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Tagalog (, ; ;
Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, ba ...

Baybayin
: ) is an
Austronesian language The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a w ...
spoken as a first language by the ethnic
Tagalog people The Tagalog people (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, ...
, who make up a quarter of the population of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
, and as a second language by the majority. Its standardized form,
officially
officially
named ''Filipino'', is the
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
of the Philippines, and is one of two
official languages An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular jurisdiction (area), country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (j ...

official languages
, alongside
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
. Tagalog is closely related to other
Philippine languages The Philippine languages are a proposed group by R. David Paul Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust Robert A. Blust (born 1940, ) is a prominent linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system ...
, such as the
Bikol languages The Bikol languages or Bicolano languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the Burias Island, island of Burias in Masba ...

Bikol languages
, Ilocano, the
Visayan languages The Bisayan languages or the Visayan languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages () are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken ...

Visayan languages
,
KapampanganKapampangan, Capampañgan or Pampangan may refer to: *Kapampangan people The Kapampangan people ( pam, Taung Kapampangan), Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the sixth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2,784,526 in 2 ...
, and
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or stat ...
, and more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the
Formosan languages The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which are Austronesian. The Taiwanese indigenous peoples recognized by the government are about 2.3% of the island's population. However, only 35% speak their ...

Formosan languages
of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
,
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
( Malaysian and
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...

Indonesian
),
Hawaiian Hawaiian may refer to: * Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry * Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants * Hawaiian language Historic uses * things and people of the Kingdo ...
, Māori, and
Malagasy Malagasy may refer to: *Someone or something from Madagascar *Malagasy people *Malagasy language *Malagasy Republic *Related to the culture of Madagascar See also

*Madagascar (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language and nationality disambi ...
.


Classification

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
language family. Being
Malayo-Polynesian The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken by the Austronesian peoples outside of Taiwan, in the island nations of Southeast A ...
, it is related to other Austronesian languages, such as
Malagasy Malagasy may refer to: *Someone or something from Madagascar *Malagasy people *Malagasy language *Malagasy Republic *Related to the culture of Madagascar See also

*Madagascar (disambiguation) {{disambiguation Language and nationality disambi ...
, Javanese,
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
( Malaysian and
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian w ...

Indonesian
),
Tetum Tetum ( pt, Tetum ,; tet, Tetun ) is an Austronesian language The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Si ...
(of Timor), and
Yami Yamuna The Yamuna (Hindustani Hindustani may refer to: * something of, from, or related to Hindustan (another name of India) * Hindustani language, an Indo-Aryan language, whose two official norms are Hindi and Urdu * Fiji Hindi, a variet ...
(of Taiwan).Lewis, M.P., Simons, G.F., & Fennig, C.D. (2014). Tagalog. ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World.'' Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tgl It is closely related to the languages spoken in the
Bicol Region Bicol ( bcl, Rehiyon Bikol; Rinconada Bicol: ''Rehiyon ka Bikol''; tl, Kabikulan), also known as Bicol Region, is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces A province is almost always ...
and the
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
islands, such as the
Bikol group
Bikol group
and the
Visayan group
Visayan group
, including Waray-Waray, Hiligaynon and Cebuano. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the
Proto-Philippine The Proto-Philippine language is a reconstructed ancestral proto-language of the Philippine languages, a proposed subgroup of the Austronesian languages which includes all languages within the Philippines (except for the Sama–Bajaw languages) as ...
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis inc ...
vowel . In most and
Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan: ''Kabisay-an'', ; tl, Kabisayaan ), are one of th ...

Visayan
languages, this sound merged with and . In Tagalog, it has merged with . For example, Proto-Philippine (adhere, stick) is Tagalog ''dikít'' and Visayan & Bikol ''dukot''. Proto-Philippine , , and merged with but is between vowels. Proto-Philippine (name) and (kiss) became Tagalog ''ngalan'' and ''halík''. Proto-Philippine merged with . (water) and (blood) became Tagalog ''tubig'' and ''dugô''.


History

The word ''Tagalog'' is derived from the
endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 milli ...
''taga-ilog'' ("river dweller"), composed of ''tagá-'' ("native of" or "from") and ''ilog'' ("river"). Linguists such as David Zorc and
Robert Blust Robert A. Blust (born 1940, ) is a prominent linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, s ...
speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups originated in Northeastern
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
or the Eastern
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
. Possible words of Old Tagalog origin are attested in the
Laguna Copperplate Inscription The Laguna Copperplate Inscription ( tl, Kasulatang tansong natagpuan sa Laguna) is an official document, more precisely an acquittance, inscription, inscribed in the Hindu calendar, Shaka year 822 (AD 900). It is the earliest known calendar-da ...

