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Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL), Teaching English as a second language (TESL) or Teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) are terms that refer to teaching
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
to students whose first language is not English. The terms TESL, TEFL, and TESOL distinguish between the location and student population of a class. TEFL describes English language programs that occur in countries where English is not the primary language. TEFL programs may be taught at a
language school A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language. Classes at a language school are usually geared towards, for example, communicative competence in a foreign language. Language learning in such schools typically supplements formal ...

language school
or with a
tutor Tutoring is private academic support, usually provided by an expert teacher; someone with deep knowledge or defined expertise in a particular subject or set of subjects. A tutor, formally also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides ...

tutor
. The minimum TEFL requirement is a 100-hour course, however the 120-hour course is strongly recommended because it will help you get hired for the highest-paying teaching position available. TESL and TESOL include English language programs that occur in English-speaking countries. Oftentimes, these classes serve people who have
immigrated Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship ...

immigrated
there (either temporarily for school or work, or permanently) or whose family speaks another language at home. TESOL is a general term that describes TEFL and TESL programs and is a widely accepted term in the field of English language teaching. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. ESL ( English as a second language) and TESL (Teaching English as a second language) are outdated terms because they do not include students who speak more than one language prior to their study of English. Students who are learning English in their home country, typically in school, are EFL (English as a foreign language) students. More generally, students learning English are referred to as ELLs (English language learners).


Teaching English as a second language

Teaching English as a second language (TESL) refers to teaching
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
to
students A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary ...

students
whose
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
is not English. Usually offered in a region where English is the dominant language and natural English language immersion situations are apt to be plentiful. Usually focused on essential vocabularies, such as family names, household objects, basic adjectives, place names, high-frequency verbs and modal expressions. The teaching profession has historically used different names for TEFL and TESL; however, the more generic term teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) is increasingly used to describe the profession. It covers both TESL and TEFL as an umbrella term. Both native speakers and non-native speakers successfully train to be English language teachers. In order to teach English as a Second Language to English Language Learners, or ELLs, one must pass a written and oral test in English to demonstrate proficiency. The TESOL profession made progress during the 1970s and 1980s in achieving desired goals, such as shifting its focus from product-oriented to process-oriented teaching, specifically referring to an instructor facilitating a learning environment that allows the students to strategize and formulate their ideas such as activities that utilize creativity and exploration rather than strictly learning facts from a rigid curriculum to a more flexible one. The use of these various terms has led to confusion about the training options for both prospective students and employers. Because there is no global standard for the training of English language teachers, it is important to look beyond the actual acronym/title to the components of the training program. Short term certificate programs that do not have an academic affiliation resulting in credits or degrees (such as CELTA or other non-credit programs) can be a good launching pad for beginning positions internationally, but they will generally not provide sufficient training for a career (unless a person already has substantial experience and a degree in a closely related field). People interested in pursuing a career as an English language teacher should invest in credit-bearing programs that result in a university-recognized certificate or degree program (MA/TESOL, MA/Applied Linguistics) particularly if one wants to work in higher education. Because of the confusing certification situation, employers now generally look for a certificate that reflects at least 100 hours of instruction to determine if the candidate has sufficient preparation to begin teaching English. Institutions with higher standards will require applicants to possess a master's degree for employment. People wishing to teach in the K-12 public school system in the United States will need a state-teacher certification at a minimum and an ELL Endorsement (or other state qualification) to be qualified to teach ELL. When choosing a graduate program, it is important to determine if the program is designed to prepare students to teach in K-12 settings OR in adult education settings. Most programs are designed for one or the other, but not both. In California, teachers may become certified as California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL).


Teaching techniques


Reading

Literature reading is vital in learners' literacy development. TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) that uses
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...

literature
aimed at children and teenagers is rising in popularity. Youth-oriented literature offers simpler material ("simplified readers" are produced by major publishers), and often provides a more conversational style than literature for adults.
Children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are created for children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's ...

