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The Syrian opposition ( ar, المعارضة السورية ', ) is the political structure represented by the
Syrian National Coalition The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
and associated Syrian anti-government groups with certain territorial control as an alternative Syrian government. The Syrian opposition evolved since the beginning of the Syrian conflict from groups calling for the overthrow of the Assad government in
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and who have opposed its Ba'athist government. Prior to the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, the term "opposition" ( ar, المعارضة ) had been used to refer to traditional political actors, for example the
National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change The National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change (NCC), or National Coordination Body for Democratic Change (NCB) ( ar, هيئة التنسيق الوطنية لقوى التغيير الديمقراطي ), is a Syrian bloc chaired by ...
; that is, groups and individuals who have had a history of dissidence against the Syrian state. The first opposition structures to form in the Syrian uprising were local protest-organizing committees. These formed in April 2011, as protesters graduated from spontaneous protests to protests organized by meetings beforehand. The Syrian uprising phase, from March 2011 until the start of August 2011, was characterized by a consensus for nonviolent struggle among the uprising's participants. Thus the conflict could not have been yet characterized as a "civil war", until army units defected in response to government reprisals against the protest movement. This occurred 2012, allowing the conflict to meet the definition of "civil war." Opposition groups in Syria took a new turn in late 2011, during the
Syrian Civil War#REDIRECT Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأَهْلِيَّةُ السُّورِيَّةُ, ''al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah as-sūrīyah'') is an ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria fought between the Syrian Ara ...

Syrian Civil War
, as they united to form the
Syrian National Council The Syrian National Council (SNC; ar, المجلس الوطني السوري, ''al-Majlis al-Waṭanī as-Sūri'', french: Conseil national syrien), sometimes known as the Syrian National Transitional Council or the National Council of Syria, ...
(SNC), which has received significant international support and recognition as a partner for dialogue. The Syrian National Council was recognized or supported in some capacity by at least 17
member states of the United Nations Member may refer to: * Military jury A United States military "jury" (or "Members", in military parlance) serves a function similar to an American civilian jury, but with several notable differences. Only a Courts-martial in the United States, Ge ...

member states of the United Nations
, with three of those (France, United Kingdom and the United States) being permanent members of the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...

Security Council
. A broader opposition umbrella group, the
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
, was formed in November 2012 and has gained recognition as the "legitimate representative of the Syrian people" by the
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf ( ar, مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, ), is a Regional integration, regional in ...
(CCASG) and as a "representative of aspirations of Syrian people" by the
Arab League The Arab League ( ar, الجامعة العربية, '), formally the League of Arab States ( ar, جامعة الدول العربية, '), is a regional organization in the Arab world, which is located in Africa and Western Asia. The Arab L ...

Arab League
. The Syrian National Coalition was subsequently considered to take the seat of Syria in the Arab League, with the representative of
Bashar Al-Assad's
Bashar Al-Assad's
government suspended that year. The Syrian National Council, initially a part of the Syrian National Coalition, withdrew on 20 January 2014 in protest at the decision of the coalition to attend the Geneva talks. Despite tensions, the Syrian National Council retained a degree of ties with the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. Syrian opposition groups held reconciliation talks in Astana, Kazakhstan in October 2015. In late 2015, the
Syrian Interim Government The Syrian Interim Government is an alternative government in Syria, formed by the umbrella opposition group, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. The interim government indirectly controls some areas of the co ...
relocated its headquarters to the city of
Azaz Azaz ( ar, أَعْزَاز, ʾAʿzāz) is a city in northwest Syria, roughly north-northwest of Aleppo )), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map ...

Azaz
in North Syria and began to execute some authority in the area. In 2017, the opposition government in the Idlib Governorate was challenged by the rival
Syrian Salvation Government The Syrian Salvation Government is a de facto alternative government of the Syrian opposition in Idlib Governorate, formed in early November 2017. There followed weeks of conflict between the Syrian Salvation Government (SSG) and the Syrian Interi ...
, backed by the Islamist faction
Hayat Tahrir al-Sham Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) (, Romanization of Arabic, transliteration: ', "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham, is an active Salafist jihadist, Sunni Islamist ...
(HTS). A July 2015 ORB International poll of 1,365 adults across all of Syria's 14 governorates found that about 26 percent of the population supported the Syrian opposition (41 percent in the areas it controlled), compared to 47 percent who supported the Syrian Arab Republic's government (73 percent in the areas it controlled), 35 percent who supported the
Al-Nusra Front Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra ( ar, جبهة النصرة لاهل الشام, Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahl ish-Sham lit. ''Front of the Supporters of the People of Syria/the Levant''), known as Jabhat Fatah al-Sham ( ar, جبهة فتح ال ...
(58 percent in the areas it controlled), and 22 percent who supported the
Islamic State , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al-Qaeda , 3 = 13 October 2006: Declaration of an Islamic ...
(71 percent in the areas it controlled). A March 2018 ORB International Poll with a similar method and sample size found that support had changed to 40% Syrian government, 40% Syrian opposition (in general), 15%
Syrian Democratic Forces The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF); ku, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk (HSD); Arabic: قوات سوريا الديمقراطية (قسد); syc, ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ, translit=Ḥaylawotho d'Suriya Demoqraṭoyto) is the ...
, 10% al-Nusra Front, and 4% Islamic State (crossover may exist between supporters of factions).