Laguna Copperplate Inscription
from the tenth century, which is largely written in
Old Malay Malay language, Malay was first used in the first millennia known as Old Malay, a part of the Austronesian languages, Austronesian language family. Over a period of two Millennium, millennia, Malay has undergone various stages of development that ...
. The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the ''
Doctrina Christiana The ''Doctrina Christiana'' ( eng, Christian Doctrine) was an early book on the Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian c ...

Doctrina Christiana
'' (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593. The ''Doctrina'' was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog; one in the ancient, then-current
Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, ba ...

Baybayin
script and the other in an early Spanish attempt at a
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...

Latin
orthography for the language. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule, various grammars and dictionaries were written by Spanish clergymen. In 1610, the Dominican priest Francisco Blancas de San Jose published the "Arte y reglas de la lengua tagala" (which was subsequently revised with two editions in 1752 and 1832) in Bataan. In 1613, the Franciscan priest Pedro de San Buenaventura published the first Tagalog dictionary, his " Vocabulario de la lengua tagala" in
Pila, Laguna , officially the ( tgl, Bayan ng ), is a in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and admini ...
. The first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism, ...
missionary
Pablo ClainPaul Klein (25 January 1652 in Cheb Cheb (; german: Eger) is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region The Karlovy Vary Region or Carlsbad Region ( cs, Karlovarský kraj) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the western ...
in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books. He prepared the dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as '' Vocabulario de la lengua tagala'' in Manila in 1754 and then repeatedly reedited, with the last edition being in 2013 in Manila. Among others, ''Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos'' (1850) in addition to early studies of the language. The indigenous poet
Francisco Balagtas Francisco Balagtas y de la Cruz (April 2, 1788 – February 20, 1862), commonly known as Francisco Balagtas and also as Francisco Baltazar, was a prominent Filipino people, Filipino poet during the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. He i ...
(1788–1862) is known as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century
epic Epic commonly refers to: * Epic poetry, a long narrative poem celebrating heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation * Epic film, a genre of film with heroic elements Epic or EPIC may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media ...
''
Florante at Laura ''Florante at Laura'' (full title: ''Pinagdaanang Buhay ni Florante at ni Laura sa Kahariang Albanya''; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...
''.


Official status

Tagalog was declared the official language by the first revolutionary constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. President
Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, (, ; 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino people, Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 193 ...
then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as ''Wikang Pambansâ'' (national language). Under the Japanese puppet government during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, Tagalog as a national language was strongly promoted; the 1943 Constitution specifying: The government shall take steps toward the development and propagation of Tagalog as the national language.". In 1959, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino". Along with English, the national language has had official status under the 1973 constitution (as "Pilipino") and the present 1987 constitution (as Filipino).


Controversy

The adoption of Tagalog in 1937 as basis for a national language is not without its own controversies. Instead of specifying Tagalog, the national language was designated as ''Wikang Pambansâ'' ("National Language") in 1939. Twenty years later, in 1959, it was renamed by then Secretary of Education, José Romero, as '' Pilipino'' to give it a
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...

nation
al rather than
ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non- Tagalogs, especially Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection. The national language issue was revived once more during the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The majority of the delegates were even in favor of scrapping the idea of a "national language" altogether. A compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called ''Filipino'' rather than ''Pilipino''. The 1973 constitution makes no mention of Tagalog. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language. The constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. However, more than two decades after the institution of the "universalist" approach, there seems to be little if any difference between Tagalog and Filipino. Many of the older generation in the Philippines feel that the replacement of English by Tagalog in the popular visual media has had dire economic effects regarding the competitiveness of the Philippines in trade and overseas remittances.


Use in education

Upon the issuance of ''Executive Order No. 134'', Tagalog was declared as basis of the National Language. On 12 April 1940, ''Executive No. 263'' was issued ordering the teaching of the national language in all public and private schools in the country. Article XIV, Section 6 of the 1987
Constitution of the Philippines The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng ...
specifies, in part: Under Section 7, however: In 2009, the
Department of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversigh ...
promulgated an order institutionalizing a system of mother-tongue based multilingual education ("MLE"), wherein instruction is conducted primarily in a student's mother tongue (one of the various regional Philippine languages) until at least grade three, with additional languages such as Filipino and English being introduced as separate subjects no earlier than grade two. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction, with the learner's first language taking on an auxiliary role. After pilot tests in selected schools, the MLE program was implemented nationwide from School Year (SY) 2012–2013. Tagalog is the first language of a quarter of the population of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
(particularly in Central and Southern Luzon) and the second language for the majority.Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000


Extent of use


In the Philippines

According to the
Philippine Statistics Authority The Philippine Statistics Authority (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng P ...

Philippine Statistics Authority
, as of 2014, there were 100 million people living in the Philippines, where the vast majority have some basic level of understanding of the language. The Tagalog homeland,
Katagalugan Tagalog Republic ( fil, Republika ng Katagalugan or ) is a term used to refer to two Revolutionary government in the Philippines, revolutionary governments involved in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and the Philippine–Americ ...