Children's literature
in particular sometimes provides subtle cues to pronunciation, through
rhyming A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (usually, exactly the same sound) in the final stressed syllables and any following syllables of two or more words. Most often, this kind of perfect rhyming is consciously used for artistic effect in the fi ...
and other
word play Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fictional device) is any of several specific methods the creator of ...
. One method for using these books is the multiple-pass technique. The instructor reads the book, pausing often to explain certain words and concepts. On the second pass, the instructor reads the book completely through without stopping. Textbooks contain a variety of literature like poetry, stories, essays, plays etc. through which certain linguistic items are taught. Reading aloud to students who are learning English as a foreign language is a highly effective strategy to assist them in learning the basic rules and understandings of the process of reading. When teachers read aloud to their students, they simply model fluency and comprehension, while also adding visual support, periodic paraphrasing, and extension. When choosing an appropriate text for the student, both the vocabulary and concepts of the text that may be new to the student need to be considered. To make sure they get definite understanding of the text, engaging the students during reading will assist them with making connections between what is being read and the new vocabulary.


Communicative language teaching

Communicative language teaching Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach (CA) , is an approach Approach may refer to: Aviation *Final approach (aeronautics) *Instrument approach *Visual approach Music * Approach (album), ''Approach'' (album), by Von ...
(CLT) emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. Despite a number of criticisms, it continues to be popular, particularly in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, and Europe. In India, CBSE ( Central Board of Secondary Education) has adopted this approach in its affiliated schools. The
task-based language learningTask-based language teaching (TBLT), also known as task-based instruction (TBI), focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language. Such tasks can include visiting a doctor, conducting an ...
approach to CLT has gained ground in recent years. Proponents believe CLT is important for developing and improving speaking, writing, listening, and reading skills and that it prevents students from merely listening passively to the teacher without actually interacting.
Dogme Dogme 95 was a filmmaking movement started in 1995 by the Denmark, Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, who created the "Dogme 95 Manifesto" and the "Vows of Chastity" ( da, kyskhedsløfter). These were rules to create films b ...
is a similar communicative approach that encourages teaching without published textbooks, instead focusing on conversational communication among the learners and the teacher.


Blended learning

Blended learning is a combination of multimedia elements (also known as
computer-assisted language learning Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), British, or Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)/Computer-Aided Language Instruction (CALI), American, is briefly defined in a seminal work by Levy (1997: p. 1) as "the search for and study of applicati ...
), achieved through a
virtual learning environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to fa ...
(VLE) with classroom instruction, a teacher, and peers. Blended learning utilizes technology to provide massive amounts of comprehensible input to its learners through video and other types of multimedia, without a teacher present. VLEs have been a major growth point in the English Language Teaching (ELT) industry over the last five years. There are two types: *Externally hosted platforms that a school or institution exports content to (e.g., the proprietary Web Course Tools, or the open source
Moodle Moodle is a free and open-source learning management system (LMS) written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Developed on Pedagogy, pedagogical principles, Moodle is used for blended learning, distance education, flippe ...

Moodle
) *Content-supplied, course-managed learning platforms (e.g. the Macmillan English Campus) The former provides pre-designed structures and tools, while the latter supports course-building by the language school—teachers can blend existing courses with games, activities, listening exercises, and grammar reference units contained online. This supports classroom, self-study or remote practice (for example in an
internet café An Internet café (also known as a cybercafé) is a café A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves coffee Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries ...
). Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan in India has launched a web portal ECTLT where learners can learn English and other subjects online and interact with their own teachers of KVS across the country.


Online classroom

Advances in technology have made it possible to get a TEFL qualification online. Students can enroll in online classes that are
accredited Accreditation is a third-party attestation related to a conformity assessment body (such as certification body Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply ''certification'' or ''qualification' ...

accredited
by organizations such as the British Council or Cambridge ESOL. There is no single overarching accreditation body for TEFL; however, private for-profit companies have been known to invent accreditation affiliates and use them to cheat the customer. Study materials are divided into modules that students are tested on. Support is handled by
tutors Tutoring is private academic support, usually provided by an expert teacher; someone with deep knowledge or defined expertise in a particular subject or set of subjects. A tutor, formally also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides ...
, who can be reached via
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
. After successfully finishing the last module, the student is granted a
certificate Certificate may refer to: * Birth certificate * Marriage certificate * Death certificate * Gift certificate * Certificate of authenticity, a document or seal certifying the authenticity of something * Certificate of deposit, or CD, a financial produ ...
that comes in digital form or can be shipped to the student's address. Getting such a certificate can be beneficial as many employers require a TEFL certificate.