Background

Syria has been an independent republic since 1946 after the expulsion of the
French forces The French Armed Forces (french: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on ...
. For decades, the country was partially stable with a series of coups until the
Ba'ath Party The Arab Socialist Baʽath Party ( ar, حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي ' ) was a political party founded in Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُ ...
seized power in Syria in 1963 after a ''coup d'état''. The head of state since 1971 has been a member of the al-Assad family, beginning with
Hafez al-Assad Hafez al-Assad ', , (6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and military officer who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. He was also Prime Minister of Syria from 1970 to 1971, as well as regional secretary ...
(19712000). Syria was under
emergency law A state of emergency or emergency powers is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of their citizens. A government can decla ...
from the time of the 1963 Syrian coup d'état until 21 April 2011, when it was rescinded by
Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
, Hafez's eldest surviving son and the current
President of Syria The president of Syria, officially the President of the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: رئيس سوريا), is the head of state of the Syria, Syrian Arab Republic. He is vested with sweeping powers that may be delegated, at his sole discretion, ...
. As the
revolutionary wave A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is one series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time-span. In many cases, past revolutions and revolutionary waves have inspired current ones, or an initial revolution has ...
commonly referred to as the
Arab Spring The Arab Spring ( ar, الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low stand ...
began to take shape in early 2011, Syrian protesters began consolidating opposition councils.


History

The Istanbul Meeting for Syria, the first convention of the Syrian opposition, took place on 26 April 2011, during the Syrian civil uprising. There followed the
Antalya Conference for Change in Syria The Conference for Change in Syria ( tr, Suriye'de Değişim Konferansı), or Antalya Opposition Conference, was a three-day convention (meeting), conference of representatives of the Syrian opposition held from 31 May until 3 June 2011 in Antalya ...
or ''Antalya Opposition Conference'', a three-day
conference A conference is a meeting A meeting is when two or more people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or sel ...
of representatives of the Syrian opposition held from 31 May until 3 June 2011 in
Antalya Antalya (, from grc, Ἀττάλεια) is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balka ...

Antalya
, Turkey. Organized by Ammar al-Qurabi's ''National Organization for Human Rights in Syria'' and financed by the wealthy Damascene Sanqar family, it led to a final statement refusing compromise or reform solutions, and to the election of a 31-member leadership. After the Antalya conference, a follow-up meeting took place two days later in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
, then another gathering in Paris that was addressed by Bernard Henri Levy. It took a number of further meetings in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
and
Doha Doha ( ar, الدوحة, ad-Dawḥa or ''ad-Dōḥa'') is the capital city, capital and most populous city of Qatar. It has a population of 2,382,000 (2018). The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, Persian gulf in the east of the ...

Doha
before yet another meeting on 23 August 2011 in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
set up a permanent transitional council in form of the
Syrian National Council The Syrian National Council (SNC; ar, المجلس الوطني السوري, ''al-Majlis al-Waṭanī as-Sūri'', french: Conseil national syrien), sometimes known as the Syrian National Transitional Council or the National Council of Syria, ...
.


Political groups

The Syrian opposition does not have a definitive political structure. In December 2015, members of the Syrian opposition convened in
Riyadh Riyadh ( ar, الرياض, 'ar-Riyāḍ, Literal translation, lit.: 'The Gardens' Najdi Arabic, Najdi pronunciation: ) is the capital of Saudi Arabia and the largest city on the Arabian Peninsula. Located in the center of the An Nafud, an-Naf ...

Riyadh
, Saudi Arabia: 34 groups attended the convention, which aimed to produce a unified delegation for negotiations with the Syrian government. Notable groups present included: * the
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
, which supported the implementation of the 2012 Geneva Communique, which calls for the establishment of a transitional governing body in Syria * the
National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change The National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change (NCC), or National Coordination Body for Democratic Change (NCB) ( ar, هيئة التنسيق الوطنية لقوى التغيير الديمقراطي ), is a Syrian bloc chaired by ...
, which called for negotiations on a peaceful transition * armed groups: **
Jaysh al-Islam ) , successor= , allies= * (until 2018) * Free Syrian Army * Ahrar al-Sham * al-Rahman Legion (sometimes) *1st Brigade of Damascus (sometimes) *Al-Nusra Front (formerly) * Saraya Ahl al-Sham * Aknaf Bait al-Maqdis , opponents= *Image:Syria Armed ...
**
Ahrar al-Sham Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya ( ar-at, حركة أحرار الشام الإسلامية, Ḥarakat Aḥrāru š-Šām al-Islāmiyah, lit=Islamic Movement of the Free Men of the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large ...
** the Southern Front The December 2015 convention notably did not include: * the Kurdish PYD party and its affiliates * Salafist armed groups such as
Al-Nusra Front Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra ( ar, جبهة النصرة لاهل الشام, Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahl ish-Sham lit. ''Front of the Supporters of the People of Syria/the Levant''), known as Jabhat Fatah al-Sham ( ar, جبهة فتح ال ...
.


