HOME

TheInfoList




Strategy (from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general
plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a modal logic, temporal set (mathematics), set of intended actions through whi ...

plan
to achieve one or more long-term or overall
goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan and commit to achieve. People endeavour to reach goals within a finite time by setting Time limit, deadlines. A goal is roughly simi ...

goal
s under conditions of
uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to the unknown. Uncertainty arises in partially ...

uncertainty
. In the sense of the "
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...
of the general", which included several subsets of skills including
military tactics Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle A battle is an occurrence of comb ...
,
siegecraft A siege is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its me ...
,
logistics Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation. In a general business sense, logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the requ ...

logistics
etc., the term came into use in the 6th century C.E. in
Eastern Roman The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
terminology, and was translated into Western
vernacular languages A vernacular, or vernacular language is a term for a type of speech variety, generally used to refer to a local language or dialect, as distinct from what is seen as a standard language. The vernacular is contrasted with higher-prestige forms ...
only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word "strategy" came to denote "a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills" in a
military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...
, in which both adversaries interact. Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve goals are usually limited. Strategy generally involves, setting goals and priorities, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends (goals) will be achieved by the means (resources). Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. It involves activities such as
strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of th ...

strategic planning
and
strategic thinking Strategic thinking is defined as a mental or thinking process applied by an individual in the context of achieving a goal or set of goals in a game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an a ...
.
Henry Mintzberg Henry Mintzberg (born September 2, 1939) is a Canadian academic and author on business and management. He is currently the Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies at the Desautels Faculty of Management The Desautels Faculty of Management is a ...
from
McGill University McGill University is a public university, public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by George IV, King George IV,Frost, Stanley Brice. ''McGill University, Vol. I. For the Advanceme ...
defined strategy as a pattern in a stream of decisions to contrast with a view of strategy as planning, while Henrik von Scheel defines the essence of strategy as the activities to deliver a unique mix of value – choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals.Henrik von Scheel and Prof Mark von Rosing. Importance of a Business Model (pp. 23–54). Applying real-world BPM in an SAP environment. while
Max McKeown Max McKeown (born in London, October 1969) is an English writer, consultant, and researcher specialising in innovation strategy, leadership and culture. He has written six influential books and conducts research with Warwick Business School (Youn ...
(2011) argues that "strategy is about shaping the
future The future is the time after the past and present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the existence of time and the laws of physics. Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that currently ...

future
" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". Dr.
Vladimir Kvint Vladimir Kvint is a Russian economist An economist is a professional and practitioner in the social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to ...

Vladimir Kvint
defines strategy as "a system of finding, formulating, and developing a doctrine that will ensure long-term success if followed faithfully." Complexity theorists define strategy as the unfolding of the internal and external aspects of the organization that results in actions in a socio-economic context.


Components

Professor Richard P. Rumelt described strategy as a type of problem solving in 2011. He wrote that good strategy has an underlying structure he called a ''kernel''. The kernel has three parts: 1) A ''diagnosis'' that defines or explains the nature of the challenge; 2) A ''guiding policy'' for dealing with the challenge; and 3) Coherent ''actions'' designed to carry out the guiding policy. President illustrated these three elements of strategy in his
Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 ( es, Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (), or the Missile Scare, was a 1-month, 4 day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States ...
Address to the Nation of 22 October 1962: # Diagnosis: "This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites are now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere." # Guiding Policy: "Our unswerving objective, therefore, must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country, and to secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere." # Action Plans: First among seven numbered steps was the following: "To halt this offensive buildup a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back." Rumelt wrote in 2011 that three important aspects of strategy include "premeditation, the anticipation of others' behavior, and the purposeful design of coordinated actions." He described strategy as solving a design problem, with trade-offs among various elements that must be arranged, adjusted and coordinated, rather than a plan or choice.


