Tax brackets are the divisions at which
tax rate In a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capaci ...
s change in a
progressive tax A progressive tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that h ...
system (or an explicitly
regressive tax A regressive tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...
system, though that is rarer). Essentially, tax brackets are the cutoff values for taxable income—income past a certain point is taxed at a higher rate.


Imagine that there are three tax brackets: 10%, 20%, and 30%. The 10% rate applies to income from $1 to $10,000; the 20% rate applies to income from $10,001 to $20,000; and the 30% rate applies to all income above $20,000. Under this system, someone earning $10,000 is taxed at 10%, paying a total of $1,000. Someone earning $5,000 pays $500, and so on. Meanwhile, someone who earns $25,000 faces a more complicated calculation. The rate on the first $10,000 is 10%, from $10,001 to $20,000 is 20%, and above that is 30%. Thus, they pay $1,000 for the first $10,000 of income (10%), $2,000 for the second $10,000 of income (20%), and $1,500 for the last $5,000 of income (30%), In total, they pay $4,500, or an 18% average tax rate. In practice the computation is simplified by using point–slope form or slope–intercept form of the linear equation for the tax on a specific bracket, either as tax on the bottom amount of the bracket ''plus'' the tax on the marginal amount ''within'' the bracket: :\$3\,000 + (\$25\,000 - \$20\,000) \times 30\% = \$3\,000 + \$1\,500 = \$4\,500, or the tax on the entire amount (''at'' the marginal rate), ''minus'' the amount that this overstates tax on the bottom end of the bracket. :\$25\,000 \times 30\% - \$3\,000 = \$7\,500 - \$3\,000 = \$4\,500. See
Progressive tax#Computation
Progressive tax#Computation
for details.

Tax brackets in Australia

Individual income tax rates (residents)

Financial years 2018–19, 2019–20 The above rates do not include the
Medicare levy Medicare is the publicly-funded universal health care Universal healthcare (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care) is a health care system in which all residents of a particular country or region are assu ...
of 2.0%.

Tax brackets in Canada

Canada's federal government has the following tax brackets for the 2012 tax year (all in Canadian dollars). Note that the "basic personal amount" of $15,527 effectively means that income up to this amount is not subject to tax, although it is included in the calculation of taxable income. Each province except Québec adds their own tax on top of the federal tax. Québec has a completely separate income tax. Provincial / Territorial Tax Rates for 2012:

Tax brackets in India

Income tax slabs applicable for financial year 2015–16 (Assessment Year- 2016–17)is summarized below:

Tax brackets in Malaysia

Malaysia has the following income tax brackets based on assessment year.

Assessment Year 2020

Tax brackets in Malta

Malta has the following tax brackets for income received during 2012 Single Rates: Married Rates:

Tax brackets in the Netherlands

Tax brackets in New Zealand

New Zealand has the following income tax brackets (as of 1 October 2010). All values in New Zealand dollars, with the ACC Earners' levy not included. 45% when the employee does not complete a declaration form (IR330). ACC Earners' Levy for the 2010 tax year is 2.0%, an increase from 1.7% in the 2008 tax year.

Tax brackets in Singapore

2007 & 2008

A personal tax rebate of 20% was granted for 2008, up to a maximum of $2,000.


All figures are in
Singapore dollar The Singapore dollar (currency sign, sign: S$; ISO 4217, code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cent (currency), cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other do ...

Tax brackets in South Africa

The Minister of Finance announced new tax rates for the 2012–2013 tax year. They are as follows :

Tax brackets for the 2012 year of assessment

Tax brackets for the 2013 year of assessment

Tax brackets in Switzerland

Personal income tax is progressive in nature. The total rate does not usually exceed 40%. The Swiss Federal Tax Administration websit

provides a broad outline of the Swiss tax system, and full details and tax tables are available in PDF documents. The complexity of the system is partly because the Confederation, the 26 Cantons that make up the federation, and about 2 900 communes unicipalitieslevy their own taxes based on the Federal Constitution and 26 Cantonal Constitutions.

Tax brackets in Taiwan

Income tax rates (Individual)

Financial year 2013

Tax brackets in the United Kingdom

Tax brackets in the United States

2018 tax brackets under current law

As of 1 January 2018, the tax brackets have been updated due to the passage of the
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) is a congressional revenue act of the United States signed into law by President Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American media personality and businessman who served as ...
: In the United States, the dollar amounts of the
federal income tax Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the Federal government of the United States, federal government, and most State governments in the United States, states. The income taxes are determined by applying a tax rate, which Progressive ...
standard deduction Under United States tax law, the standard deduction is a dollar amount that non- itemizers may subtract from their income before income tax (but not other kinds of tax, such as payroll tax) is applied. Taxpayers may choose either itemized deduct ...
and personal exemptions for the taxpayer and dependents are adjusted annually to account for inflation. This results in yearly changes to the personal income tax brackets even when the federal income tax rates remain unchanged.