Qualifications for TEFL teachers

Qualification requirements vary considerably from country to country and among employers within the same country. In many institutions it is possible to teach without a degree or teaching certificate. Some institutions will consider it necessary to be a native speaker with an MA TESOL. A university degree in English language and literature can also be of value, as indeed can any specialist degree. Other institutions consider a proof of English proficiency, a university degree and a basic teaching qualification to be more than sufficient. However, the level of academic qualification need not be the most important qualification, as many schools will be more interested in one's interpersonal skills. For trainers wishing to enter the academic field, publications can be as important as qualifications, especially if they relate to English use in the field. Where there is a high demand for teachers and no statutory requirements, employers may accept otherwise unqualified candidates. Each country is different, and acceptance depends on demand for English teachers and the teacher's previous teaching and life experiences. Private
language school A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language. Classes at a language school are usually geared towards, for example, communicative competence in a foreign language. Language learning in such schools typically supplements formal ...

language school
s are likely to require at least a certificate based on successful completion of a course consisting of a minimum of 100 hours. Major programs like EPIK will offer a higher salary to teachers who have completed any TEFL Course, online or otherwise, so long as the program meets the minimum 100-hour requirement. Internet-based TEFL courses are generally accepted worldwide, and particularly in Asia, where the largest job markets exist in China, Korea, Taiwan and Japan. For China the minimum TEFL requirement is 120 hours. In Asia there has also been a tendency to hire TEFL teachers on superficial criteria, such as race (with Caucasians preferred) on the assumption that an English teacher or native English speaker should be 'white', this is proven especially true in Thailand, a big employer of TEFL teachers, with adverts frequently calling explicitly for native-English speakers. Partly this is driven by commercial expectations in the private sector, where parents feel that paying extra fees for TEFL teacher should warrant an American or British TEFL teacher, the schools will not risk losing students over this. Age/gender requirements might also be encountered. In some countries outside Europe and America, for example the Middle East, schools might hire men over women or vice versa. And they might hire only teachers in a certain age range; usually between 20 and 40 years of age. In China, age requirements can differ across the country due to provincial government regulations. Anyone under 19 may be able to teach TEFL, but usually only in a volunteer situation, such as a refugee camp.


Pay and conditions worldwide

As in most fields, the pay depends greatly on education, training, experience, seniority, and expertise. As with much
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
work, employment conditions vary among countries, depending on the level of
economic development In the economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act o ...
and how much people want to live there. In relatively poor countries, even a low wage may equate to a comfortable
middle class The middle class is a class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an an ...
lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personality Lifestyle may also refer to: Business and ...
. EFL Teachers who wish to earn money often target countries in East Asia such as China, South Korea and Japan where demand is high. The Middle East is also often named as one of the best paying areas, although usually better qualifications are needed: at least a CELTA and one or two years' experience. There is a danger of
exploitation Exploitation may refer to: *Exploitation of natural resources *Exploitation of labour *Exploitation fiction *Exploitation film *Exploitation (film), ''Exploitation'' (film), a 2012 film *Sexual slavery and other forms of slavery *Oppression See al ...
by employers. Spain has encountered criticism given the overwhelming number of small to medium businesses (including TEFL schools) which routinely dodge the teachers' social security contributions as a means of maximizing profits. The result is that most teachers are entitled to less unemployment or sick pay than they would be entitled to if their salaries and contributions were declared in accordance with the law. Similar situations increase in countries with labor laws that may not apply to foreign employees, or which may be unenforced. An employer might ignore
contract A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview ...

contract
provisions, especially regarding
working hours Working time is the period of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. ...
, working days, and end-of-contract payments. Difficulties faced by foreign teachers regarding language, culture, or simply limited time can make it difficult to demand pay and conditions that their contracts stipulate. Some disputes arise from
cross-cultural Cross-cultural may refer to *cross-cultural studies Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Ho ...

cross-cultural
misunderstandings. Teachers who can't adapt to living and working in a foreign country may decide to leave after a few months. It can be difficult for teachers to recognize which jobs are legitimate, as many of the leading jobs boards allow unfiltered paid posting. Teachers can choose to enlist the help of recruitment agencies who only work with reputable schools.


