HOME

TheInfoList




Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in
East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including ...
within the
African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift. They include Lake Victoria, the List of lakes by area, second-largest fresh water lake in the wo ...

African Great Lakes
region. It borders
Uganda Uganda (Languages of Uganda, Ugandan Languages: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda ( sw, Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the ...

Uganda
to the north;
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
to the northeast;
Comoro Islands The Comoro Islands or Comoros The Comoros,; ar, جزر القمر, ' officially the Union of the Comoros,Comorian languages, Comorian: ''Udzima wa Komori,'' french: Union des Comores, ar, الاتحاد القمري ' is an island countr ...
and the Indian Ocean to the east;
Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw, Msumbiji; ts, Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malaw ...

Mozambique
and
Malawi Malawi (; or aláwi, officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in Southeastern Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the west, Tanzania to the north and northeast, and Mozambique to the ...

Malawi
to the south;
Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Bemba language, Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi language, Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), ...

Zambia
to the southwest; and
Rwanda Rwanda, officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's bi ...

Rwanda
,
Burundi Burundi (, ), officially the Republic of Burundi ( rn, Repubulika y’u Burundi, ; Swahili: Jamuhuri ya Burundi; french: link=no, République du Burundi, or ), is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley where the African Great Lakes reg ...

Burundi
, and the
Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (), officially the Republic of Zaire (french: ...

Democratic Republic of the Congo
to the west.
Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Kilimanjaro () is a Volcano#Dormant, dormant volcano in Tanzania. It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. It is the highest African mountains, mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world ...

Mount Kilimanjaro
, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania. Many important
hominid The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a taxonomic family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marri ...
fossils have been found in Tanzania, such as 6-million-year-old
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) is the epoch in the that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58Australopithecus ''Australopithecus'' (, ; ) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene Late may refer to: * LATE, an acronym which could stand for: ** Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy, a proposed form of ...

Australopithecus
ranged all over Africa 4 to 2 million years ago; and the oldest remains of the genus ''
Homo ''Homo'' () is the that emerged in the (otherwise extinct) genus ' that encompasses the extant species ' (), plus several extinct species classified as either to or closely related to modern humans (depending on the species), most notably ' ...

Homo
'' are found near
Lake Olduvai
Lake Olduvai
. Following the rise of ''
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning "upright Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread spec ...

Homo erectus
'' 1.8 million years ago, humanity spread all over the Old World, and later in the New World and Australia under the species ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread of , characterized by and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced , , and . Humans are highly social and tend to live in complex s composed of many ...

Homo sapiens
''. ''H. sapiens'' also overtook Africa and absorbed the older species of humanity. Later in the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia; Eastern Cushitic people who moved into Tanzania from north of
Lake Turkana Lake Turkana (), formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, in northern Kenya, with its far northern end crossing into Ethiopia. It is the world's largest permanent desert lake and the world's largest alkaline lake. ...

Lake Turkana
about 2,000 and 4,000 years ago; and the Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, who originated from present-day South Sudan–Ethiopia border region between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
and
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago. German rule began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed
German East Africa German East Africa (german: Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colonial empire, German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, the Tanzania mainland, and the Kionga Triangle, a small region later ...

German East Africa
. This was followed by British rule after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The mainland was governed as
Tanganyika Tanganyika may refer to: * Tanganyika (territory) Tanganyika was a territory located on the continent of Africa, and administered by the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1961. The UK initially administered the territory as an occupying power with ...
, with the
Zanzibar Archipelago Unguja and Pemba Islands The Zanzibar Archipelago ( ar, أرخبيل زنجبار, sw, Funguvisiwa la Zanzibar) consists of several islands lying off the coast of East Africa south of the Somali sea. The archipelago is also known as the Spice Is ...
remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The countries had joined the British
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
in 1961 and Tanzania is still a member of the Commonwealth as one republic. The United Nations estimated Tanzania's population at million, which is slightly smaller than South Africa and makes it the second most populous country located entirely south of the Equator. The population is composed of about 120
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...

ethnic
,
linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...
, and religious groups. The
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
of Tanzania is a
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been
Dodoma Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national Capital city, capital of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956. Geography Located in the centre of the country, the town is west ...
where the president's office, the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
, and all government ministries are located.
Dar es Salaam Dar es-Salaam (; from ar, دار السلام, Dār as-Salām, lit=Place of Peace) or commonly known as Dar, is the largest city and financial hub of Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also hea ...

Dar es Salaam
, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, and leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a ''de facto'' one-party state with the
democratic socialist Democratic socialism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. ...
Chama Cha Mapinduzi The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; Swahili: ) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri y ...
party in power. Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the north-east, where
Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Kilimanjaro () is a Volcano#Dormant, dormant volcano in Tanzania. It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. It is the highest African mountains, mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world ...

Mount Kilimanjaro
is located. Three of are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
, Africa's largest lake, and
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies
Lake Malawi Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a coun ...

Lake Malawi
. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the
Zanzibar Archipelago Unguja and Pemba Islands The Zanzibar Archipelago ( ar, أرخبيل زنجبار, sw, Funguvisiwa la Zanzibar) consists of several islands lying off the coast of East Africa south of the Somali sea. The archipelago is also known as the Spice Is ...
just offshore. The
Menai Bay Conservation Area The Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA) is located in Menai Bay, Zanzibar Tanzania. At , it is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. It was officially established as a conservation area in August 1997 in the traditional fishing area, known as U ...
is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. The
Kalambo Falls The Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River is a single-drop waterfall on the border of Zambia and Tanzania at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. The falls are some of the tallest uninterrupted falls in Africa (after South Africa's Tugela Falls, Eth ...

Kalambo Falls
, located on the
Kalambo River The Kalambo River forms part of the border between Zambia Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia (Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), Tonga: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Chewa language, Nyanja: ''Dziko la Zambia''), is a landlocked country a ...
at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted
waterfall A waterfall is a point in a or where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where drops over the edge of a tabular or . Waterfalls can be formed in several ways, but the most common method of fo ...

waterfall
in Africa."Kalambo Falls"
''Encyclopædia Britannica''.
Christianity is the largest
religion in Tanzania Christianity is the largest religion in Tanzania representing 61% of the population. There are also substantial Muslim and Animism, Animist minorities. Current statistics on the relative sizes of various religions in Tanzania are limited becaus ...
, but there are also substantial
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", " ...

Muslim
and
Animist Animism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...

Animist
minorities.Religion in Tanzania
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's el ...

Pew Research Center
Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. The country does not have a ''de jure'' official language, although the national language is
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
. Swahili is used in
parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education; although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as the primary language of instruction, it will be available as an optional course. Approximately 10 per cent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 per cent speak it as a
second language A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language A language is a struc ...
.


Etymology

The name "Tanzania" was created as a
clipped compoundIn linguistics, a clipped compound is a word produced from a compound word by reducing its parts while retaining the meaning of the original compound.Elisa Mattiello, "An Introduction to English Slang: A Description of Its Morphology, Semantics and S ...
of the names of the two states that unified to create the country:
Tanganyika Tanganyika may refer to: * Tanganyika (territory) Tanganyika was a territory located on the continent of Africa, and administered by the United Kingdom from 1916 until 1961. The UK initially administered the territory as an occupying power with ...
and
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...
. It consists of the first three letters of the names of the two states ("Tan" and "Zan") and the suffix, "ia" to form Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
words ''tanga'' ("sail") and ''nyika'' ("uninhabited plain", "wilderness"), creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness". It is sometimes understood as a reference to
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
. The name of
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
comes from " zenji", the name for a local people (said to mean "black"), and the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.