National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

The
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
is a coalition of opposition groups and individuals, mostly exilic, who support the Syrian revolution side and oppose the Assad government ruling Syria. It formed on 11 November 2012 at a conference of opposition groups and individuals held in
Doha Doha ( ar, الدوحة, ad-Dawḥa or ''ad-Dōḥa'') is the capital city, capital and most populous city of Qatar. It has a population of 2,382,000 (2018). The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, Persian gulf in the east of the ...

Doha
,
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares it ...

Qatar
. It has relations with other opposition organizations such as the Syrian National Council, the previous iteration of an exilic political body attempting to represent the grassroots movement; the union of the two was planned, but has failed to realize. Moderate Islamic preacher
Moaz al-Khatib Ahmad Moaz Al-Khatib Al-Hasani ( ar, أحمد معاذ الخطيب الحسني, born 1960) is a former president of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces. He is also a former imam of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascu ...
, who had protested on the Syrian street in the early nonviolent phase of the uprising, served a term as the president of the coalition, but soon resigned his post, frustrated with the gap between the body and the grassroots of the uprising inside Syria.
Riad Seif Riad Seif ( ar, رياض سيف; born 25 November 1946) is a Syrian political dissident and prominent businessman who founded and led the Forum for National Dialogue. Seif was elected to the Parliament of Syria in 1994 as an independent and agai ...
and
Suheir Atassi Suheir al-Atassi ( ar, سهير الأتاسي, Suhair al-ʾAtāsī; born 1971) is the leading female secular activist in the Syrian opposition, and co-vice-president of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces between ...
, both of whom had also protested on the street in Syria early in the uprising, were elected as vice presidents. Mustafa Sabbagh is the coalition's secretary-general. Notable members of the Coalition include: * the
Assyrian Democratic Organization Assyrian Democratic Organization (ADO), ( syr, ܡܛܟܣܬܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܬܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ; ar, المنظمة الآثورية الديمقراطية) also known as "Mtakasta/Mtakasto", founded in Syria in 1957, is the oldest Assyrian people, ...
: a party representing
Assyrians in Syria Assyrians in Syria ( syr, ܐܬܘܪܝܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ, ar, الآشوريون في سوريا) are an ethnic and linguistic minority that are Indigenous peoples, indigenous to northeast Syria (known in Syriac as ''Gozarto''). Syrian-Assyrians are p ...
and long repressed by the Assad government, it has participated in opposition structures since the beginning of the conflict. Abdul-Ahad Astepho is a member of the SNC.


Syrian National Council

The
Syrian National Council The Syrian National Council (SNC; ar, المجلس الوطني السوري, ''al-Majlis al-Waṭanī as-Sūri'', french: Conseil national syrien), sometimes known as the Syrian National Transitional Council or the National Council of Syria, ...
(''al-
Majlis , ''Mejlis'' ( ar, مجلس, pl. '), or ''Majles'' ( fa, مجلس) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...

Majlis
al-Waṭanī as-Sūri'') sometimes known as ''SNC'', the ''Syrian National Transitional Council'' or the ''National Council of Syria'', is a Syrian opposition coalition, based in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
(
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
), formed in August 2011 during the Syrian civil uprising against the government of . Initially, the council denied seeking to play the role of a
government in exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a Sovereign state, country or Federated state, semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another ...
, but this changed a few months later when violence in Syria intensified. The Syrian National Council seeks the end of Bashar al-Assad's rule and the establishment of a modern, civil,
democratic state Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...
. The SNC National Charter lists
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
,
judicial independence Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institut ...
,
press freedom Press commonly refers to: * Pressure, or the act of pressing * Printing press, commonly called "the press" * Print media, commonly called "the press" after the printing press Press may also refer to: People * Press (surname), a family name of Eng ...
,
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
and political pluralism as its guiding principles. In November 2012 the Council agreed to unite with several other opposition groups to form the
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
, with the SNC having 22 out of 60 seats. The Council withdrew from the Coalition on 20 January 2014 in protest at the decision of the Coalition to attend talks in Geneva. Notable members of the Council include: * the
Syrian Democratic People's Party The Syrian Democratic People's Party ( ar-at, حزب الشعب الديمقراطي السوري, Hizb Al-Sha'ab Al-Dimuqratiy Al-Suriy) is a centre-left, democratic opposition party in Syria. It is a member of the Syrian opposition, a member of ...
, a socialist party which played a "key role" in forming the SNC. The Party's leader
George Sabra George Sabra ( ar, جورج صبرة, born 11 July 1947) is a member of the Syrian Democratic People's Party. He was elected president of the Syrian National Council, the main opposition group in Syria, on 9 November 2012 and later was acting presi ...
(a secularist born into a Christian family) is the official spokesman of the SNC, and also ran for chairman. * the Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution, a Syrian opposition group supporting the overthrow of Bashar al-Assad's government. It grants local opposition groups representation in its national organization. * the
Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement The Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement ( tr, Suriye Demokratik Türkmen Hareketi; ar, الحركة التركمانية الديمقراطية) is one of the two major opposition movements of Syrian Turkmens. Headquartered in Istanbul, it emerge ...
: An opposition party, constituted in Istanbul on 21 March 2012, of
Syrian Turkmen Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans, Turkish Syrians, or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) ( ar, تركمان سوريا, tr, Suriye Türkmenleri or ), are Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِي ...
s. Ziyad Hasan leads the Syrian Democratic Turkmen Movement.