TEFL region and country locations


Europe

Major European cities have established language schools on-site or operated as agencies sending teachers to various locations. September is the peak recruiting month, and many annual contracts last from October until June. Employers prefer
graduates Graduation is the award of academic degree, or the ceremony that is sometimes associated with it. The date of the graduation ceremony is often called graduation day. The graduation ceremony is also sometimes called: commencement, convocation o ...
with experience in teaching
Business English Business English is a part of English for specific purposes English for specific purposes (ESP) is a subset of . It usually refers to teaching the to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabular ...
or in teaching young learners. Before 2021, instructors from the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, a country within the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, did not need any
visas Visa most commonly refers to: * Visa Inc., a US multinational financial and payment cards company ** Visa Debit Visa Debit is a major brand of debit card issued by Visa Inc., Visa in many countries around the world. Numerous banks and financial ...
to work within the EU, which reduced demand for non-EU teachers. Immigration laws require that non-EU job applicants submit documents from their home countries in person after the European employer files an officially documented job offer. If the worker has traveled to Europe to find the job, this means they must return home and wait for some time. Following the process correctly does not guarantee getting a visa. Many private-sector employers do not subsidize them at all, because they are able to hire the staff easily from the EU countries.
International school#REDIRECT International school An international school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teach ...
s hire some experienced and well-qualified non-EU teachers. Education ministries, i.e. those of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, offer opportunities for assistant language instructors in public schools. Part-time employment is usually allowed under an education visa, but this visa also requires proper attendance at an accredited EU college or university, institute, or another educational program. Despite claims from websites that sell courses, state schools often do not accept brief TEFL courses as a substitute for a university degree in English education.Teacher Training (TEFL) Frauds
Frank Adamo
In Spain it is impossible to get a job with a state school without getting one's foreign teaching degree accepted in Spain and then passing the civil service examination ("oposiciones"). Demand for TEFL tends to be stronger in countries which recently. They also tend to have lower costs of living. Non-EU teachers usually find legal work there with less difficulty. The
Balkan The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geograp ...

Balkan
former
Yugoslav Yugoslav or Yugoslavian may refer to: * Yugoslavia, or any of the three historic states carrying that name: ** Kingdom of Yugoslavia, a European monarchy which existed 1918–1945 (officially called "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes" 1918–19 ...

Yugoslav
countries have seen recent growth in TEFL private schools have recruited Anglophone teachers there for several years. Very few foreign instructors work in
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
, where stricter immigration laws and a policy of relying on bilingual local teachers apply.


Australia

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) showed that in 2006 there were 4,747 female English as a Foreign Language teachers (80.1%) and 1,174 male teachers (19.8%) in Australia. Despite the worldwide financial crisis in 2008, the number of international students attending universities in Australia has remained high. In August 2013, there were four hundred and sixty-two thousand international students paying full-fees in Australia, with students from China and India being the two largest markets. Previously, international students applying to study at an Australian university were required to sit a test and were only accepted based on their academic performance and English language proficiency. However, Australian universities are now providing alternative entry pathways into higher education programs to allow international students to improve both their English language and academic preparedness at the same time. Some of these alternative pathways include Foundation Studies and English Language Intensive Courses. Employment for teachers of English as a foreign language has risen by a rate of 45.3% over the past 5 years and is expected to grow very strongly through 2017. In November 2012, the number of EAFL (English as a foreign language) teachers in Australia had risen to 8,300, and the projected number for 2017 is 9,500 teachers. The top three regions in Australia for employment as an EAFL teacher is New South Wales: 49.5%, Victoria: 29.7%, and Queensland: 7.7%.


Asia


Bangladesh

English language teaching in Bangladesh starts from the beginning of primary level education, which keeps on going further towards advanced level till secondary education through high schools. In Bangladesh, despite Bengali being the only official state language and mother tongue to almost 97% of the population, English is widely spoken. It is an effect of British Colonial rule over the region for two consecutive centuries. People use English from day-to-day activities to formal works. Almost all colleges and higher education institutions provide in-depth language study programs for English language, literature and linguistics. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh holds constant affiliation with British Council as a member of the Commonwealth.