History


Ancient

Tanzania is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas on Earth. Traces of fossil remains of humans and hominids date back to the
Quaternary The Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three period (geology), periods of the Cenozoic era (geology), Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). It follows the Neogene Period and spans ...
era. The indigenous populations of eastern Africa are thought to be the linguistically isolated Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania. They are ancestral to the Iraqw, Gorowa, and Burunge. Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of
Lake Turkana Lake Turkana (), formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, in northern Kenya, with its far northern end crossing into Ethiopia. It is the world's largest permanent desert lake and the world's largest alkaline lake. ...

Lake Turkana
. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago. These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
and
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the primary staple of yams. They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.
Eastern Nilotic The Eastern Nilotic languages are one of the three primary branches of the Nilotic languages, themselves belonging to the Eastern Sudanic languages, Eastern Sudanic subfamily of Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan; they are believed to have begun ...
peoples, including the , represent a more recent migration from present-day South Sudan within the past 500 to 1,500 years. The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The
Pare people The Pare (pronounced "Pahray") people are members of an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common ...
were the main producers of sought-after iron for peoples who occupied the mountain regions of north-eastern Tanzania. The
Haya people The Haya (or Bahaya) are a Bantu peoples, Bantu ethnic group based in Kagera Region, northwestern Tanzania, on the western side of Lake Victoria. With over one million people, it is estimated the Haya make up approximately 2% of the population of T ...
on the western shores of
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
invented a type of high-heat
blast furnace A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science, materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic Chemical element, elements, their Inter-metallic alloy, inter-m ...
, which allowed them to forge
carbon steel Carbon steel is a steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fract ...
at temperatures exceeding more than 1,500 years ago. Travellers and merchants from the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of , ) is a in . The body of water is an extension of the () through the and lies between to the northeast and the to the southwest.United Nations Group of Exper ...
and India have visited the east African coast since early in the first millennium AD.
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
was practised by some on the as early as the eighth or ninth century A.D.


Medieval

Bantu-speakers built farming and trade villages along the Tanzanian coast from the outset of the first millennium. Archaeological finds at Fukuchani, on the north-west coast of Zanzibar, indicate a settled agricultural and fishing community from the 6th century CE at the latest. The considerable amount of daub found indicates timber buildings, and shell beads, bead grinders, and iron slag have been found at the site. There is evidence for limited engagement in long-distance trade: a small amount of imported pottery has been found, less than 1% of total pottery finds, mostly from the Gulf and dated to the 5th to 8th century. The similarity to contemporary sites such as
Mkokotoni Mkokotoni is a city located on the Tanzanian island of Unguja (Zanzibar). The city serves as the capital of the Zanzibar North, Zanzibar North region. It is west of the village of Kibaoni. References

* Regional capitals in Tanzania Cities i ...
and Dar es Salaam indicate a unified group of communities that developed into the first centre of coastal maritime culture. The coastal towns appear to have been engaged in Indian Ocean and inland African trade at this early period. Trade rapidly increased in importance and quantity beginning in the mid-8th century and by the close of the 10th century Zanzibar was one of the central Swahili trading towns. Growth in Egyptian and Persian shipping from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf revitalized Indian Ocean trade, particularly after the
Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Ismaili Shia Ismāʿīlism ( ar, الإسماعيلية, ''al-ʾIsmāʿīlīyah''; fa, اسماعیلیان, ''E ...

Fatimid Caliphate
relocated to Fustat (Cairo). Swahili agriculturalists built increasingly dense settlements to tap into trade, these forming the earliest Swahili city-states. The Venda-Shona Kingdoms of Mapungubwe and Zimbabwe in South Africa and
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individ ...

Zimbabwe
, respectively, became a major producer of gold around this same period. Economic, social, and religious power was increasingly vested in
Kilwa Kilwa Kisiwani (English: ''Kilwa Island'') is an island, national historic site, and hamlet community located in the township of Kilwa Masoko, the district seat of Kilwa District in the Tanzanian region of Lindi Region in southern Tanzania. Kilw ...
, Tanzania's major medieval city-state. Kilwa controlled a number of smaller ports stretching down to modern-day Mozambique.
Sofala Sofala, at present known as Nova Sofala, used to be the chief seaport of the Mwenemutapa Kingdom, whose capital was at Mount Fura. It is located on the Sofala Bank in Sofala Province of Mozambique. It was founded by Swahili people, Swahili Swahi ...
became the major gold emporium and Kilwa grew rich off the trade, lying at the southern end of the Indian Ocean Monsoons. Kilwa's major rivals lay to the north, in modern-day Kenya, namely Mombasa and Malindi. Kilwa remained the major power in East Africa until the arrival of the Portuguese at the end of the 15th century.


Colonial

Claiming the coastal strip,
Omani Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ ا ...
Sultan
Said bin Sultan Sayyid Said bin Sultan al-Busaidi ( ar, سعيد بن سلطان, , sw, Saïd bin Sultani) (5 June 1791 – 19 October 1856), was Sultan of Muscat and Oman, the fifth ruler of the House of Busaid, Busaid dynasty from 1807 to 4 June 1856. His rule ...

Said bin Sultan
moved his capital to
Zanzibar City Zanzibar City (or Zanzibar Town, often simply referred to as Zanzibar; sw, Jiji la Zanzibar; ar, مدينة زنجبار) is the capital and largest city of Zanzibar, in Tanzania. It is located on the west coast of Unguja, the main island of th ...

Zanzibar City
in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the
east African slave trade The Indian Ocean slave trade, sometimes known as the East African slave trade or Arab slave trade, was multi-directional slave trade and has changed over time. Africans were sent as slaves to the Middle East, to Indian Ocean islands (including Mad ...
. Between 65 and 90 per cent of the Arab-
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
population of
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
was enslaved. One of the most infamous slave traders on the East African coast was
Tippu Tip Tippu Tip, or Tippu Tib (1832 – June 14, 1905), real name Hamad bin Muhammad bin Juma bin Rajab el Murjebi ( ar, حمد بن محمد بن جمعة بن رجب بن محمد بن سعيد المرجبي), was an Afro-Arab slave trader, ivo ...

Tippu Tip
, who was the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of
Msiri Msiri (c. 1830 – December 20, 1891) founded and ruled the Yeke Kingdom (also called the Garanganze or Garenganze kingdom) in south-east Katanga Province, Katanga (now in DR Congo) from about 1856 to 1891. His name is sometimes spelled 'M'Siri' i ...
and . According to
Timothy Insoll Timothy Insoll (born 1967) is a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, b ...

Timothy Insoll
, "Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast." In the 1890s, slavery was abolished. In the late 19th century, Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into
German East Africa German East Africa (german: Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colonial empire, German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, the Tanzania mainland, and the Kionga Triangle, a small region later ...