Katagalugan
, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
—particularly in
Aurora An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights (aurora polaris), northern lights (aurora borealis), or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in high- ...
,
Bataan Bataan ( ; tl, Lalawigan ng Bataan ; pam, Lalauígan ning Bataan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...

Bataan
,
Batangas Batangas ( tl, Lalawigan ng Batangas ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...

Batangas
,
Bulacan Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Bulacan; pam, Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC031400000 ISO: PH-BUL) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administra ...
,
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
,
Laguna Laguna (Italian and Spanish for lagoon) may refer to: People * Abe Laguna (born 1992), American DJ known as Ookay * Andrés Laguna (1499–1559), Spanish humanist physician, pharmacologist, and botanist * Ana Laguna (born 1955), Spanish-Swedish ba ...
,
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
,
Nueva Ecija Nueva Ecija, officially the Province of Nueva Ecija ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija , also ; : Luyag na Nueva Ecija; ilo, Probinsia ti Nueva Ecija; pam, Lalawigan ning Nueva Ecija) is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the regi ...
,
Quezon , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Quezon), is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territoria ...

Quezon
,
Rizal , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative reg ...

Rizal
, and
Zambales Zambales ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Zambales; ilo, Probinsia ti Zambales; xsb, Probinsya nin Zambales; pam, Lalawigan ning Zambales; pag, Luyag na Zambales) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or ...
. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands of
Marinduque Marinduque () is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), somet ...
and
Mindoro Mindoro is the seventh largest and eighth-most populous island in the Philippines. With a total land area of 10,571 km2 ( 4,082 sq.mi ) and has a population of 1,408,454 as of 2020 census. It is located off the southwestern coast of Luz ...
, as well as
Palawan Palawan (pronounced ), officially the Province of Palawan ( cyo, Probinsya i'ang Palawan; tl, Lalawigan ng Palawan; hil, Kapuoran sang Palawan; ceb, Lalawigan sa Palawan), is an archipelagic Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Phil ...

Palawan
to a lesser extent. Significant minorities are found in the other Central Luzon provinces of
Pampanga Pampanga, officially the Province of Pampanga ( pam, Lalawigan ning Pampanga; tl, Lalawigan ng Pampanga) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Central Luzon Regions of the Philippines, region of the Philippines. Lying on the northe ...
and
Tarlac Tarlac, officially the Province of Tarlac ( pam, Lalawigan ning Tarlac; pag, Luyag na Tarlac; ilo, Probinsia ti Tarlac; tgl, Lalawigan ng Tarlac ) is a landlocked Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Central ...

Tarlac
,
Ambos Camarines Ambos Camarines ( es, ambos, meaning "both"; commonly known as Camarines), officially the Province of Ambos Camarines, was a historical province in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Re ...
in Bicol Region, and the
Cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volum ...
city of
Baguio ( , ), officially the ( ibl, Syudad ne Bag-iw; ; ilo, Siudad ti ; tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the , . It is known as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines", owing to its cool climate since ...

Baguio
. Tagalog is also the predominant language of
Cotabato City , officially the ( Maguindanaon: ''Ingud nu Kutawatu'', ايڠاود نو كوتاواتو; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each ...
in
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
, making it the only place outside of Luzon with a native Tagalog speaking majority. At the 2000 Philippines Census, it is spoken by approximately 57.3 million Filipinos, 96% of the household population who were able to attend school; slightly over 22 million, or 28% of the total Philippine population, speak it as a native language. The following regions and provinces of the Philippines are majority Tagalog-speaking (from north to south): * Central Luzon Region **
Aurora An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights (aurora polaris), northern lights (aurora borealis), or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in high- ...
**
Bataan Bataan ( ; tl, Lalawigan ng Bataan ; pam, Lalauígan ning Bataan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...

Bataan
**
Bulacan Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Bulacan; pam, Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC031400000 ISO: PH-BUL) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administra ...
**
Nueva Ecija Nueva Ecija, officially the Province of Nueva Ecija ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Nueva Ecija , also ; : Luyag na Nueva Ecija; ilo, Probinsia ti Nueva Ecija; pam, Lalawigan ning Nueva Ecija) is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the regi ...
**
Zambales Zambales ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Zambales; ilo, Probinsia ti Zambales; xsb, Probinsya nin Zambales; pam, Lalawigan ning Zambales; pag, Luyag na Zambales) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or ...
*
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
(National Capital Region) *
Southern Luzon Southern Tagalog ( fil, Timog Katagalugan), designated as Region IV, was an Regions of the Philippines, administrative region in the Philippines that comprised the current regions of Calabarzon and Mimaropa, the province of Aurora (province), Aur ...
(
Calabarzon Calabarzon (), formally known as the Southern Tagalog Mainland, is an administrative region in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipi ...
and
Mimaropa Mimaropa (usually capitalized in official government documents), formally known as the Southwestern Tagalog Region, is an Regions of the Philippines, administrative region in the Philippines. It was also formerly designated as Region IV-B until ...
) **
Batangas Batangas ( tl, Lalawigan ng Batangas ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...