National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change

The
National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change The National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change (NCC), or National Coordination Body for Democratic Change (NCB) ( ar, هيئة التنسيق الوطنية لقوى التغيير الديمقراطي ), is a Syrian bloc chaired by ...
(''NCC''), or ''National Coordination Body for Democratic Change'' (''NCB''), is a Syrian bloc chaired by Hassan Abdel Azim and consisting of 13 left-wing political parties and "independent political and youth activists".
Reuters Reuters (, ) is an international news organisation owned by Thomson Reuters. It employs around 2,500 journalists and 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters is one of the largest news agencies in the world. The agency w ...
has defined the committee as the internal opposition's main umbrella group. The NCC initially had several political parties as members, but all except for the Democratic Union Party left in October 2011 to join the
Kurdish National Council The Kurdish National Council (KNC, , ENKS; ar, المجلس الوطني الكوردي ''al-Majlis al-Waṭaniyy Al-Kurdi'') is a Kurds in Syria, Syrian Kurdish political party. While the KNC had initially more international support than the ...
. Some opposition activists have accused the NCC of being a "
front organization A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agency, intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, terrorist organizations, secret society, secret societies, banned organizations, religi ...
" for 's government and have denounced some of its members as ex-government insiders. The NCC generally has poor relationships with other Syrian political opposition groups. The
Syrian Revolution General Commission Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) ( ar, الهيئة العامة للثورة السورية) is a Syrian coalition of 40 Syrian opposition groups to unite their efforts during the Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْح ...
, the
Local Coordination Committees of Syria The Local Coordination Committees of Syria ( ar, لجان التنسيق المحلية في سوريا: ''LCCSyria'' or ''LCCs'') are a network of local groups that organise and report on protests as part of the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising, Syria ...
, and the Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution oppose the NCC calls to dialogue with the Syrian government. In September 2012 the
Syrian National Council The Syrian National Council (SNC; ar, المجلس الوطني السوري, ''al-Majlis al-Waṭanī as-Sūri'', french: Conseil national syrien), sometimes known as the Syrian National Transitional Council or the National Council of Syria, ...
(SNC) reaffirmed that despite broadening its membership, it would not join with "currents close to NCC". Despite the NCC recognizing the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
(FSA) on 23 September 2012, the FSA has dismissed the NCC as an extension of the government, stating that "this opposition is just the other face of the same coin". Notable former members of the Committee have included: * the Syriac Union Party, a party representing the interests of
Syriac Christians Syriac Christianity ( syr, ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / ''Mšiḥoyuṯo Suryoyto'' or ''Mšiḥāyūṯā Surāyṯā'') represents a distinctive branch of Eastern Christianity, whose formative Christian theology, theological writings and t ...

Syriac Christians
and affiliated with the Syriac Union Party in Lebanon (itself part of the anti-Assad
March 14 Alliance The March 14 Alliance ( ar, تحالف 14 آذار, taḥāluf 14 adhār}), named after the date of the Cedar Revolution The Cedar Revolution ( ar, ثورة الأرز, ''thawrat al-arz'') or Independence Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الا ...
). It has taken part in numerous opposition demonstrations, including storming the Syrian embassy in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
in August 2012. It later left the NCC and joined the
Syrian Democratic Council The Syrian Democratic Council ( ku, Meclîsa Sûriya Demokratîk, MSD; ar, مجلس سوريا الديمقراطية; syc, ܡܘܬܒܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ, translit=Mawtbo d'Suriya Demoqraṭoyto) is the political wing of the Syr ...
in late 2015. * the Democratic Union Party, the main Kurdish party in Syria and the dominant party in the ''de facto''
Democratic Federation of Northern Syria The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (NES), also known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria. It consists of self-governing Regions of North and East Syria, sub-regions in the areas of Afrin Region, ...

Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
. It later left the NCC and joined the Syrian Democratic Council in late 2015.