German East Africa
(GEA). The Supreme Council of the
1919 Paris Peace Conference Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day m ...
awarded all of GEA to Britain on 7 May 1919, over the strenuous objections of Belgium. The British colonial secretary,
Alfred Milner Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, (23 March 185413 May 1925) was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played a role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy between the mid-1890s and early 1920s. From December 1916 ...
, and Belgium's minister
plenipotentiary A ''plenipotentiary'' (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the po ...
to the conference, , then negotiated the Anglo-Belgian agreement of 30 May 1919 where Britain ceded the north-western GEA provinces of Ruanda and Urundi to Belgium. The conference's Commission on Mandates ratified this agreement on 16 July 1919. The Supreme Council accepted the agreement on 7 August 1919. On 12 July 1919, the Commission on Mandates agreed that the small
Kionga Triangle The Kionga Triangle (german: Kionga-Dreieck, pt, Triângulo de Quionga) was a small region of German East Africa situated at the mouth of the Ruvuma River. The Ruvuma served as the border between the German colony and Portuguese Mozambique Por ...
south of the Rovuma River would be given to
Portuguese Mozambique Portuguese Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (''África Oriental Portuguesa'') were the common terms by which Mozambique Mozambique (), officially the Republic of Mozambique ( pt, Moçambique or , ; ny, Mozambiki; sw ...
, with it eventually becoming part of independent Mozambique. The commission reasoned that Germany had virtually forced Portugal to cede the triangle in 1894. The
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
was signed on 28 June 1919, although the treaty did not take effect until 10 January 1920. On that date, the GEA was transferred officially to Britain, Belgium, and Portugal. Also on that date, "Tanganyika" became the name of the British territory. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, about 100,000 people from Tanganyika joined the Allied forces and were among the 375,000 Africans who fought with those forces."African participants in the Second World War"
mgtrust.org.
Tanganyikans fought in units of the
King's African Rifles The King's African Rifles (KAR) was a multi-battalion A battalion is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...
during the East African Campaign in Somalia and
Abyssinia The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify ...
against the Italians, in Madagascar against the
Vichy French Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State () headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. Evacuated fro ...
during the Madagascar Campaign, and in Burma against the
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
during the Burma Campaign. Tanganyika was an important source of food during this war, and its export income increased greatly compared to the pre-war years of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
Wartime demand, however, caused increased commodity prices and massive inflation within the colony. In 1954, transformed an organisation into the politically oriented
Tanganyika African National Union The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) was the principal political party in the struggle for sovereignty in the East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-largest ...
(TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve national
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year, TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as prime minister when Tanganyika became independent in 1961.


Modern

British rule came to an end on 9 December 1961.
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Elizabeth II
, who had acceded to the British throne in 1952, continued to reign through the first year of Tanganyika's independence, but now distinctly as
Queen of Tanganyika Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king (title), king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a "kingdom"; as opposed to a q ...
, represented by the governor general. Tanganyika also joined the
British Commonwealth The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

British Commonwealth
in 1961. On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president. After the
Zanzibar Revolution The Zanzibar Revolution ( ''Thawrat Zanjibār'') occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries. Sultanate of Zanzibar, Zanzibar was an ethnically diverse state ...
overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
, accompanied with the slaughter of thousands of Arab Zanzibaris, which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964. The new country was then named the ''United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar''. On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania ("Tan" comes from Tanganyika and "Zan" from Zanzibar). The union of the two hitherto separate regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals. Following Tanganyika's independence and unification with Zanzibar leading to the state of Tanzania, President Nyerere emphasised a need to construct a national identity for the citizens of the new country. To achieve this, Nyerere provided what is regarded as one of the most successful cases of ethnic repression and identity transformation in Africa. With over 130 languages spoken within its territory, Tanzania is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Africa. Despite this obstacle, ethnic divisions remained rare in Tanzania when compared to the rest of the continent, notably its immediate neighbour, Kenya. Furthermore, since its independence, Tanzania has displayed more political stability than most African countries, particularly due to Nyerere's ethnic repression methods. In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left politics, left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism as well as Pan-Africanism. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised. Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia. Nonetheless, from the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse, in the context of an international economic crisis affecting both developed and developing economies. In 1978, the neighboring
Uganda Uganda (Languages of Uganda, Ugandan Languages: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda ( sw, Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the ...

Uganda
, under the leadership of Idi Amin, invaded Tanzania. This disastrous invasion would culminate in Tanzania invading Uganda with the aid of Ugandan rebels and deposing Idi Amin as a result. However, the war severely damaged Tanzania's economy. From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced, according to a report by the World Bank. In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties. In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling
Chama Cha Mapinduzi The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; Swahili: ) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri y ...
won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president. The presidents of Tanzania since Independence have been 1962–1985, Ali Hassan Mwinyi 1985–1995, Benjamin Mkapa 1995–2005 Jakaya Kikwete 2005–2015 John Magufuli 2015–2021 and Samia Hassan Suluhu since 2021. After the long tenure of president Nyerere, the Constitution has a term limit, a president can serve a maximum of two terms. Each term is five years. Every president has represented the ruling party Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM). President Magufuli won a landslide victory and re-election in October 2020. According to the opposition, the 2020 Tanzanian general election, election was full of fraud and irregularities. On 17 March 2021, President John Magufuli died from heart complications whilst in office. Magufuli's vice president, Samia Suluhu Hassan, became Tanzania's first female president.


Geography

At , Tanzania is the 13th largest country in Africa and the 31st largest in the world, ranked between the larger Egypt and smaller Nigeria. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately long. It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba Island, Pemba, and Mafia Island, Mafia. The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points:
Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Kilimanjaro () is a Volcano#Dormant, dormant volcano in Tanzania. It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. It is the highest African mountains, mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world ...

Mount Kilimanjaro
, at above sea level, and the floor of
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
, at below sea level, respectively. Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
, Africa's largest lake, and
Lake Tanganyika Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake. It is the second-oldest freshwater lake in the world, the second-largest by volume, and the second-deepest, in all cases after Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is the world's longest freshwater lake. The la ...

Lake Tanganyika
, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the
Zanzibar Archipelago Unguja and Pemba Islands The Zanzibar Archipelago ( ar, أرخبيل زنجبار, sw, Funguvisiwa la Zanzibar) consists of several islands lying off the coast of East Africa south of the Somali sea. The archipelago is also known as the Spice Is ...
just offshore.
Kalambo Falls The Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River is a single-drop waterfall on the border of Zambia and Tanzania at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. The falls are some of the tallest uninterrupted falls in Africa (after South Africa's Tugela Falls, Eth ...

Kalambo Falls
in the southwestern region of Rukwa is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa, and is located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia. The
Menai Bay Conservation Area The Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA) is located in Menai Bay, Zanzibar Tanzania. At , it is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area. It was officially established as a conservation area in August 1997 in the traditional fishing area, known as U ...
is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.


Climate

Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than . The hottest period extends between November and February () while the coldest period occurs between May and August (). Annual temperature is . The climate is cool in high mountainous regions. Tanzania has two major rainfall periods: one is Unimodality, uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria ( luo, Nam Lolwe; lg, 'Nnalubaale; rw, Nyanza; also ''Ukerewe'') is one of the African Great Lakes The African Great Lakes ( sw, Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around ...

Lake Victoria
extending east to the coast. The bi-modal rainfall is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Climate change in Tanzania is resulting in rising temperatures with a higher likelihood of intense rainfall events (resulting in flooding) and of dry spells (resulting in droughts). Climate change is already impacting the sectors in Tanzania of agriculture, water resources, health and energy. Sea level rise and changes in the quality of water are expected to impact fisheries and aquaculture. Tanzania produced a National Adaptation Programme of Action, National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) in 2007 as mandated by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 2012, Tanzania produced a National Climate Change Strategy in response to the growing concern of the negative impacts of climate change and climate variability on the country's social, economic and physical environment.