Batangas
**
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
**
Laguna Laguna (Italian and Spanish for lagoon) may refer to: People * Abe Laguna (born 1992), American DJ known as Ookay * Andrés Laguna (1499–1559), Spanish humanist physician, pharmacologist, and botanist * Ana Laguna (born 1955), Spanish-Swedish ba ...
**
Rizal , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative reg ...
**
Quezon , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Quezon), is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territoria ...

Quezon
**
Marinduque Marinduque () is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), somet ...
**
Occidental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro ( tl, Kanlurang Mindoro, krj, Natungdan ka Mindoro, ilo, Laud nga Mindoro, es, Mindoro Occidental) ( ISO: PH-MDC) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term de ...
**
Oriental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro ( tl, Silangang Mindoro: ilo, Amianan nga Mindoro; Hiligaynon language, Hiligaynon: ''Sidlanganong Mindoro''; es, Mindoro Oriental) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located on the island of Mindoro ...
**
Romblon Romblon ( ) is an archipelagic province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdiv ...
**
Palawan Palawan (pronounced ), officially the Province of Palawan ( cyo, Probinsya i'ang Palawan; tl, Lalawigan ng Palawan; hil, Kapuoran sang Palawan; ceb, Lalawigan sa Palawan), is an archipelagic Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Phil ...

Palawan
*
Bicol Region Bicol ( bcl, Rehiyon Bikol; Rinconada Bicol: ''Rehiyon ka Bikol''; tl, Kabikulan), also known as Bicol Region, is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces A province is almost always ...
(While the
Bikol languages The Bikol languages or Bicolano languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the Burias Island, island of Burias in Masba ...

Bikol languages
have traditionally been the majority languages in the following provinces, heavy Tagalog influence and migration has resulted in its significant presence in these provinces and in many communities Tagalog is now the majority language.) **
Camarines Norte Camarines Norte ( bcl, Amihanan na Camarines; tl, Hilagang Camarines) is a province in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bi ...
**
Camarines Sur Camarines Sur ( bcl, Habagatan na Camarines; tl, Timog Camarines) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...
*
Bangsamoro ar, منطقة بانجسامورو ذاتية الحكم فى مسلمى مينداناو , native_name = , settlement_type = Autonomous regions of the Philippines, Autonomous region , anthem ...

Bangsamoro
**
Maguindanao Maguindanao (, Maguindanaon: ''Prubinsya nu Magindanaw''; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attrib ...

Maguindanao
(While
Maguindanao Maguindanao (, Maguindanaon: ''Prubinsya nu Magindanaw''; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attrib ...
has traditionally been the majority language of the province, Tagalog is now the main language of "mother tongue" primary education in the province and is the majority language in the regional center of
Cotabato City , officially the ( Maguindanaon: ''Ingud nu Kutawatu'', ايڠاود نو كوتاواتو; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each ...
.) Tagalog speakers are also found in other parts of the Philippines and through its standardized form of
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
, the language serves the national ''
lingua franca A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'disco ...
'' of the country.


Outside of the Philippines

Tagalog serves as the common language among
Overseas Filipinos An overseas Filipino ( fil, Pilipino sa ibayong-dagat) is a person of full or partial Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the ...
, though its use overseas is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. The largest concentration of Tagalog speakers outside the Philippines is found in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, wherein 2013, the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
reported (based on data collected in 2011) that it was the fourth most-spoken non-English language at home with almost 1.6 million speakers, behind
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, (including Patois, Cajun, Creole), and
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
(with figures for
Cantonese Cantonese ( zh, t=廣東話, s=广东话, first=t; Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, Brit ...

Cantonese
and
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
combined). In urban areas, Tagalog ranked as the third most spoken non-English language, behind Spanish and Chinese varieties but ahead of French. A study based on data from the United States Census Bureau’s 2015 American Consumer Survey shows that Tagalog is the most commonly spoken non-English language after Spanish in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
, and
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
. Tagalog is one of three recognized languages in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, California, along with Spanish and Chinese, making all essential city services be communicated using these languages along with English. Meanwhile, Tagalog and Ilocano (which is primarily spoken in northern Philippines) are among the non-official languages of
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
that its state offices and state-funded entities are required to provide oral and written translations to its residents. Election ballots in Nevada include instructions written in Tagalog, which was first introduced in the 2020 United States presidential elections. Other countries with significant concentrations of overseas Filipinos and Tagalog speakers include
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
,
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
,
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regi ...

Kuwait
, and
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
.