Syrian Democratic Council

The Syrian Democratic Council was established on 10 December 2015 in
al-Malikiyah Al-Malikiyah ( ar, ٱلْمَالِكِيَّة, al-Mālikīyah, ku, Dêrik, syc, ܕܪܝܟ}) is a small Syrian city and the center of an administrative Al-Malikiyah District, district belonging to Al-Hasakah Governorate. The district constitute ...

al-Malikiyah
. It was co-founded by prominent human rights activist
Haytham MannaHaytham Manna (al-Awdat) is a Syrian people, Syrian writer; he spent three decades as a human rights activist who helped create and became spokesperson for the Arab Commission for Human Rights (ACHR). In 2011, during the early stages of the Syrian ci ...
and was intended as the political wing of the
Syrian Democratic Forces The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF); ku, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk (HSD); Arabic: قوات سوريا الديمقراطية (قسد); syc, ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ, translit=Ḥaylawotho d'Suriya Demoqraṭoyto) is the ...
. The council includes more than a dozen blocs and coalitions that support
federalism Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Maga ...
in Syria, including the
Movement for a Democratic Society The Movement for a Democratic Society ( ku, Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk, TEV-DEM, ar, حركة المجتمع الديمقراطي, syc, ܙܘܥܐ ܕܟܢܫܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܐ, Zaw'o d'Kensho Demoqraṭoyo) is a left-wing politics, left-wing umb ...
, the
Kurdish National Alliance in Syria The Kurdish National Alliance in Syria ( ku, Hevbendiya Niştimanî a Kurdî li Sûriyê, HNKS; ar, التحالف الوطني الكردي في سوريا, at-Taḥāluf al-Waṭanī al-Kurdi fi Sūriyā) is a Syrian Kurdish coalition formed b ...
, the
Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement The Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement ( ar, قيم مواطنة حقوق), QMH (from the English transliteration ''qiyyam, muwatana, huqouq''), also known as ''Teyar El-Qemih'' (from the Arabic acronym), and translated as Wheat Wave Movement, i ...
, and since September 2016 the Syria's Tomorrow Movement. The last group is led by former National Coalition president and Syrian National Council
Ahmad Jarba Ahmad Jarba ( ar, أحمد عوينان العاصي الجربا), born in the city of Qamishli in 1969, is a Syrian opposition member and former political prisoner. He is a public opponent of Bashar al-Assad and between 6 July 2013 and 11 July 2 ...
. In August 2016 the SDC opened a public office in
al-Hasakah Al-Hasakah ( ar, ٱلْحَسَكَة, al-Ḥasaka, ku, حەسیچە Hesekê, syr, ܚܣܝܟܐ), is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate Al-Hasakah Governorate ( ar, محافظة الحسكة, Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, syc, ܗܘܦܪ ...
. The Syrian Democratic Council is considered an "alternative opposition" bloc. Its leaders included former NCC members such as Riad Darar, a "key figure" in the Syrian opposition, and
Haytham MannaHaytham Manna (al-Awdat) is a Syrian people, Syrian writer; he spent three decades as a human rights activist who helped create and became spokesperson for the Arab Commission for Human Rights (ACHR). In 2011, during the early stages of the Syrian ci ...
, who resigned from the SDC in March 2016 in protest of its announcement of the . The SDC was rejected by some other opposition groups due to its system of federalism. The Syrian Democratic Council was invited to participate in the international Geneva III peace talks on Syria in March 2016. However, it rejected the invitations because no representatives of the
Movement for a Democratic Society The Movement for a Democratic Society ( ku, Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk, TEV-DEM, ar, حركة المجتمع الديمقراطي, syc, ܙܘܥܐ ܕܟܢܫܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܐ, Zaw'o d'Kensho Demoqraṭoyo) is a left-wing politics, left-wing umb ...
, led by the Democratic Union Party, were invited.


Other groups affiliated with Syrian opposition

*
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
: Islamist party founded in 1930. The brotherhood was behind the
Islamic uprising in Syria The Islamist uprising in Syria comprised a series of revolts and armed insurgencies by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood of Syria, Muslim Brotherhood from 1976 until 1982. The uprising was aimed against the authority of ...
between 1976 until 1982. The party is banned in Syria and membership became a
capital offence Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

capital offence
in 1980. The Muslim Brotherhood has issued statements of support for the Syrian uprising. Other sources have described the group as having "risen from the ashes", "resurrected itself" to be a dominant force in the uprising. The Muslim Brotherhood has constantly lost influence with militants on the ground, who have defected from the Brotherhood affiliated
Shields of the Revolution Council The Shields of the Revolution Council ( ar, هيئة دروع الثورة, Hayat Duru al-Thawra) is a Syrian FSA-rebel alliance affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood of Syria. President Bashar al-Assad has labeled the Syrian branch of the Muslim ...
to the Islamic Front. * Coalition of Secular and Democratic Syrians: nucleus of a Syrian
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
and democratic opposition that appeared during the Syrian civil war. It came about through the union of a dozen Muslim and Christian, Arab and
Kurd Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the ...

Kurd
parties, who called the minorities of Syria to support the fight against the government of . The Coalition has also called for military intervention in Syria, under the form of a
no-fly zone A no-fly zone, also known as a no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone (AEZ), is a territory or area established by a military power over which certain aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support ...
similar to that of
Kosovo Kosovo, or ; sr-Cyrl, Косово officially the Republic of Kosovo,; sr, / is a partially recognised state in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a ...