Cambodia

Demand for English teachers in
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
has grown over the past decade, although the country has a small population and is dependent on foreign aid for much of its economic development, limiting growth. Cambodia was ruled by the French from 1863 to 1953, and therefore English was not the primary second language until recently. From the 1970s through to the 1990s, Cambodia experienced civil war and political turmoil which had a devastating effect on the national education system and the learning of a second language. By 1979 it was estimated that 90% of schools had been destroyed and 75% of teachers were no longer working and foreign languages were not being taught. However, in Cambodian schools today, English as a foreign language is taught from Grade 7 onwards and is the most popular foreign language studied. Adults are also able to learn English through other non-formal English language education programs. Currently in Cambodia, there are professional, institutional, and governmental motivations for both teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Results from studies on Cambodia show that the ability to speak English is an important component required to transform the standard of life for the people of Cambodia. The reason for this is that the people who are able to communicate in English are ones that are more likely to have opportunities to find better occupations with higher pay, as it is used to communicate with international businesses and organizations.


China

Beginnings: Qing Dynasty As Wang Keqiang stated (1986) TEFL has existed in China for approximately one hundred years and has been subject to the policies and politics of the times. TEFL in China actually began in the latter half of the 19th century with the "Westernization Movement" started by some Chinese officials in the Qing Dynasty. With this movement came the influence of Western culture, trade and commerce. Some astute Chinese officials saw the need to learn English as a foreign language. The situation required establishment of institutes for teaching English. The first such Institute (called "Tongwenguan") was set up in 1862 and in 1901 became part of the Beijing Normal University. This institution was a comprehensive higher education facility which included TEFL in the curriculum. Many opportunities exist within the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, including preschool, university, private schools and institutes, companies, and tutoring.
NGO A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first ...

NGO
s, such as Teach For China, are an opportunity as well. The provinces and the Ministry of Education in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
tightly govern public schools, while private schools have more freedom to set work schedules, pay, and requirements. English teaching salaries in China are dependent on multiple factors including teaching hours, location, inclusions/bonuses, public vs private sector, as well as the applicant's qualifications, education level and work experience. It is important to note that due to high demand, salaries have increased significantly over recent years. A standard contract within the public school system generally entails less than 20 hours of teaching time, weekends off, included accommodations, flight stipend/reimbursement for 1 year contracts, paid public holidays, medical insurance and Z visa (working permit) sponsorship. These positions offer an average base salary of 6,000 - 7,000 RMB per month in smaller cities and rural areas. In larger cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou these positions now offer 10,000 RMB plus per month due to higher living costs. The private sector is less uniform with salaries going as high as 20,000 RMB per month for experienced applicants in major cities. Private positions tend to demand higher hours, may include teaching in multiple locations and often require weekend and evening working schedules. Accommodation is not included but schools typically offer a stipend towards rental costs. English teachers should hold a minimum bachelor's degree in any discipline, be at least 25 years old and have at least 2 years of working experience. English teachers should also be native speakers with citizenship from one of the following countries: USA, Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa. Due to demand, these rules are often overlooked, and schools often are able to obtain work permits for teachers who do not meet the minimums, although this is tightening up in the major cities. The Ministry of Education is increasingly enforcing requirements for foreign English language teachers including fines, suspension, or closing institutions that do not comply. Public schools usually pay during vacations, but not for summer break unless the teacher renews the contract, while many private schools have shortened vacation schedules and may pay for whatever short number of days is allowed for vacation. Company jobs vary, depending on the number of employees they want to train. They may employ a teacher for one or two classes, or a complete set of 14 to 16 hours a week. Tutoring also varies, as in some cases a whole family of students or just one family member. Teachers employed by schools usually can't engage in paid tutoring or any other paid work per the terms of their teaching contract. The majority of teachers accept contracts with schools. Public school contracts are fairly standard, while private schools set their own requirements. Schools try to hire teachers from Anglophone countries, but because of demand, others with good English language skills and natural accent may be able to find positions. There are numerous steps involved for getting a visa to teach in China. As of February 2017 the legal process for processing and awarding Z-visas in China has become considerably more strict. Applicants now require a criminal background check, 120 hours or more TEFL certification and a bachelor's degree from a Western University. Before the Chinese employer can issue an invitation letter to work in China all of these aforementioned documents are required to be notarized and legalized in the candidate's home country and then verified in China after physically posting to the Chinese employer. This procedure is in addition to the existing visa process. It can take approximately 3 months from being given a job offer to having all the relevant permits to enter and start working in China.