Dialects

At present, no comprehensive
dialectologyDialectology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects.
Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living language A language is a structured system of communicat ...
lists Manila, Lubang,
Marinduque Marinduque () is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), somet ...
, Bataan (Western Central Luzon),
Batangas Batangas ( tl, Lalawigan ng Batangas ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...
, Bulacan (Eastern Central Luzon), Tanay-Paete (Rizal-Laguna), and Tayabas (Quezon and Aurora) as dialects of Tagalog; however, there appear to be four main dialects, of which the aforementioned are a part: Northern (exemplified by the
Bulacan Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Bulacan; pam, Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC031400000 ISO: PH-BUL) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administra ...
dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque. Some example of dialectal differences are: * Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonants and before vowels. This has been lost in Standard Tagalog. For example, standard Tagalog ''ngayón'' (now, today), '' sinigáng'' (broth stew), ''gabí'' (night), ''matamís'' (sweet), are pronounced and written ''ngay-on'', ''sinig-ang'', ''gab-i'', and ''matam-is'' in other dialects. * In Teresian-
Morong Morong may refer to: *Thomas Morong (1827-1894), botanist * Morong, Bataan, a municipality in the Philippines * Morong, Rizal, a municipality in the Philippines * Distrito de Morong (Province of Morong), now a part of the province of Rizal * Morong ...
Tagalog, is usually preferred over . For example, ''bundók'' (mountain), ''dagat'' (sea), ''dingdíng'' (wall), and ''isdâ'' (fish) become ''bunrók'', ''ragat'', ''ringríng'', and ''isrâ'', e.g. "sandók sa dingdíng" ("ladle on a wall" or "ladle on the wall", depending on the sentence) becoming "sanrók sa ringríng". * In many southern dialects, the progressive aspect infix of ''-um-'' verbs is ''na-''. For example, standard Tagalog ''kumakain'' (eating) is ''nákáin'' in Quezon and Batangas Tagalog. This is the butt of some jokes by other Tagalog speakers, for should a Southern Tagalog ask ''nákáin ka ba ng patíng?'' ("Do you eat shark?"), he would be understood as saying "Has a shark eaten you?" by speakers of the Manila Dialect. * Some dialects have interjections which are considered a regional trademark. For example, the interjection ''ala e!'' usually identifies someone from Batangas as does ''hane?!'' in Rizal and Quezon provinces. Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern, with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon. One example is the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive. Northern and central dialects form the basis for the national language.


Taglish (Englog)

''Taglish'' and ''Englog'' are names given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs. Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to changing language in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog. Code-mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are "Filipinized" by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use. City-dwellers are more likely to do this. The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like
Wells Fargo Wells Fargo & Company is an American multinational financial services company with corporate headquarters in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Fra ...

Wells Fargo
,
Wal-Mart Walmart Inc. (; formerly Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarket Asian hypermarket in the Philippines, a branch of SM Hypermarket in SM Mall of Asia">SM_Hypermarket.html ...

Wal-Mart
,
Albertsons Albertsons Companies, Inc. is an American grocery company founded and headquartered in Boise Boise () is the capital and most populous city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geograp ...
,
McDonald's McDonald's is an American fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food scie ...

McDonald's
and
Western Union The Western Union Company is an American multinational financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James ...

Western Union
have contained Taglish.


Phonology

Tagalog has 33
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s: 19 of them are
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
s and 14 are
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s. Syllable structure is relatively simple, being maximally CrVC, where Cr only occurs in borrowed words such as ''trak'' "truck" or ''sombréro'' "hat".


Vowels

Tagalog has ten simple vowels, five long and five short, and four diphthongs. Before appearing in the area north of the Pasig river, Tagalog had three vowel qualities: , , and . This was later expanded to five with the introduction of words from central and northern Philippines, such as the
KapampanganKapampangan, Capampañgan or Pampangan may refer to: *Kapampangan people The Kapampangan people ( pam, Taung Kapampangan), Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the sixth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2,784,526 in 2 ...
,
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or stat ...
and Ilocano languages, as well as Spanish words. * an
open central unrounded vowel The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant tha ...
roughly similar to English "father"; in the middle of a word, a
near-open central vowel The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms th ...
similar to Received Pronunciation "cup"; or an open front unrounded vowel similar to Received Pronunciation or California English "hat" * an open-mid front unrounded vowel similar to General American English "bed" * a close front unrounded vowel similar to English "machine" * a mid back rounded vowel similar to General American English "soul" or Philippine English "forty" * a close back rounded vowel similar to English "flute" Nevertheless, simplification of pairs and is likely to take place, especially in some Tagalog as second language, remote location and working class registers. The four diphthongs are , , , and . Long vowels are not written apart from pedagogical texts, where an acute accent is used: ''á é í ó ú.'' The table above shows all the possible realizations for each of the five vowel sounds depending on the speaker's origin or proficiency. The five general vowels are in bold.