Kosovo
, with a safe zone and cities. The president of the coalition, who is also a member of the SNC, is . *
Syrian Turkmen Assembly The Syrian Turkmen Assembly ( tr, Suriye Türkmen Meclisi, ar, المجلس السوري التركماني) is a coalition of Syrian Turkmen political parties and groups representing Syrian Turkmens in the Syrian National Council and the Nationa ...
: A recently formed assembly of
Syrian Turkmens Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans, Turkish Syrians, or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) ( ar, تركمان سوريا, tr, Suriye Türkmenleri or ), are Syrian citizens of Turkish people, Turkish origin who mainly trace ...
which constitutes a coalition of Turkmen parties and groups in Syria. It is against the partition of Syria after the collapse of Baath government. The common decision of Syrian Turkmen Assembly is: ''"Regardless of any ethnic or religious identity, a future in which everybody can be able to live commonly under the identity of Syrian is targeted in the future of Syria."'' **
Syrian Turkmen National Bloc The Syria Turkmen Bloc ( tr, Suriye Türkmen Kitlesi) or Syrian Turkmen National Bloc ( ar, الكتلة الوطنية التركمانية السورية), is one of the two major opposition movements of Syrian Turkmens. The party is headed by Yu ...
: An opposition party of Syrian Turkmens, which was founded in February 2012. The chairman of the political party is Yusuf Molla. *
Local Coordination Committees of Syria The Local Coordination Committees of Syria ( ar, لجان التنسيق المحلية في سوريا: ''LCCSyria'' or ''LCCs'') are a network of local groups that organise and report on protests as part of the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising, Syria ...
: Network of local protest groups that organise and report on protests as part of the Syrian civil war, founded in 2011. , the network supported
civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the co ...
and opposed local armed resistance and international military intervention as methods of opposing the Syrian government. Key people are activists
Razan Zaitouneh Razan Zaitouneh (or Zeitunah; ar, رزان زيتونة; born 29 April 1977) is a Syrian human rights lawyer and civil society activist. Actively involved in the 2011 Syrian uprising, Syrian uprising, she went into hiding after being accused by t ...

Razan Zaitouneh
and
Suhair al-Atassi Suheir al-Atassi ( ar, سهير الأتاسي, Suhair al-ʾAtāsī; born 1971) is the leading female secular activist in the Syrian opposition, and co-vice-president of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces between ...
. * Syrian National Democratic Council: formed in Paris on 13 November 2011 during the Syrian civil war by Rifaat al-Assad, uncle of Bashar al-Assad. Rifaat al-Assad has expressed the wish to replace Bashar al-Assad with the authoritarian state apparatus intact, and to guarantee the safety of government members, while also making vague allusions to a "transition". Rifaat has his own political organisation, the United National Democratic Rally. *
Syrian Revolution General Commission Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) ( ar, الهيئة العامة للثورة السورية) is a Syrian coalition of 40 Syrian opposition groups to unite their efforts during the Syrian civil war The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْح ...
: Syrian coalition of 40 Syrian opposition groups to unite their efforts during the Syrian civil war that was announced on 19 August 2011 in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
. * Hizb ut-Tahrir


Governance


Syrian Interim Government

At a conference held in Istanbul on 19 March 2013 members of the National Coalition elected Ghassan Hitto as prime minister of an interim government for Syria, the Syrian Interim Government (SIG). Hitto has announced that a technical government will be formed which will be led by between 10 and 12 ministers, with the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
choosing the Minister of Defense. The SIG is based in Turkey. It has been the primary civilian authority throughout most of opposition-held Syria. Its system of administrative local councils operate services such as schools and hospitals in these areas, as well as the Free Aleppo University. By late 2017, it presided over 12 provincial councils and over 400 elected local councils. It also operates a major border crossing between Syria and Turkey, which generates an estimated $1 million revenue each month. It is internationally recognized by the European Union and the United States, among others. It maintains diplomatic ties with some non-FSA rebel groups, such as
Ahrar al-Sham Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya ( ar-at, حركة أحرار الشام الإسلامية, Ḥarakat Aḥrāru š-Šām al-Islāmiyah, lit=Islamic Movement of the Free Men of the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large ...
, but is in conflict with the more extreme Tahrir al-Sham, which is one of the largest armed groups in Idlib Governorate.


Syrian Salvation Government

The
Syrian Salvation Government The Syrian Salvation Government is a de facto alternative government of the Syrian opposition in Idlib Governorate, formed in early November 2017. There followed weeks of conflict between the Syrian Salvation Government (SSG) and the Syrian Interi ...
is an alternative government of the Syrian opposition seated within Idlib Governorate, which was formed by the General Syrian Conference in September 2017. The domestic group has appointed Mohammed al-Sheikh as head of the Government with 11 more ministers for Interior, Justice, Endowment, Higher Education, Education, Health, Agriculture, Economy, Social Affairs and Displaced, Housing and Reconstruction and Local Administration and Services. Al-Sheikh, in a press conference held at the Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing has also announced the formation of four commissions: Inspection Authority, Prisoners and missing Affairs, Planning and Statistics Authority, and the Union of Trade Unions. The founder of the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
, Col. Riad al-Asaad, was appointed as deputy prime minister for military affairs. The SSG is associated with Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) and not recognised by the rest of the opposition, which is in conflict with HTS. There is a sharp ideological divide between the two competing opposition civil authorities: The SIG espouses secular, moderate values and regularly participates in international peace talks; the SSG enforces a strict interpretation of Islamic law and stringently rejects talks with the Syrian regime.