Wildlife and conservation

Tanzania contains around 20% of the species of Africa's enormous warm-blooded animal populace, found over its 21 National parks, reserves, 1 conservation area, and 3 marine parks. Spread over a zone of in excess of 42,000 square kilometres (16,000 sq. mi) and shaping around 38% of the nation's area. Tanzania has 21 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park is the site of Jane Goodall's ongoing study of Common chimpanzee, chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960. Tanzania is highly Biodiversity, biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats. On Tanzania's Serengeti plain, white-bearded wildebeest (''Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi''), other bovids and zebra participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania is home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly Endemism, endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red Lists of countries. Tanzania has the largest lion population in the world. Tanzania had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.13/10, ranking it 54th globally out of 172 countries. File:Serengeti National Park 08 - lion - Panthera leo.jpg, Lion at Serengeti National Park File: Giraffes Arusha Tanzania.jpg, A tower of giraffes at Arusha National Park. The giraffe is the national animal. File:Tanzanie Maniara.jpg, Tourists at Lake Manyara National Park File:Gombe Stream NP Mutter und Kind.jpg, Female chimpanzee with a baby chimp at Gombe Stream National Park File:Zebra in Mikumi.JPG, Plains zebras in Mikumi National Park File:Elephants, Serengeti.jpg, Elephants in Serengeti National Park


Politics


Government

Tanzania is a one party dominant state, one-party dominant state with the
Chama Cha Mapinduzi The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; Swahili: ) is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri y ...
(CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when the constitution was amended. It has held power since independence in 1961, and is the longest-serving ruling party in Africa. John Magufuli won the October 2015 presidential election and secured a two-thirds majority in parliament. The main opposition party in Tanzania since multiparty politics in 1992 is called Chadema, Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Chadema) (
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
for "Party for Democracy and Progress"). The leader of Chadema party is Freeman Mbowe. In Zanzibar, the country's semi-autonomous state, Alliance for Change and Transparency, The Alliance for Change and Transparency-Wazalendois (ACT-Wazalendo) is considered the main opposition political party. The constitution of Zanzibar requires the party that comes in second in the polls to join a coalition with the winning party. ACT-Wazalendo joined a coalition government with the islands' ruling party Chama Cha Mapinduzi in December 2020 after Zanzibar disputed 2020 Zanzibari general election, elections. In November 2020, Magufuli once again was declared the winner for his second term as president. Election fraud was suspected. The national electoral commission announced that Magufuli received 84%, or about 12.5 million votes and the top opposition candidate, Tundu Lissu received 13%, about 1.9 million votes. In March 2021, it was announced that Magufuli had died whilst serving in office, meaning that his vice president, Samia Suluhu Hassan, became the country's president.


Executive

The president of Tanzania and the List of Tanzania National Assembly members, members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms. The Vice President of Tanzania, vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket. Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly. The president appoints a Prime Minister of Tanzania, prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly. The president selects her Cabinet of Tanzania, cabinet from assembly members.


Legislature

All Legislature, legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania and union matters is vested in the National Assembly of Tanzania, National Assembly, which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members. These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president. The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.


Judiciary

Tanzania's legal system is based on English common law. Tanzania has a four-level judiciary. The lowest-level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts. In Zanzibar, the lowest-level courts are the Kadhi's Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases. On the mainland, appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. In Zanzibar, appeal is to the Kadhi's Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases. From there, appeal is to the High Court of Tanzania, High Court of Mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar. No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar. Otherwise, the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania. The High Court of mainland Tanzania has three divisions – commercial, labour, and land – and 15 geographic zones. The High Court of Zanzibar has an industrial division, which hears only labour disputes. Mainland and union judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania, except for those of the Appellate court, Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania. Tanzania is a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.


Zanzibar

The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the House of Representatives (Zanzibar), House of Representatives (per the Tanzania constitution) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution). The Legislative Council has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the House of Representatives. The president is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested. Zanzibar has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the House. The president and the members of the House of Representatives have five-year terms and can be elected for a second term. The president selects ministers from members of the House of Representatives, with the ministers allocated according to the number of House seats won by political parties. The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president. The House of Representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 per cent of the elected members. The House determines the number of its elected membersThe Constitution of Zanzibar
zltb.go.tz. 2006.
with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency. In 2013, the House had 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.


Administrative subdivisions

In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. In 1999, a Local Government Reform Programme was enacted by the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
, setting "a comprehensive and ambitious agenda ... [covering] four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having overriding powers within the framework of the Constitution." As of 2016, Tanzania is divided into thirty-one Regions of Tanzania, regions (''mkoa''), twenty-six on the mainland and five in
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
(three on Unguja, two on Pemba, Tanzania, Pemba). In 2012, the thirty former regions were divided into 169 Districts of Tanzania, districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities. Of those districts, 34 were urban units, which were further classified as three city councils (Arusha, Mbeya, and Mwanza), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils. The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and ''mtaa''. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into ''vitongoji''. The city of Dar es Salaam is unique because it has a city council whose area of jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and "Nominated members of parliament under 'Special Seats' for women". Each municipal council also has a mayor. "The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities", including security and emergency services. The city of Mwanza has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps two municipal councils.


Foreign relations


Bilateral relations

Apart from its border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania had cordial relations with its neighbours in 2012. Malawi–Tanzania relations, Relations between Tanzania and Malawi have been tense because of a Lake Malawi#Tanzania–Malawi dispute, dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue took place in March 2014. The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful."Malawi, Tanzania agree on ICJ over lake dispute , TVC NEWS"
tvcnews.tv.
Malawi, but not Tanzania, has accepted the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ."Declarations Recognizing the Jurisdiction of the Court as Compulsory , International Court of Justice"
. icj-cij.org.
Rwanda–Tanzania relations, Relations between Tanzania and Rwanda deteriorated in 2013 when Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said that if the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) could negotiate with some of its enemies, Rwanda should be able to do the same. Rwandan President Paul Kagame then expressed "contempt" for Kikwete's statement. The tension was renewed in May 2014 when, in a speech to the Tanzanian
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
, Foreign Affairs Minister Bernard Membe renewed his claim that Rwandans were causing instability in the DRC. Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo responded, "As for Tanzania's foreign minister whose anti-Rwanda rant in parliament I heard, he would benefit from a lesson in the history of the region." Tanzania has maintained strong Tanzania-United Kingdom relations, relations with the United Kingdom since its independence; Britain remains the largest non-African importer of Tanzanian tea and other raw materials are exchanged. Britain remains a high contributor of tourists to Tanzania. Both are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and engage in strategic union in defence, security and ceremonial affairs; the Tanzanian High Commission of Tanzania, London, High Commission is in London and the British have a British High Commission, Dar es Salaam, High Commission in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania–China relations have strengthened in recent years as trade between the two countries and Chinese investment in Tanzanian infrastructure have increased rapidly. Tanzania–United States relations, Relations with the United States are well, with President Barack Obama List of presidential trips made by Barack Obama, visiting Tanzania in 2013. Tanzania's relations with other donor countries, including Japan and members of the European Union, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania's commitment to reducing government corruption.