Consonants

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word. Loanword variants using these phonemes are italicized inside the angle brackets. * between vowels has a tendency to become as in ''loch'', German ''Bach'', whereas in the initial position it has a tendency to become , especially in the Manila dialect. *Intervocalic and tend to become , as in Spanish ''agua'', especially in the Manila dialect. * and were once allophones, and they still vary grammatically, with initial becoming intervocalic in many words. *A glottal stop that occurs in pausa (before a pause) is omitted when it is in the middle of a phrase, especially in the Metro Manila area. The vowel it follows is then lengthened. However, it is preserved in many other dialects. *The phoneme is an alveolar rhotic that has a free variation between a trill, a flap and an approximant (). *The phoneme may become a consonant cluster in between vowels such as ''sadyâ'' . Glottal stop is not indicated. Glottal stops are most likely to occur when: *the word starts with a vowel, like ''aso'' (dog) *the word includes a dash followed by a vowel, like ''mag-aral'' (study) *the word has two vowels next to each other, like ''paano'' (how) *the word starts with a prefix followed by a verb that starts with a vowel, like ''mag-aayos'' ([will] fix)


Stress and final glottal stop

Stress (linguistics), Stress is a distinctive feature in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the final or the penultimate syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Tagalog words are often distinguished from one another by the position of the stress and/or the presence of a final glottal stop. In formal or academic settings, stress placement and the glottal stop are indicated by a diacritic (''tuldík'') above the final vowel. The penultimate primary stress position (''malumay'') is the default stress type and so is left unwritten except in dictionaries.


Grammar


Writing system

Tagalog, like other Philippines languages today, is written using the Latin alphabet. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1521 and the beginning of their colonization in 1565, Tagalog was written in an abugida—or alphasyllabary—called
Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, ba ...

Baybayin
. This system of writing gradually gave way to the use and propagation of the Latin alphabet as introduced by the Spanish. As the Spanish began to record and create grammars and dictionaries for the various languages of the Philippine archipelago, they adopted systems of writing closely following the orthographic customs of the Spanish language and were refined over the years. Until the first half of the 20th century, most Philippine languages were widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. In the late 19th century, a number of educated Filipinos began proposing for revising the spelling system used for Tagalog at the time. In 1884, Filipino doctor and student of languages Trinidad Pardo de Tavera published his study on the ancient Tagalog script ''Contribucion para el Estudio de los Antiguos Alfabetos Filipinos'' and in 1887, published his essay ''El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog'' which made use of a new writing system developed by him. Meanwhile, Jose Rizal, inspired by Pardo de Tavera's 1884 work, also began developing a new system of orthography (unaware at first of Pardo de Tavera's own orthography). A major noticeable change in these proposed orthographies was the use of the letter ⟨k⟩ rather than ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ to represent the phoneme . In 1889, the new bilingual Spanish-Tagalog ''La España Oriental'' newspaper, of which Isabelo de los Reyes was an editor, began publishing using the new orthography stating in a footnote that it would "use the orthography recently introduced by ... learned Orientalis". This new orthography, while having its supporters, was also not initially accepted by several writers. Soon after the first issue of ''La España'', Pascual H. Poblete's ''Revista Católica de Filipina'' began a series of articles attacking the new orthography and its proponents. A fellow writer, Pablo Tecson was also critical. Among the attacks was the use of the letters "k" and "w" as they were deemed to be of German origin and thus its proponents were deemed as "unpatriotic". The publishers of these two papers would eventually merge as ''La Lectura Popular'' in January 1890 and would eventually make use of both spelling systems in its articles. Pedro Laktaw, a schoolteacher, published the first Spanish-Tagalog dictionary using the new orthography in 1890. In April 1890, Jose Rizal authored an article ''Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagalog'' in the Madrid-based periodical La Solidaridad. In it, he addressed the criticisms of the new writing system by writers like Pobrete and Tecson and the simplicity, in his opinion, of the new orthography. Rizal described the orthography promoted by Pardo de Tavera as "more perfect" than what he himself had developed. The new orthography was however not broadly adopted initially and was used inconsistently in the bilingual periodicals of Manila until the early 20th century. The revolutionary society Kataás-taasan, Kagalang-galang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan or Katipunan made use of the k-orthography and the letter k featured prominently on many of its flags and insignias. In 1937, Tagalog was selected to serve as basis for the country's
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
. In 1940, the ''Balarílà ng Wikang Pambansâ'' ( en, Grammar of the National Language) of grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced the Abakada script, Abakada alphabet. This alphabet consists of 20 letters and became the standard alphabet of the national language. The orthography as used by Tagalog would eventually influence and spread to the systems of writing used by other Philippine languages (which had been using variants of the Spanish-based system of writing). In 1987, the ABAKADA was dropped and in its place is the expanded Filipino alphabet.