Hong Kong, China

Hong Kong was once a British Crown colony, and English-language education is taken seriously there, as demonstrated by government-funded research. Hong Kong was handed back to the People's Republic of China in 1997 and became known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Teaching English in Hong Kong has become quite a business. Many English teaching institutions have since opened. Big private names include Headstart Group Limited and English for Asia. Native English speakers may quickly find a job teaching English, although foreigners should be aware of shady companies who often pull tricks on their employees. A qualification in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) has become a pre-requisite to enter the Native English-speaking Teacher scheme (NET scheme), which is funded by the HKSAR government and provides the ultimate career destination for an English teacher. On top of attractive salary, housing is provided with all the other fringe benefits including full holiday pay, provident fund and health insurance. Housing or rental support is the biggest incentive to foreign teachers as housing cost in Hong Kong is ranked one of the highest in the world. Once a teacher is on the NET scheme, they can move from school to school after completion of, normally, a two-year contract. Therefore, a teacher with a strong track record has a lot of opportunities to land an ideal position at an ideal school. While many foreigners think coming to Hong Kong with a short online TEFL qualification is sufficient, both public and private schools are looking for TEFL qualifications listed with the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Vocational and Academic Qualifications and Hong Kong Education Bureau. Acquiring one of those qualifications gives a foreigner a definite advantage to securing a preferred teaching position at a formal school, whether private or public, kindergarten, primary or secondary. When selecting NET, schools will not normally consider learning-centre experience due to the differences in class size, continuity of student group, level of classroom management skills and sophistication in teaching pedagogy required between schools and centers.


India

Additional English language instructions take place at higher levels of public and private schools. Beginning as early as 1759, English language teaching in India has been occurring for more than two hundred and fifty years. After Hindi, English is the most commonly spoken, written and read language of India, as it is used most commonly for inter-state and intrastate communication, acting as a ‘link’ language. In India, it is a very important language in some fields such as law, finance, education, and business. The popularity of English in the country has also posed problems for the regional and traditional languages within the country. At the national level, Hindi has the status of official language in India, and English is recognized as the second official language for governmental works.


Japan

In
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, the
JET Programme The , or , is a Japanese government initiative that brings college (university) graduates—mostly native speakers of English—to Japan as Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs) and Sports Education Advisors (SEAs) in Japanese kindergartens, elementa ...
employs assistant language teachers and teaching assistants to work in Japanese high schools and
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...
s. Other teachers work in '' eikaiwa'' (private language schools), universities, and as Coordinators for International Relations (CIRs) in government and boards of education. The largest of these chains are
Aeon The word aeon , also spelled eon ( in American English), originally meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eter ...
and ECC. The sector is not well regulated.
Nova A nova (plural novae or novas) is a transient astronomical eventA transient astronomical event, often shortened by astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field out ...
, one of the largest chains with over 900 branches, collapsed in October 2007, leaving thousands of foreign teachers without income or, for some, a place to live. Agencies are increasingly used to send English speakers into
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin com ...

kindergarten
s, primary schools, and private companies whose employees need to improve their
Business English Business English is a part of English for specific purposes English for specific purposes (ESP) is a subset of . It usually refers to teaching the to university students or people already in employment, with reference to the particular vocabular ...
. Agencies, known in Japan as ''haken'', or dispatch companies, have recently been competing among themselves to get contracts from various Boards of Education for Elementary, Junior and Senior High Schools, and wages have decreased steadily. JALT (the Japan Association for Language Teaching) is the largest NPO (not-for-profit organization) for language teachers (mainly native English speakers), with nearly 3,000 members. Japan was praised for its first-wave reaction to the pandemic, and schools were able to hire instructors on business visas for a short time last fall. Unfortunately, the border has been closed to practically all passengers starting January 2021, with the exception of Japanese nationals and current inhabitants. The country is currently experiencing a devastating second wave of COVID-19, which has put the forthcoming Olympic events in jeopardy. This hasn't stopped some schools from hiring ESL teachers, believing that the country will soon be able to turn things around and welcome foreign teachers again.