Multilateral relations

Tanzania is a member of the East African Community (EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan. According to the East African Common Market Protocol of 2010, the free trade and free movement of people is guaranteed, including the right to reside in another member country for purposes of employment. This protocol, however, has not been implemented because of work permit and other bureaucratic, legal, and financial obstacles. Tanzania is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa agreed in June 2011 to negotiate the creation of a Tripartite Free Trade Area spanning 26 African countries, with a goal to complete the first phase of negotiations within 36 months. As of 31 October 2014, Tanzania was contributing 2,253 soldiers and other personnel to various United Nations peacekeeping operations. The Tanzania People's Defence Force, Tanzanian military is participating along with South African and Malawian militaries in the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The United Nations Security Council authorised the force on 28 March 2013 to conduct targeted offensive operations to neutralise groups that threaten peace in the DRC. Tanzania was also participating in peacekeeping missions in the Darfur Region of Sudan (UNAMID); Abyei, control of which is contested between South Sudan and Sudan (UNISFA); the Central African Republic (MINUSCA); Lebanon (UNIFIL); and South Sudan (UNMISS). In 2019, Tanzania signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.


Military

The Tanzania People's Defence Force (TPDF) (Kiswahili: Jeshi la Wananchi wa Tanzania (JWTZ)) is the armed forces of Tanzania, operating as a people's force under civilian control. It is composed of five branches or commands: Land Force (army), Air Force, Naval Command, National Service, Headquarter (MMJ). Tanzanian citizens are able to volunteer for military service from 15 years of age, and 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school. Conscript service obligation was 2 years as of 2004.


Human rights

Throughout Tanzania, LGBT rights by country or territory, sex acts between men are illegal and carry a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. According to a 2007 Pew Research Centre survey, 95 percent of Tanzanians believed that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. People with albinism living in Tanzania are often attacked, killed or mutilated because of superstitions related to the black-magical practice known as muti that say body parts of albinos have magical properties. Tanzania has the highest occurrence of this human rights violation among 27 African countries where muti is known to be practised. In December 2019, Amnesty International reported that the Tanzanian government annulled the right of NGOs as well as individuals to directly file any case against it at the Arusha-based African Court for Human and Peoples' Rights.


Economy and infrastructure

, according to the IMF, Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated $71  billion (nominal), or $218.5 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. GDP per capita (PPP) was $3,574. From 2009 through to 2013, Tanzania's per capita GDP (based on constant local currency) grew an average of 3.5% per year, higher than any other member of the East African Community (EAC) and exceeded by only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Tanzania's largest trading partners in 2017 for its US$5.3 billion in exports were India, Vietnam, South Africa, Switzerland, and China. Its imports totalled US$8.17 billion, with India, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, China, and the United Arab Emirates being the biggest partners. Tanzania weathered the Great Recession, which began in late 2008 or early 2009, relatively well. Strong gold prices, bolstering the country's Mining industry of Tanzania, mining industry, and Tanzania's poor integration into global markets helped to insulate the country from the downturn. Since the recession ended, the Tanzanian economy has expanded rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors. According to the United Nations Development Programme, however, recent growth in the national economy has benefited only the "very few", leaving out the majority of the population. Tanzania's 2013 Global Hunger Index was worse than any other country in the EAC except Burundi."2013 Global Hunger Index"
International Food Policy Research Institute. October 2013
The proportion of persons who were undernourished in 2010–12 was also worse than any other EAC country except Burundi. In 2020, the World Bank declared the rise of the Tanzanian economy from low income to lower middle income country, as its GNI per capita increased from US$1,020 in 2018 to US$1,080 in 2019.


Hunger and poverty

Tanzania has made some progress towards reducing extreme hunger and malnutrition. The Global Hunger Index ranked the situation as "alarming" with a score of 42 in the year 2000; since then the GHI has declined to 29.5. Children in rural areas suffer substantially higher rates of malnutrition and chronic hunger, although urban-rural disparities have narrowed as regards both stunting and underweight. Low rural sector productivity arises mainly from inadequate infrastructure investment; limited access to farm inputs, extension services and credit; limited technology as well as trade and marketing support; and heavy dependence on rain-fed agriculture and natural resources. Approximately 68 per cent of Tanzania's 61.1 million citizens live below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. 32 per cent of the population are malnourished. The most prominent challenges Tanzania faces in poverty reduction are unsustainable harvesting of its natural resources, unchecked cultivation, climate change and water- source encroachment, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). There are very few resources for Tanzanians in terms of credit services, infrastructure or availability to improved agricultural technologies, which further exacerbates hunger and poverty in the country according to the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP. Tanzania ranks 159 out of 187 countries in poverty according to the United Nation's Human Development Index (2014). The 2019 World Bank report showed that in the last 10 years, poverty has reduced by 8 percentage points, from 34.4% in 2007 to 26.4% in 2018. A further report showed a reduction to 25.7% in 2020.


Agriculture

The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture, which in 2013 accounted for 24.5 per cent of gross domestic product, provides 85% of exports, and accounted for half of the employed workforce; The agricultural sector grew 4.3 per cent in 2012, less than half of the Millennium Development Goal target of 10.8%. 16.4 per cent of the land is Arable land, arable, with 2.4 per cent of the land planted with permanent crops. Tanzania's economy relies on farming, but climate change has impacted their farming. Maize was the largest food crop on the Tanzania mainland in 2013 (5.17 million tonnes), followed by cassava (1.94 million tonnes), sweet potatoes (1.88 million tonnes), beans (1.64 million tonnes), bananas (1.31 million tonnes), rice (1.31 million tonnes), and millet (1.04 million tonnes). Sugar was the largest cash crop on the mainland in 2013 (296,679 tonnes), followed by cotton (241,198 tonnes), cashew nuts (126,000 tonnes), tobacco (86,877 tonnes), coffee (48,000 tonnes), sisal (37,368 tonnes), and tea (32,422 tonnes). Beef was the largest meat product on the mainland in 2013 (299,581 tonnes), followed by lamb/mutton (115,652 tonnes), chicken (87,408 tonnes), and pork (50,814 tonnes). According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares were actually being irrigated in June 2011.


Industry, energy and construction

Industry and construction is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2 per cent of GDP in 2013. This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction. Mining contributed 3.3 per cent of GDP in 2013. The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89 per cent of the value of those exports in 2013. It also exports sizeable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite. All of Tanzania's coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically. Only 15 per cent of Tanzanians had access to electric power in 2011, however rising to 35.2 per cent in 2018."Access to electricity (% of population)"
World Bank.
The government-owned TANESCO, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) dominates the electric supply industry in Tanzania. The country generated 6.013 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity in 2013, a 4.2 per cent increase over the 5.771 billion kWh generated in 2012. Generation increased by 63 per cent between 2005 and 2012; Almost 18 per cent of the electricity generated in 2012 was lost because of theft and transmission and distribution problems."Tanzania: Electricity and Heat for 2012"
. iea.org.
The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary. The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry. In 2013, 49.7 per cent of Tanzania's electricity generation came from natural gas, 28.9 per cent from hydroelectric sources, 20.4 per cent from thermal sources, and 1.0 per cent from outside the country. The government has built a gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Mnazi Bay to Dar es Salaam. This pipeline was expected to allow the country to double its electricity generation capacity to 3,000 megawatts by 2016. The government's goal is to increase capacity to at least 10,000 megawatts by 2025. According to PFC Energy, 25 to 30 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas resources have been discovered in Tanzania since 2010, bringing the total reserves to over 43 trillion cubic feet by the end of 2013. The value of natural gas actually produced in 2013 was US$52.2 million, a 42.7 per cent increase over 2012. Commercial production of gas from the Songo Songo Island field in the Indian Ocean commenced in 2004, thirty years after it was discovered there."Natural Gas"
. ''ewura.go.tz''. 9 March 2012
Over 35 billion cubic feet of gas was produced from this field in 2013, with proven, probable, and possible reserves totalling 1.1 trillion cubic feet. The gas is transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam. As of 27 August 2014, TANESCO owed the operator of this field, Orca Exploration Group Inc. A newer natural gas field in Mnazi Bay in 2013 produced about one-seventh of the amount produced near Songo Songo Island but has proven, probable, and possible reserves of 2.2 trillion cubic feet. Virtually all of that gas is being used for electricity generation in Mtwara. The Ruvuma and Nyuna regions of Tanzania have been explored mostly by the discovery company that holds a 75 per cent interest, Aminex, and has shown to hold in excess of 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A pipeline connecting offshore natural gas fields to Tanzania's commercial capital Dar es Salaam was completed at the end of April 2015.


