel engine * Claude Dornier, airplane designer * Emil Erlenmeyer, chemist, known for the Erlenmeyer flask *Asta Hampe, engineer, statistician and economist * Carl von Linde, engineer, discoverer of the Hampson–Linde cycle, refrigeration cycle * Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, physicist *
Walther Meissner Fritz Walther Meissner (German: ''Meißner'') (December 16, 1882 – November 16, 1974) was a German technical physicist. Meissner was born in Berlin to Waldemar Meissner and Johanna Greger. He studied mechanical engineering and physics at ...

Walther Meissner
, physicist, known for the Meissner effect *
Willy Messerschmitt Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt (; 26 June 1898 – 15 September 1978) was a Germany, German aircraft designer and manufacturer. In 1934, in collaboration with Walter Rethel, he designed the Messerschmitt Bf 109, which became the most ...
, aircraft designer, known for the Messerschmitt fighters * Oskar von Miller, engineer, founder of the Deutsches Museum * Erich Rieger, astrophysicist, discoverer of the Erich Rieger#Rieger periodicities, Rieger periodicities that permeate the Solar System


See also

* Education in Germany * List of universities in Germany * List of forestry universities and colleges


Notes and references


Bibliography

* *


External links

* {{coord, 48, 08, 53, N, 11, 34, 05, E, region:DE-BY_type:edu, display=title Technical University of Munich, Engineering universities and colleges in Germany 1868 establishments in Germany Educational institutions established in 1868 Universities and colleges in Munich