Baybayin

Tagalog was written in an abugida (alphasyllabary) called
Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, ba ...

Baybayin
prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s and 14
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
s. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Javanese language, Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi. Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin script, Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule. There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables. A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the consonant without a following vowel was simply left out (for example, ''bundok'' being rendered as ''budo''), forcing the reader to use context when reading such words. Example:


Latin alphabet


Abecedario

Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called 'ABECEDARIO' (wikt:abecedario#English-alphabet, Spanish for "alphabet"). The additional letters from the 26-letter English alphabet are: ch, ll, ng, ñ, n͠g / ñg, and rr.


Abakada

When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ''ABAKADA'' in school grammar books called ''balarilà''. The only letter not in the English alphabet is ng.


Revised alphabet

In 1987, the Department of Education (Philippines), Department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English. The additional letters from the 26-letter English alphabet are: ñ, ng.


''ng'' and ''mga''

The Genitive case, genitive marker ''ng'' and the plural marker ''mga'' (e.g. ''Iyan ang mga damit ko.'' (Those are my clothes)) are abbreviations that are pronounced ''nang'' and ''mangá'' . ''Ng'', in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. ''Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko.'' She is the sibling ''of'' my mother) while ''nang'' usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent (equivalent to the suffix ''-ly'' in English adverbs), among other uses. * ''Nang si Hudas ay nadulás.''—When Judas Iscariot, Judas slipped. * ''Gumising siya nang maaga.''—He woke up early. * ''Gumalíng nang si Juan dahil nag-ensayo siya.''—Juan greatly improved because he practiced. In the first example, ''nang'' is used in lieu of the word ''noong'' (when; ''Noong si Hudas ay madulas''). In the second, ''nang'' describes that the person woke up (''gumising'') early (''maaga''); ''gumising nang maaga''. In the third, ''nang'' described up to what extent that Juan improved (''gumaling''), which is "greatly" (''nang ''). In the latter two examples, the ligature ''na'' and its variants ''-ng'' and ''-g'' may also be used (''Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising''; ''Gumaling na /Todong gumaling''). The longer ''nang'' may also have other uses, such as a Typographic ligature, ligature that joins a repeated word: *''Naghintáy sila nang naghintáy.''—They kept on waiting" (a closer calque: "They were waiting and waiting.")


''pô/hô'' and ''opò/ohò''

The words ''pô/hô'' and ''opò/ohò'' originated from the word "Panginoon." and "Poon." ("Lord."). It is a polite response to affirmative, Awon. Which later adapted as Oo from Cebuano. It is generally used when addressing elders or superiors such as bosses or teachers. "Pô" and "opò" are specifically used to denote a high level of respect when addressing older persons of close affinity like parents, relatives, teachers and family friends. "Hô" and "ohò" are generally used to politely address older neighbours, strangers, public officials, bosses and nannies, and may suggest a distance in societal relationship and respect determined by the addressee's social rank and not their age. However, "pô" and "opò" can be used in any case in order to express an elevation of respect. *Example: "''Pakitapon naman pô/ho yung basura.''" ("Please throw away the trash.") Used in the affirmative: *Ex: "''Gutóm ka na ba?" "Opò/Ohò''". ("Are you hungry yet?" "Yes.") ''Pô/Hô'' may also be used in negation. *Ex: "''Hindi ko pô/hô alam 'yan.''" ("I don't know that.")


Vocabulary and borrowed words

Tagalog vocabulary is mostly of native Austronesian or Tagalog origin, such as most of the words that end with the diphthongs, diphthong -iw, (e.g. giliw) and words that exhibit reduplication (e.g. halo-halo, patpat, etc.). Besides inherited cognates, this also accounts for innovations in Tagalog vocabulary, especially traditional ones within its dialects. Tagalog has also incorporated many Spanish and English loanwords; the necessity of which increases in more technical parlance. In precolonial times, Malay trade and creole languages, Trade Malay was widely known and spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, contributing a significant number of Malay vocabulary into the Tagalog language. Malay loanwords, identifiable or not, may often already be considered native as these have existed in the language before colonisation. Tagalog also includes loanwords from Languages of India, Indian languages (Sanskrit and Tamil language, Tamil, mostly through Malay), Chinese languages (mostly Hokkien, followed by
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Cantonese
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Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
, etc.), Japanese language, Japanese, Arabic and Persian language, Persian. Due to the colonial trade with Mexico using the Manila galleons from the 16th to the 19th centuries, some words from several Amerindian languages such as Nahuatl (Aztec) and Taino were introduced to Tagalog. English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, butterfly knife, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang-ylang, and yaya. Some of these loanwords are more often used in Philippine English. Tagalog has contributed several words to Spanish language in the Philippines, Philippine Spanish, like ''barangay'' (from ''balan͠gay,'' meaning ''barrio''), the ''abacá'', ''cogon'', ''palay'', ''dalaga'' etc.