Tourism

Travel and tourism contributed 17.5 per cent of Tanzania's gross domestic product in 2016 and employed 11.0 per cent of the country's labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013."World Travel and Tourism Council Data, 2013"
''Knoema''.
Overall receipts rose from US$1.74 billion in 2004 to US$4.48 billion in 2013, and receipts from international tourists rose from US$1.255 billion in 2010 to US$2 billion in 2016. In 2016, 1,284,279 tourists arrived at Tanzania's borders compared to 590,000 in 2005. The vast majority of tourists visit
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
or a "northern circuit" of Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and
Mount Kilimanjaro Mount Kilimanjaro () is a Volcano#Dormant, dormant volcano in Tanzania. It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. It is the highest African mountains, mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world ...

Mount Kilimanjaro
. In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti (452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949).


Banking

The Bank of Tanzania is the central bank of Tanzania and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling notes and coins. At the end of 2013, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry were 19.5 trillion Tanzanian shillings, a 15 per cent increase over 2012.


Transport

Most transport in Tanzania is by road, with road transport constituting over 75 per cent of the country's freight traffic and 80 per cent of its passenger traffic. The road system is in generally poor condition. Tanzania has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi (in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania. Rail travel in Tanzania often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays, and the railways have a deficient safety record. In Dar es Salaam, there is a huge project of rapid buses, Dar Rapid Transit Agency, Dar Rapid Transit (DART) which connects suburbs of
Dar es Salaam Dar es-Salaam (; from ar, دار السلام, Dār as-Salām, lit=Place of Peace) or commonly known as Dar, is the largest city and financial hub of Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also hea ...

Dar es Salaam
city. The development of the DART system consists of six phases and is funded by the African Development Bank, the World Bank and the Government of Tanzania. The first phase began in April 2012, and it was completed in December 2015 and launched operations in May 2016. Tanzania has four international airports, along with over 120 small airports or landing strips. Airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition. Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.


Communications

In 2013, the communications sector was the fastest growing in Tanzania, expanding 22.8 per cent; however, the sector accounted for only 2.4 per cent of gross domestic product that year. As of 2011, Tanzania had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average. Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones. Approximately 12 per cent of Tanzanians used the internet , though this number is growing rapidly. The country has a fibre-optic cable network that replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low.


Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation in Tanzania has been characterised by decreasing access to improved water sources in the 2000s (especially in urban areas), steady access to some form of sanitation (around 93 per cent since the 1990s), intermittent water supplies, and generally low quality of service.Ministry of Water and Irrigatio
Water Sector Status Report 2009
retrieved Feb 2010
Many utilities are barely able to cover their operation and maintenance costs through revenues because of low tariffs and poor efficiency. There are significant Regions of Tanzania, regional differences, with the best performing utilities being Arusha, Moshi, Tanzania, Moshi, and Tanga, Tanzania, Tanga.Caroline van den Berg, Eileen Burke, Leonard Chacha and Flora Kessy
Public Expenditure Review of the Water Sector
September 2009
The government of Tanzania has embarked on a major sector reform process since 2002. An ambitious National Water Sector Development Strategy that promotes Integrated Water Resources Management and the development of urban and rural water supply was adopted in 2006. Decentralisation has meant that responsibility for water and sanitation service provision has shifted to local government authorities and is carried out by 20 urban utilities and about 100 district utilities, as well as by Community Owned Water Supply Organisations in rural areas. These reforms have been backed by a significant increase of the budget starting in 2006, when the water sector was included among the priority sectors of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty. The Tanzanian water sector remains heavily dependent on external donors, with 88 per cent of the available funds being provided by external donor organisations.National Water Sector Development Strategy 2006 to 2015
Retrieved 23 February 2010
Results have been mixed. For example, a report by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit noted that "despite heavy investments brought in by the World Bank and the European Union, (the utility serving
Dar es Salaam Dar es-Salaam (; from ar, دار السلام, Dār as-Salām, lit=Place of Peace) or commonly known as Dar, is the largest city and financial hub of Tanzania Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also hea ...

Dar es Salaam
) has remained one of the worst performing water entities in Tanzania."Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit]
Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia:Challenges and Lessons
2008, pp. 8–9


Economic statistics controversy

Two articles in the ''Economist'' in July 2020 raised doubts about official claims of economic growth: "If Tanzania's economy grew by almost 7% in the fiscal year to the end of June 2019, why did tax revenue fall by 1%? And why has bank lending to companies slumped? Private data are bad, too. In 2019 sales at the biggest brewer fell by 5%. Sales of cement by the two biggest producers were almost flat. None of these things is likely if growth is storming ahead. The discrepancies are so large that it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the government is lying." Tim Staermose, a proponent of African investment, took issue with these data: "Some of these statements by ''The Economist'', based on the evidence I have gathered from primary sources – namely, the statutory financial reports that listed companies in Tanzania are legally obligated to release – are simply not true. Bank lending to companies as far as I can see has not, 'slumped.' The two biggest banks in Tanzania, which between them account for approximately 40% of the banking sector, both reported strong loan growth in 2019. ... As for cement sales being 'almost flat,' again, this is total nonsense. ... In 2019 Twiga sold 6% more cement by volume than it did in 2018. In the first six months of 2020, Twiga already sold 8% more cement than it had done by the same stage in 2019. Again, these numbers are very consistent with an economy that's reported to be growing at around 7% per annum. ... [On] the 5% fall in beer sales in 2019 ... the published 2019 annual report by Tanzania Breweries Limited (TBL) will tell you there were one-off circumstances that largely drove the decline ... [which] resulted in sales falling. But TBL's profits actually rose in 2019."