Territorial control

Various Syrian opposition groups have at least some presence in seven Syrian governorates, though none is fully under the control of the entity. Governorates with partial opposition control include: Governorates under partial control of opposition groups aligned with the Syrian Interim Government: *Latakia Governorate - Control on Eastern areas next to Idlib. *Idlib Governorate - *Hama Governorate - Limited Control on Northern areas next to Idlib. *Aleppo Governorate *Hasakah Governorate *Raqqa Governorate Governorates under partial control of opposition groups aligned with the Syrian Democratic Council: *Hasakah Governorate *Raqqa Governorate *Aleppo Governorate *Deir ez-Zor Governorate


Turkish-Controlled territories and territories controlled by the Syrian Interim Government

In April 2015, after the Second Battle of Idlib, the interim seat of the Syrian Interim Government was proposed to be Idlib, in the Idlib Governorate. However, this move was rejected by the al-Nusra Front and
Ahrar al-Sham Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya ( ar-at, حركة أحرار الشام الإسلامية, Ḥarakat Aḥrāru š-Šām al-Islāmiyah, lit=Islamic Movement of the Free Men of the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large ...
-led Army of Conquest, which between them controlled Idlib. According to the Syrian National Coalition, in 2017 there were 404 opposition-aligned local councils operating in villages, towns, and cities controlled by rebel forces. In 2016, the Syrian Interim Government became established within the Turkish occupation of northern Syria, Turkish Controlled areas.


Territories governed by the Salvation Government

The Salvation Government extends authority mostly in the Idlib Governorate.


Recognition and foreign relations

The foreign relations of the Syrian Opposition refers to the external relations of the self-proclaimed oppositional Syrian Arab Republic, which sees itself as the genuine Syria. The region of control of Syrian opposition affiliated groups is not well defined. The Turkish government recognizes Syrian opposition as the genuine Syrian Arab Republic and hosts several of its institutions on its territory. The seat of Syria in the Arab League is reserved for the Syrian opposition since 2014, but not populated. The opposition as a whole is characterised as "terrorist" by Iran, Russia and Syria.


Military forces

Initially, the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
was perceived as the ultimate military force of the Syrian Opposition, but with the collapse of many FSA factions and emergence of powerful Islamist groups, it became clear to the opposition that only a cooperation of secular military forces and moderate Islamists could form a sufficient coalition to battle both the Syrian Government forces and radical Jihadists such as ISIL and in some cases al-Nusra Front. In 2014, the military forces associated with the Syrian Opposition were defined by the Syrian Revolutionary Command Council, which in turn was mainly relying on the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
(with links to
Syrian National Coalition The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces ( ar, الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) ( ar, الائتلاف ال ...
) and the Islamic Front (Syria). Members of the Syrian Revolutionary Command Council: *
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
: Paramilitary that has been active during the Syrian civil war. Composed mainly of defected Syrian Armed Forces personnel, its formation was announced on 29 July 2011 in a video released on the Internet by a uniformed group of deserters from the Syrian military who called upon members of the Syrian army to defect and join them. The leader of the group, who identified himself as Colonel Riad al-Asaad, announced that the Free Syrian Army would work with demonstrators to bring down the system, and declared that all security forces attacking civilians are justified targets. It has also been reported that many former Syrian Consulates are trying to band together a Free Syrian Navy from fishermen and defectors to secure the coast. **Syrian Turkmen Brigades: An armed opposition structure of Syrian Turkmens fighting against Syrian Armed Forces. It is also the military wing of Syrian Turkmen Assembly. It is led by Colonel Muhammad Awad and Ali Basher. **Revolutionary Commando Army - Free Syrian Army unit trained by, and politically very close too, the United States. It remains the last unit in the Al-Tanf area, and functions as the de-facto opposition government there. * Islamic Front: An Islamist rebel group formed in November 2013 and led by
Ahrar al-Sham Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya ( ar-at, حركة أحرار الشام الإسلامية, Ḥarakat Aḥrāru š-Šām al-Islāmiyah, lit=Islamic Movement of the Free Men of the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large ...
. It was always a loose alliance and was defunct by 2015. Other rebel fighting forces: *Syrian Islamic Liberation Front: The major rebel fighting coalition independent of the FSA in the period 2012–2013, including the moderate Islamist groups Suqour al-Sham, Al-Tawhid Brigade and
Jaysh al-Islam ) , successor= , allies= * (until 2018) * Free Syrian Army * Ahrar al-Sham * al-Rahman Legion (sometimes) *1st Brigade of Damascus (sometimes) *Al-Nusra Front (formerly) * Saraya Ahl al-Sham * Aknaf Bait al-Maqdis , opponents= *Image:Syria Armed ...
, deploying up to half the opposition's fighting force. It main members joined the Islamic Front in 2013. *Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army: A coalition of mainly Arab and Turkmen opposition fighters in Northern Syria, armed and backed by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
since May 2017, partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army in December 2017. *National Front for Liberation: A coalition of FSA groups in Idlib and NW Syria formed in early 2018 and backed by
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. *Syrian Liberation Front: An Islamist rebel group formed in early 2018 and including
Ahrar al-Sham Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya ( ar-at, حركة أحرار الشام الإسلامية, Ḥarakat Aḥrāru š-Šām al-Islāmiyah, lit=Islamic Movement of the Free Men of the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large ...
and the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement, the largest rebel fighting groups in NW Syria.