Tagalog words of foreign origin


Cognates with other Philippine languages


Austronesian comparison chart

Below is a chart of Tagalog and a number of other Austronesian languages Comparative linguistics, comparing thirteen words.


Religious literature

Religious literature remains one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. The first Bible in Tagalog, then called ''Ang Biblia'' ("the Bible") and now called ''Ang Dating Biblia'' ("the Old Bible"), was published in 1905. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into modern Tagalog. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been in circulation. There are at least four circulating Tagalog translations of the Bible * the ''Magandang Balita Biblia'' (a parallel translation of the ''Good News Bible''), which is the Ecumenism, ecumenical version * the ''Bibliya ng Sambayanang Pilipino'' * the 1905 ''Ang Biblia'', used more by Protestants * the ''Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan'' (''New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures''), exclusive to the Jehovah’s Witnesses When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into Vernacular, vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. The Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982. Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941 and ''The Watchtower'' (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1950s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog. The revised bible edition, the ''New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures,'' was released in Tagalog on 2019 and it is distributed without charge both printed an
online versions
Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgy, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenism, ecumenical.


Examples


Lord's Prayer

In Tagalog, the Lord's Prayer is known by its incipit, ''Amá Namin'' (literally, "Our Father").


Universal Declaration of Human Rights

This is Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (''Pángkalahatáng Pagpapahayag ng Karapatáng Pantao'')


Numbers

Numbers (''mga bilang'') in Tagalog follow two systems. The first consists of native Tagalog words and the other are Spanish loanwords. (This may be compared to other East Asian languages, except with the second set of numbers borrowed from Spanish instead of Chinese.) For example, when a person refers to the number "seven", it can be translated into Tagalog as "''pito''" or "''siyete''" (Spanish: ''siete'').


Months and days

Months and days in Tagalog are also localised forms of Spanish months and days. "Month" in Tagalog is ''buwán'' (also the word for moon) and "day" is ''araw'' (the word also means sun). Unlike Spanish, however, months and days in Tagalog are always capitalised.


Time

Time expressions in Tagalog are also Tagalized forms of the corresponding Spanish. "Time" in Tagalog is ''panahón'' or ''oras''.


Common phrases

*Pronouns such as ''niyo'' (2nd person plural) and ''nila'' (3rd person plural) are used on a single 2nd person in polite or formal language. See Tagalog grammar.


Proverbs

''Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinánggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan''. (José Rizal)
One who knows not how to look back from whence he came, will never get to where he is going. ''Unang kagat, tinapay pa rin.'' It means :"First bite, still bread." or "All fluff no substance." ''Tao ka nang humarap, bilang tao kitang haharapin.''
(A proverb in Southern Tagalog that made people aware the significance of sincerity in Tagalog communities. It says, "As a human you reach me, I treat you as a human and never act as a traitor.") ''Hulí man daw (raw) at magalíng, nakáhahábol pa rin.''
If one is behind but capable, one will still be able to catch up. ''Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.''
Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never one who has just awakened. ''Aanhín pa ang damó kung patáy na ang kabayo?''
What use is the grass if the horse is already dead? ''Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buóng katawán.''
The pain in the pinkie is felt by the whole body.
(In a group, if one goes down, the rest follow.) ''Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.''
Regret is always in the end. ''Pagkáhabà-habà man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.''
The procession may stretch on and on, but it still ends up at the church.
(In romance: refers to how certain people are destined to be married. In general: refers to how some things are inevitable, no matter how long you try to postpone it.) ''Kung 'dî mádaán sa santóng dasalan, daanin sa santóng paspasan.''
If it cannot be got through holy prayer, get it through blessed force.
(In romance and courting: ''santóng paspasan'' literally means 'holy speeding' and is a euphemism for sexual intercourse. It refers to the two styles of courting by Filipino boys: one is the traditional, protracted, restrained manner favored by older generations, which often featured Harana (serenade), serenades and manual labor for the girl's family; the other is upfront seduction, which may lead to a slap on the face or a pregnancy out of wedlock. The second conclusion is known as ''pikot'' or what Western cultures would call a 'shotgun marriage'. This proverb is also applied in terms of diplomacy and negotiation.)


See also

*Dambana *Abakada alphabet *Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino *Filipino alphabet *Old Tagalog *Filipino orthography *Tagalog Wikipedia


References


Further reading

*


External links


Tagalog Dictionary



Tagalog Lessons Dictionary

Tagalog Quotes

Patama Quotes

Tagalog Translate

Tagalog Forum
* Kaipuleohone]
archive of Tagalog
{{DEFAULTSORT:Tagalog language Tagalog language, Languages attested from the 10th century Languages of the Philippines Central Philippine languages Agglutinative languages Subject–verb–object languages Verb–object–subject languages Verb–subject–object languages