Food and nutrition

Poor nutrition remains a persistent problem within Tanzania and varies hugely throughout the country's regions. United States Agency for International Development, USAID reports that 16% of children are underweight and 34% experience stunted growth as a result of malnutrition. 10 regions house 58% of children suffering from stunted growth while 50% of acutely malnourished children can be found in 5 regions. Over a 5-year period, the Mara Region, Mara district of Tanzania saw a 15% reduction in stunting in children under 5 years old, falling from 46% to 31% in 2005 and 2010 respectively.
Dodoma Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national Capital city, capital of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956. Geography Located in the centre of the country, the town is west ...
, on the other hand saw a 7% increase in the prevalence of stunting in this age group, rising from 50% in 2005 to 57% in 2010. Overall availability of food does not necessarily contribute to overall stunting figures. Iringa Region, Iringa, Mbeya Region, Mbeya and Rukwa Region, Rukwa regions, where overall availability of food is considered acceptable still experience stunting incidences in excess of 50%. In some areas where food shortages are common such as in the Tabora Region, Tabora and Singida Region, Singida regions, stunting incidences remain comparatively less than those seen in Iringa, Mbeya and Rukwa. The Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre attributes these discrepancies to variance in maternal malnutrition, poor infant feeding practices, hygiene practices and poor healthcare services. Periods of drought can have significant impacts on the production of crops in Tanzania. Drought in East Africa has resulted in massive increases in the prices of food staples such as maize and Commercial sorghum, sorghum, crops crucial to the nutrition of the majority of Tanzania's population. From 2015 to 2017 the price of maize when bought wholesale more than tripled, from 400 Tanzanian shilling, Shillings per kilogram to 1,253 Shillings per kilogram. Tanzania remains heavily agricultural, with 80% of the total population engaging in subsistence farming. Rural areas are subjected to increased food shortages in comparison to urbanised areas, with a survey carried out within the country in 2017 finding 84% of people in rural areas suffering food shortages over a 3-month period compared to 64% of residents in cities. This disparity between rural and city nutrition can be attributed to various factors; increased nutritional needs due to manual labour, more limited access to food as a result of poor infrastructure, high-susceptibility to the damaging effects of nature and the "Agricultural Productivity Gap". The Agricultural Productivity Gap postulates that "value added per worker" is often much lower within the agricultural sector than that found within non-agricultural sectors. Furthermore, allocation of labour within the agricultural sector is largely allocated ineffectively.


Programmes targeting hunger

USAID programmes focusing on nutrition operate within the Morogoro,
Dodoma Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national Capital city, capital of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956. Geography Located in the centre of the country, the town is west ...
, Iringa, Mbeya, Manyara Region, Manyara, Songwe Region, Songwe and
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
regions of Tanzania. These "Feed the Future Initiative, Feed the Future" programmes heavily invest in nutrition, infrastructure, policy, capacity of institutions and agriculture which is identified by the organisation as a key area of economic growth in the country. A Tanzanian government led initiative "Kilimo Kwanza" or "Agriculture First" aims to encourage investment into agriculture within the private sector and hopes to improve agricultural processes and development within the country by seeking the knowledge of young people and the innovation that they can potentially provide. During the 1990s, around 25% of Tanzania's population were provided access to iodized oil aimed to target iodine deficiency within expecting mothers, as result of studies showing the negative effects of in-utero iodine deficiency on cognitive development in children. Research showed that children of mothers with access to the supplement achieved on average greater than a third of a year more education than those who did not. Programmes led by the World Food Programme operate within Tanzania. The Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) aims to target acute malnutrition by supplying blended food fortified with vitamins to pregnant women and mothers to children under 5 on a monthly basis. Pregnant women and mothers to children under 2 have access to the Mother and Child Health and Nutrition Programme's "Super Cereal" which is supplied with the intent of reducing stunting in children. World Food Programme supplementation remains the main food source for Tanzania's refugees. Super Cereal, Vegetable Oil, Pulses and Salt are supplied as part of the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation to meet the average persons minimum daily caloric requirement of 2,100 kcal. UNICEF state that continued investment in nutrition within Tanzania is of the utmost importance: Estimates predict that Tanzania stands to lose $20 billion by 2025 if nutrition within the country remains at its current level, however improvements in nutrition could produce a gain of around $4.7 billion Save the Children, with the help of UNICEF and Irish Aid funding created the Partnership for Nutrition in Tanzania (PANITA), in 2011. PANITA aims to use civil society organisations to target nutrition within the country. Alongside this, various sectors associated with nutrition are targeted such as agriculture, water, sanitation, education, economic development and social progress. PANITA is responsible for ensuring significant attention is given to nutrition in development plans and budgets created on national and regional levels within Tanzania. Since its conception, PANITA has grown from 94 to 306 participating civil society organisations nationwide. Agriculture within Tanzania is targeted by the Irish Aid led initiative Harnessing Agriculture for Nutrition Outcomes (HANO), which aims to merge nutrition initiatives with agriculture in the Lindi District of the country. The project aims to reduce stunting by 10% in children aged 0 to 23 months.


Science and technology

Tanzania's first "National Science and Technology Policy" was adopted in 1996. The objective of the government's "Vision 2025" (1998) document was to "transform the economy into a strong, resilient and competitive one, buttressed by science and technology". Under the umbrella of the One UN Initiative, UNESCO and Tanzanian government departments and agencies formulated a series of proposals in 2008 for revising the "National Science and Technology Policy". The total reform budget of US$10 million was financed from the One UN fund and other sources. UNESCO provided support for mainstreaming science, technology, and innovation into the new "National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy" for the mainland and Zanzibar namely, Mkukuta II and Mkuza II, including in the field of tourism. Tanzania's revised science policy was published in 2010. Entitled "National Research and Development Policy", it recognises the need to improve the process of prioritisation of research capacities, develop international co-operation in strategic areas of research and development, and improve planning for human resources. It also makes provisions for the establishment of a National Research Fund. This policy was, in turn, reviewed in 2012 and 2013. In 2010, Tanzania devoted 0.38 per cent of GDP to research and development. The global average in 2013 was 1.7 per cent of GDP. Tanzania had 69 researchers (in head counts) per million population in 2010. In 2014, Tanzania counted 15 publications per million inhabitants in internationally catalogued journals, according to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded). The average for sub-Saharan Africa was 20 publications per million inhabitants and the global average 176 publications per million inhabitants. Tanzania was ranked 88th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, up from 97th in 2019.


Demographics

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923. The under-15 age group represented 44.1 per cent of the population. The population distribution in Tanzania is uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.Joseph Lake (2013) "Economy" in ''Africa South of the Sahara'', edited by Europa Publications and Iain Frame, Routledge. Density varies from in the Katavi Region to in the Dar es Salaam Region. Approximately 70 per cent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967. Dar es Salaam (population 4,364,541)2012 Census General Report
nbs.go.tz. March 2013
is the largest city and commercial capital.
Dodoma Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national Capital city, capital of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956. Geography Located in the centre of the country, the town is west ...
(population 410,956) is located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country, and hosts the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. At the time of the foundation of the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964 the child mortality rate was 335 deaths per 1,000 live births. Since independence the rate of child deaths has declined to 62 per 1000 births. The population consists of List of ethnic groups in Tanzania, about 125 ethnic groups. The Sukuma people, Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chaga people, Chagga, and Haya people, Haya peoples each have a population exceeding 1 million. Approximately 99 per cent of Tanzanians are of native Ethnic groups of Africa, African descent, with small numbers of Arab, European, and Asian descent. The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu peoples, Bantu. The population also includes people of Arab and Indians in Tanzania, Indian origin, and small European and Chinese people in Tanzania, Chinese communities. Many also identify as Shirazi (ethnic group), Shirazis. Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the
Zanzibar Revolution The Zanzibar Revolution ( ''Thawrat Zanjibār'') occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries. Sultanate of Zanzibar, Zanzibar was an ethnically diverse state ...
of 1964. As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans lived in Tanzania. Some albinos in Tanzania have been the victims of violence in recent years. Attacks are often to hack off the limbs of albinos in the perverse superstitious belief that possessing the bones of albinos will bring wealth. The country has banned witch doctors to try to prevent the practice, but it has continued and albinos remain targets. According to 2010 Tanzanian government statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania was 5.4 children born per woman, with 3.7 in urban mainland areas, 6.1 in rural mainland areas, and 5.1 in Zanzibar. For all women aged 45–49, 37.3 per cent had given birth to eight or more children, and for currently married women in that age group, 45.0 per cent had given birth to that many children.