List of opposition figures

*Abdulrazak Eid, Syrian writer and thinker, participated in finding the Committees for the Civil Society in Syria, wrote the first draft of the Statement of 1000, and participated in drafting the Damascus Declaration, president of the national council of Damascus Declaration abroad. *Ammar Abdulhamid, leading Human-Rights Advocate, Founder of Tharwa Foundation, first Syrian to testify in front of American Congress 2006/2008, briefed Presidents of the United States, and called for Syria Revolution in 2006. *Aref Dalilah, prominent economist, professor, former member of Syrian Parliament and a member of the Damascus Declaration *Burhan Ghalioun, former head of the SNC *Riad al-Asaad, a leader in the
Free Syrian Army#REDIRECT Free Syrian Army The Free Syrian Army (FSA) ( ar, الْجَيْش السُّوْرِي الْحُرّ, al-Jayš as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War The Syrian civil war ( ar, الْحَرْبُ الْأ ...
*
Riad Seif Riad Seif ( ar, رياض سيف; born 25 November 1946) is a Syrian political dissident and prominent businessman who founded and led the Forum for National Dialogue. Seif was elected to the Parliament of Syria in 1994 as an independent and agai ...
, former head of the Forum for National Dialogue *Riyad al-Turk, ex-Syrian Communist Party, communist politician and liberal democrat *Haitham al-Maleh, leading
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
activist and former judge *Anwar al-Bunni, human rights lawyer, democracy activist and political prisoner *Maher Arar, Syrian-Canadian human rights activist *Marwan Habash, politician and writer and pre-Hafez al-Assad, Assad Minister of Industry *Michel Kilo, Eastern Christian, Christian writer and
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
activist, who has been called "one of Syria's leading opposition thinkers". *Kamal al-Labwani, doctor and artist, considered one of the most prominent members of the Syrian opposition movement *Tal al-Mallohi, blogger from Homs and world's youngest prisoner of conscience *Yassin al-Haj Saleh, writer and political dissident *Fares Tammo, son of assassinated Kurds in Syria, Kurdish politician Mashaal Tammo *Bassma Kodmani, an academic and former spokesperson of the SNC *Radwan Ziadeh, co-spokesperson for the SNC *, president of the Coalition of Secular and Democratic Syrians *Fadwa Suleiman, leader of protests in Homs *Razan Ghazzawi, prominent blogger *Samar Yazbek, Syrian author and journalist. She was awarded the 2012 PEN Pinter International Writer of Courage Award for her book, ''A Woman in the Crossfire: Diaries of the Syrian Revolution''. She fled Syria in 2011 but continues to be an outspoken critic of the al-Assad government from abroad, from Europe and the US. *
Razan Zaitouneh Razan Zaitouneh (or Zeitunah; ar, رزان زيتونة; born 29 April 1977) is a Syrian human rights lawyer and civil society activist. Actively involved in the 2011 Syrian uprising, Syrian uprising, she went into hiding after being accused by t ...

Razan Zaitouneh
, leader in the
Local Coordination Committees of Syria The Local Coordination Committees of Syria ( ar, لجان التنسيق المحلية في سوريا: ''LCCSyria'' or ''LCCs'') are a network of local groups that organise and report on protests as part of the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising, Syria ...
and the 2011 Sakharov Prize winner *Muhammad al-Yaqoubi Sunni Muslim scholar and preacher, currently residing in exile in Morocco *Hussam Awak, ex-Syrian Air Force and Air Force Intelligence Directorate officer who later joined the
Syrian Democratic Forces The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF); ku, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk (HSD); Arabic: قوات سوريا الديمقراطية (قسد); syc, ܚܝ̈ܠܘܬܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܛܝܬܐ, translit=Ḥaylawotho d'Suriya Demoqraṭoyto) is the ...


See also

*Belligerents in the Syrian Civil War *List of political parties in Syria


References


External links


Syrian Civil War Overview
{{Arab League Syrian opposition, Politics of Syria Political opposition Rebel groups that actively control territory Member states of the Arab League Anti-government factions of the Syrian civil war States and territories established in 2013