Laos

English language has been increasingly important in education, international trade and cooperation in
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Laos
since the 1990s. The government started to promote foreign direct investment, and the introduction of Laos as an observer at
ASEAN ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia ...

ASEAN
in 1992 also increased the necessity of English. Laos was considered as a full member of ASEAN in 1997. From 1992-97, the government had to improve its fluency in English. More recently, high-ranking officials, business people, and shareholders have started to work at their English. This trend looks set to increase as English is due to be included and taught in the field of education too.


Middle East and North Africa

Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
, and other wealthy Gulf states are the main locations for instructors to work in this region. Many positions provide high salaries and good benefits such as free housing and flights, but tend to require extensive qualifications and experience. Private academies and university programs, variously referred to as Foundation Year or Preparatory Year programs that assist incoming students with academic preparation for university-level academic work, are the main venues of instruction. Some public primary and secondary schools, such as those in
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
, have begun to recruit foreign English instructors. Other Middle Eastern and North African countries offer more modestly-paid positions. and the
British Council The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. It works in over 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the United Kingdom and the English language (and the Welsh la ...
operate in a number of countries providing teaching opportunities in their English language courses. English is also taught in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
starting at the primary school level.


Mongolia

The
Peace Corps The Peace Corps is an independent agency and volunteer Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as m ...
has 136 volunteers in
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, many of whom are English teachers mostly teaching in the vast rural areas, where the population density is low. In
Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar (; mn, Улаанбаатар, , "Red Hero"), previously anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that ar ...

Ulaanbaatar
, a modest number of professional NETs teach at private institutes, universities, and some schools. In addition to foreign instructors from the major English-speaking countries, there are Filipinos teaching in Mongolian schools, institutes and large industrial or mining companies.


South Korea

There is great demand for native English speakers willing to teach in
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
, though it is dropping. In 2013, the number of native English speakers teaching in public schools dropped 7.7% in one year to 7,011. Most of the nation's provinces are removing foreign English teachers from their middle and high schools. As with Japan, Korea is also nurturing a government-run program for teacher placement called English Program in Korea (EPIK). EPIK reported that it recruited 6,831 foreign teachers to work in Korean public schools. There are a number of associations for English teachers in Korea, the largest one with a significant number of native speakers is KOTESOL. Institutions commonly provide round-trip airfare and a rent-free apartment for a one-year contract. Note that since March 15, 2008,
visa Visa most commonly refers to: *Visa Inc., a US multinational financial and payment cards company ** Visa Debit card issued by the above company ** Visa Electron, a debit card ** Visa Plus, an interbank network *Travel visa, a document that allows ...
rules have changed. Prospective teachers must now undergo a medical examination and a criminal background check, produce an original degree certificate, and provide sealed transcripts. On arriving in South Korea, teachers must undergo a further medical check before they receive an ARC (Alien Registration Card) card. Korean labor law provides all workers with a severance pay equivalent to one month's salary is paid at the end of a contract. Most job contracts are for 1 year and include entrance and exit plane tickets. Citizens of the US, Canada and Australia also receive back their pension contributions and their employers' part of the pension contributions on leaving the country. The average starting pay for those with no previous teaching experience and no degree in the English language is usually between US$1,800 to US$2,200. There are four main places to work in South Korea: universities, private schools, public schools ( EPIK), and private language academies (known in South Korea as ''
hagwon Hagwon () is the Korean-language word for a for-profit private institute, academy, or cram school A cram school, informally called crammer and colloquially also referred to as test-prep or exam factory, is a specialized school A scho ...
''s). Private language academies (in 2005 there were over thirty thousand such academies teaching English), the most common teaching location in Korea, can be for classes of school children, housewives, university students (often at the university itself), or businesspeople. There are numerous, usually small independent ''hagwons'' but also numerous large chains.