2011 tax brackets

Two higher tax brackets (36% and 39.6%) were added in 1993, and then taxes in all brackets were lowered in 2001 through 2003 as follows:

Internal Revenue Code terminology

Gross salary is the amount your employer pays you, plus your income tax liability. Although the tax itself is included in this figure, it is typically the one used when discussing one's pay. For example, John gets paid $50/hour as an administrative director. His annual gross salary is $50/hour x 2,000 hours/year = $100,000/year. Of this, some is paid to John, and the rest to taxes. W-2 wages are the wages that appear on the employee's W-2 issued by his employer each year in January. A copy of the W-2 is sent to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). It is the gross salary less any contributions to pre-tax plans. The W-2 form also shows the amount withheld by the employer for federal income tax. W-2 wages = gross salary less (contributions to employer retirement plan) less (contributions to employer health plan) less (contributions to some other employer plans) Total income is the sum of all taxable income, including the W-2 wages. Almost all income is taxable. There are a few exemptions for individuals such as non-taxable interest on government bonds, a portion of the Social Security (SS) income (not the payments to SS, but the payments from SS to the individual), etc. Adjusted gross income (AGI) is Total Income less some specific allowed deductions. Such as; alimony paid (income to the recipient), permitted moving expenses, self-employed retirement program, student loan interest, etc. Itemized deductions are other specific deductions such as; mortgage interest on a home, state income taxes or sales taxes, local property taxes, charitable contributions, state income tax withheld, etc. Standard deduction is a sort of minimum itemized deduction. If you add up all your itemized deductions and it is less than the standard deduction you take the standard deduction. In 2007 this was $5,350 for those filing individually and $10,700 for married filing jointly. Personal exemption is a tax exemption in which the taxpayer may deduct an amount from their gross income for each dependent they claim. It was $3,400 in 2007.

Sample tax calculation

Given the complexity of the United States' income tax code, individuals often find it necessary to consult a tax accountant or professional tax preparer. For example, John, a married 44-year-old who has two children, earned a gross salary of $100,000 in 2007. He contributes the maximum $15,500 per year to his employer's
401(k) In the United States, a 401(k) plan is an employer-sponsored defined contribution, defined-contribution pension account defined in subsection 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. Employee funding comes directly off their paycheck and may be matched ...
retirement plan, pays $1,800 per year for his employer's family health plan, and $500 per year to his employer's Flexfund medical expense plan. All of the plans are allowed pre-tax contributions. Gross pay = $100,000 W-2 wages = $100,000 – $15,500 – $1,800 – $500 = $82,200 John's and his wife's other income is $12,000 from John's wife's wages (she also got a W-2 but had no pre-tax contributions), $200 interest from a bank account, and a $150 state tax refund. Total Income = $82,200 + $12,000 + $200 + $150 = $94,550. John's employer reassigned John to a new office and his moving expenses were $8,000, of which $2,000 was not reimbursed by his employer. Adjusted gross income = $94,550 – $2,000 = $92,550. John's
itemized deduction Under United States tax law, itemized deductions are eligible expenses that individual taxpayers can claim on federal income Tax return (United States), tax returns and which decrease their taxable income, and is claimable in place of a standard ded ...
s were $22,300 (mortgage interest, property taxes, and state income tax withheld). John had four personal exemptions—himself, his wife and two children. His total personal exemptions were 4 x $3,400 = $13,600. Taxable Income = $92,550 – $22,300 – $13,600 = $56,650. The tax on the Taxable Income is found in a Tax Table if the Taxable Income is less than $100,000 and is computed if over $100,000. Both are used. The Tax Tables are in the 2007 1040 Instructions. The Tax Tables list income in $50 increments for all categories of taxpayers, single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, and head of household. For the Taxable Income range of "at least $56,650 but less than $56,700" the tax is $7,718 for a taxpayer who is married filing jointly. The 2007 tax rates schedule for married filing jointly is: The tax is 10% on the first $15,650 = $1,565.00 plus 15% of the amount over $15,650 ($56,650 – $15,650) = $41,000 x 15% = $6,150.00 Total ($1,565.00 + $6,150.00) = $7,715.00 In addition to the Federal income tax, John probably pays state income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax. The Social Security tax in 2007 for John is 6.2% on the first $97,500 of earned income (wages), or a maximum of $6,045. There are no exclusions from earned income for Social Security so John pays the maximum of $6,045. His wife pays $12,000 x 6.2% = $744. Medicare is 1.45% on all earned income with no maximum. John and his wife pays $112,000 x 1.45% = $1,624 for Medicare in 2007. Most states also levy income tax, exceptions being Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, New Hampshire, Tennessee and Wyoming.

See also

Income tax threshold The income tax threshold is the income level at which a person begins paying income taxes. The income tax threshold equates to the: * Personal allowance in the UK, which is £12,500 for 2019/20. *Basic allowance in Germany, which is €9,408 in 20 ...


External links

More about Canada Personal Income Tax Rates, Brackets and Surtaxes for 2011
{{DEFAULTSORT:Tax Bracket Tax incidence