Religion

Official statistics on religion are unavailable because religious surveys were eliminated from government census reports after 1967. Tanzania's religious field is dominated by Christianity and Islam as well as of different African Traditional Religions connected to ethnic customs. The word for religion in Swahili, ''dini,'' generally apply to the world religions of Christianity and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
meaning that followers of African Traditional Religions are considered to be of "no religion". Religious belonging is often ambiguous, with some people adhering to multiple religious identities at the same time (for instance being Christian but also following African Traditional rituals) something which suggests that religious boundaries are flexible and contextual. According to a 2014 estimate by the ''CIA World Factbook'', 61.4% of the population was Christian, 35.2% was Muslim, 1.8% practised traditional African religions, 1.4% were unaffiliated with any religion, and 0.2% followed other religions. Nearly the entire population of Zanzibar is Muslim. Of Muslims, 16% are Ahmadiyya, 20% are non-denominational Muslims, 40% are Sunni, 20 per cent are Shia, and 4% are Sufism, Sufi. Within the Christian community the Catholic Church is the largest group (51% all Christians). Among the Protestants, the large number of Lutherans and Moravian Church, Moravians points to the German missionary past of the country, while the number of Anglicans point to the British missionary history of Tanganyika. A growing number have adopted Pentecostalism, and Adventists likewise have an increasing presence because of external missionary activities from Scandinavia and the United States, especially during the first part of the 20th century. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of Charismatic Christianity, charismatic and Pentecostal groups. There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhism, Buddhists, Hinduism in Tanzania, Hindus, and Baháʼí Faith, Bahá'ís.


Languages

More than 100 languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu languages, Bantu, Cushitic languages, Cushitic, Nilotic languages, Nilotic, and Khoisan languages, Khoisan. There are no ''de jure'' official languages in Tanzania. Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, The Tanzanian government, however, has plans to discontinue English as a language of instruction. In connection with his Ujamaa social policies, President Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili to help unify the country's many ethnic groups. Approximately 10 per cent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 per cent speak it as a second language. Many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English. The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country. Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas. Ethnic community languages (ECL) other than Kiswahili are not allowed as a language of instruction. Nor are they taught as a subject, though they might be used unofficially in some cases in initial education. Television and radio programmes in an ECL are prohibited, and it is nearly impossible to get permission to publish a newspaper in an ECL. There is no department of local or regional African Languages and Literatures at the University of Dar es Salaam. Arabic is co-official in
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
. The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate. The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.


Education

In 2012, the literacy rate in Tanzania for persons aged 15 and over was estimated to be 67.8 per cent. Education is compulsory until children reach age 15. In 2010, 74.1 per cent of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school. The primary school completion rate was 80.8 per cent in 2012.


Healthcare

, life expectancy at birth was 61 years. The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births. premature death, Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old. The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV, and measles. Malaria in Tanzania causes death and disease and has a "huge economic impact"."Focus on Mainland Tanzania", Roll Back Malaria Progress & Impact Series, The Roll Back Malaria Partnership, January 2012, accessed 19 October 2014
There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008. In 2007–08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1 per cent) on the western shore of Lake Victoria and lowest in the Arusha Region (0.1 per cent). According to the 2010 ''Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010'', 15 per cent of Tanzanian women had undergone female genital mutilation (FGM)Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010
National Bureau of Statistics, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, April 2011
and 72 per cent of Tanzanian men had been circumcised. FGM is most common in the Manyara Region, Manyara, Dodoma Region, Dodoma, Arusha Region, Arusha, and Singida Region, Singida regions and nonexistent in
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
. The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90 per cent in the eastern (Dar es Salaam Region, Dar es Salaam, Pwani Region, Pwani, and Morogoro Region, Morogoro regions), northern (Kilimanjaro Region, Kilimanjaro, Tanga Region, Tanga, Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central areas (Dodoma and Singida Region, Singida regions) and below 50 per cent only in the southern highlands zone (Mbeya Region, Mbeya, Iringa Region, Iringa, and Rukwa Region, Rukwa regions). 2012 data showed that 53 per cent of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that "by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter") and 12 per cent used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that "likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact" but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).


Women

Women and men have equality before the law. The government signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1985. Nearly 3 out of ten females reported having experienced sexual violence before the age of 18. The prevalence of female genital mutilation has decreased. School girls are reinstated back to school after delivery. The Police Force administration strives to separate the Gender Desks from normal police operations to enhance confidentiality of the processing of women victims of abuse. Most of the abuses and violence against women and children occurs at the family level. The Constitution of Tanzania requires that women constitute at least 30% of all elected members of
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. The gender differences in education and training have implications later in life of these women and girls. Unemployment is higher for females than for males. The right of a female employee to maternity leave is guaranteed in labour law.


Culture


Literature

Tanzania's literary culture is primarily oral. Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs. The greatest part of Tanzania's recorded oral literature is in Swahili, even though each of the country's languages has its own oral tradition. The country's oral literature has been declining because of the breakdown of the multigenerational social structure, making transmission of oral literature more difficult, and because increasing modernisation has been accompanied by the devaluation of oral literature. Books in Tanzania are often expensive and hard to come by.Tim Doling (1999) ''Tanzania Arts Directory''. Visiting Arts Most Tanzanian literature is in Swahili or English. Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert (considered the father of Swahili literature), Muhammed Saley Farsy, Faraji Katalambulla, Adam Shafi Adam, Muhammed Said Abdulla, Muhammed Said Abdalla, Said Ahmed Mohammed Khamis, Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed, Euphrase Kezilahabi, Gabriel Ruhumbika, Ebrahim Hussein, May Balisidya, May Materru Balisidya, Fadhy Mtanga, Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina Muhando, Penina O. Mlama.


Painting and sculpture

Two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition. The Tingatinga (painting), Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga, consists of brightly coloured enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life. After Tingatinga's death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style, with the genre now being the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa. Historically, there were limited opportunities for formal European art training in Tanzania and many aspiring Tanzanian artists left the country to pursue their vocation.


Sports

Association football, Football is very popular throughout the country. The most popular Tanzanian Premier League, professional football clubs in Dar es Salaam are the Young Africans F.C. and Simba S.C. The Tanzania Football Federation is the governing body for football in the country. Other popular sports include basketball, netball, boxing, volleyball, athletics (sport), athletics, and rugby union, rugby. The National Sports Council also known as Baraza la Michezo la Taifa is the governing body for sports in the country under the Ministry of Information, Youth, Sports and Culture.


Cinema

Tanzania has a popular film industry known as "Bongo Movie". The music industry is known as "Bongo Flava" which is in itself also a niche genre of music in Tanzania.


See also

* Index of Tanzania-related articles * Outline of Tanzania * COVID-19 pandemic in Tanzania


Notes


References


Sources

*


External links

* * * *
Basic Statistics of Tanzania
published as Open data by the National Bureau of Statistics
Tanzania tourism Portal
. {{Authority control Tanzania, 1964 establishments in Tanzania Commonwealth republics Countries in Africa East African countries English-speaking countries and territories Least developed countries Member states of the African Union Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations Member states of the United Nations States and territories established in 1964 Swahili-speaking countries and territories