Taiwan

In Taiwan, most teachers work in
cram school A cram school, informally called crammer and colloquially also referred to as test-prep or exam factory, is a specialized school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for th ...
s, known locally as ''bushibans'' or buxibans. Some are part of chains, like
HessHess or Heß may refer to: * Hess (surname), also ''Heß'' in German, people with the surname Hess * Hess, Oklahoma, a community in the United States * Hess Educational Organization, the largest private provider of English instruction in the Rep ...
and Kojen. Others operate independently. Such schools pay around
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragma ...
2,000 per month. End-of-contract bonuses equivalent to an extra month's pay are not mandated by law as in South Korea, and are uncommon in Taiwan. Also, under current law it is illegal for foreigners to teach English in pre-schools or kindergartens, though it is almost always overlooked by both the schools and the government, thereby making the practice common and accepted. To teach English and live in Taiwan, one must be a holder of an Alien Resident Card (ARC), which is supplied to passport holders of native English speaking countries by hiring schools. ARC candidates must hold a bachelor's degree from a university. In recent years Taiwan has increased its needs for TEFL and Certified Teachers in public schools. Qualifications and salaries for public school positions are based on certifications and experience. Also, benefits and salaries are more extensive than cram schools.


Thailand

Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
has a great demand for native English speakers, and has a ready-made workforce in the form of travelers and
expatriates An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
attracted by the local lifestyle despite relatively low salaries. Teachers can expect to earn a minimum starting salary of around 25,000 baht. Because Thailand prohibits foreigners from most non-skilled and skilled occupations, a high percentage of foreign residents teach English for a living, and are able to stay in the country. Qualifications for EFL teachers in Thailand have become stricter in the last couple of years,. with most schools now requiring a bachelor's degree plus a 120-hour TEFL course. It is possible to find work without a degree in Thailand. However, as a degree makes getting a work permit far easier, to work without a degree is often to work illegally, opening teachers up to exploitation by employers.


Americas

There has been significant growth in TEFL within the wealthier non-Anglophone countries of
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
,
Central Central is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign languag ...

Central
, and
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
as well as the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
. In particular, many teachers work in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
,
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
,
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Amer ...

Costa Rica
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
,
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
and
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continent A continent is any of several large l ...

Venezuela
. Chile has even made it a national goal to become a bilingual nation within the coming years. As proof of its commitment to this goal the Chilean Ministry of Education sponsors English Opens Doors, a program that recruits English speakers to work in Chilean Public High Schools.
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, likewise, has increased access to English education. Around 10 and 15 years ago, Language learning was not part of the public education curriculum, however, Mexico declared in 2017 they have a plan to achieve bilingual students in both English and Spanish within two decades Improvement is still expected since the level of achievement for ESL radicates within the low level. This is mostly due because of the lack of preparation to build a curriculum from part of SEP Secretariat of Public Education (Mexico), Secretariat of Public Education and the corruption within. Institutions lik
MEXTESOL
have as an objective to fortify the education staff by providing learning opportunities, conferences, and training to help teachers innovate their teaching skills and, therefore, prepare students for the laboral future.


Costa Rica

Costa Rica is a popular choice among TEFL teachers in light of the high market demand for English instructors, the stable economic and political atmosphere, and the vibrant culture. Teaching positions are available through public and private schools, language schools, universities and colleges, and through private tutoring. Language schools typically hire all year round, and teachers of Business English are also in high demand. There are quality Costa Rica TEFL training courses that offer certification as well as job placement assistance following completion of a course.


Africa

TEFL in Africa has historically been linked to aid programs such as the US
Peace Corps The Peace Corps is an independent agency and volunteer Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as m ...
or the multinational Voluntary Service Overseas organization, as well as other aid programs. Most African countries employ bilingual local teachers. Poverty and instability in some African countries has made it difficult to attract foreign teachers. There has been increasing government investment in education and a growing private sector.


See also


References


Further reading

* Paul Z. Jambo
"Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL"
U.S. Department of Education: Educational Resources Information Center, 2012 * Brandt, C. (2006). Success on your certificate course in English language teaching: A guide to becoming a teacher in ELT/TESOL. London: Sage. , * ''Teaching English Abroad'', Susan Griffith, Vacation Work Press, Oxford. Many editions. , * Sievert, Jessica
"Evaluation of Structured English Immersion and Bilingual Education on Reading Skills of Limited English Proficient Students in California and Texas"
Applied Research Project. Texas State University. 2007. Retrieved on 2008-07-04


External links

*Voy:Teaching English, ''Teaching English'' article on Wikivoyage {{DEFAULTSORT:Teaching English As A Foreign Language English as a second or foreign language English-language education