Formulation and implementation

Strategy typically involves two major processes: ''
formulation Formulation is a term used in various senses in various applications, both the material and the abstract or formal. Its fundamental meaning is the putting together of components in appropriate relationships or structures, according to a formula ...
'' and ''
implementation Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as ...

implementation
''. ''Formulation'' involves analyzing the environment or situation, making a diagnosis, and developing guiding policies. It includes such activities as
strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of th ...

strategic planning
and
strategic thinking Strategic thinking is defined as a mental or thinking process applied by an individual in the context of achieving a goal or set of goals in a game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an a ...
. ''Implementation'' refers to the action plans taken to achieve the goals established by the guiding policy.
Bruce Henderson Bruce Doolin Henderson (April 30, 1915 – July 20, 1992) was an American businessman and management expert. He founded Boston Consulting Group Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is an American management consulting firm founded in 1963, headquar ...
wrote in 1981 that: "Strategy depends upon the ability to foresee future consequences of present initiatives." He wrote that the basic requirements for strategy development include, among other factors: 1) extensive knowledge about the environment, market and competitors; 2) ability to examine this knowledge as an interactive dynamic system; and 3) the imagination and logic to choose between specific alternatives. Henderson wrote that strategy was valuable because of: "finite resources, uncertainty about an adversary's capability and intentions; the irreversible commitment of resources; necessity of coordinating action over time and distance; uncertainty about control of the initiative; and the nature of adversaries' mutual perceptions of each other."


Military theory

In military theory, strategy is "the utilization during both peace and war, of all of the nation's forces, through large scale, long-range planning and development, to ensure security and victory" (''Random House Dictionary''). The father of Western modern strategic study,
Carl von Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (; – ) was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic ...

Carl von Clausewitz
, defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." B. H. Liddell Hart's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy". Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals. U.S. Naval War College instructor Andrew Wilson defined strategy as the "process by which political purpose is translated into military action."
Lawrence Freedman Sir Lawrence David Freedman, (born 7 December 1948) is Emeritus Professor of War Studies War studies, sometimes called polemology, is the multi-disciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two ...
defined strategy as the "art of creating power." Eastern
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
philosophy dates back much further, with examples such as ''
The Art of War ''The Art of War'' () is an ancient List of Chinese military texts, Chinese military treatise dating from the Late Spring and Autumn Period (roughly 5th century BC). The work, which is attributed to the ancient Chinese military strategist Su ...
'' by
Sun Tzu Sun Tzu ( ; zh, t=孫子, p=Sūnzǐ) was a Chinese general, military strategist A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially a ...
dated around 500 B.C. ''The Art of War by Sun Tzu''. Special Edition Books. 2007.


Management theory

Modern business strategy emerged as a field of study and practice in the 1960s; prior to that time, the words "strategy" and "competition" rarely appeared in the most prominent management literature. Alfred Chandler wrote in 1962 that: "Strategy is the
determination Determination is a positive emotional feeling that involves persevering towards a difficult goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan and commit to achieve. People endea ...

determination
of the basic long-term goals of an
enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings Enterprise GP Holdings was a midstream energy holding company based in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is ...

enterprise
, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals."
Michael Porter Michael Eugene Porter (born May 23, 1947) is an American academic known for his theories on economics, business strategy, and social causes. He is the Bishop William Lawrence University Professor at Harvard Business School Harvard Business Sc ...

Michael Porter
defined strategy in 1980 as the "...broad formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be, and what policies will be needed to carry out those goals" and the "...combination of the ''ends'' (goals) for which the firm is striving and the ''means'' (policies) by which it is seeking to get there."
Henry Mintzberg Henry Mintzberg (born September 2, 1939) is a Canadian academic and author on business and management. He is currently the Cleghorn Professor of Management Studies at the Desautels Faculty of Management The Desautels Faculty of Management is a ...
described five definitions of strategy in 1998: * Strategy as plan – a directed course of action to achieve an ''intended'' set of goals; similar to the strategic planning concept; * Strategy as pattern – a consistent pattern of past behavior, with a strategy ''realized'' over time rather than planned or ''intended''. Where the realized pattern was different from the intent, he referred to the strategy as ''emergent''; * Strategy as position – locating brands, products, or companies within the market, based on the conceptual framework of consumers or other stakeholders; a strategy determined primarily by factors outside the firm; * Strategy as ploy – a specific maneuver intended to outwit a competitor; and * Strategy as perspective – executing strategy based on a "theory of the business" or natural extension of the mindset or ideological perspective of the organization.


Strategies in game theory

In
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
, a ''strategy'' refers to the rules that a
player Player may refer to: Role or adjective * Player (game) A player of a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) ...
uses to choose between the available actionable options. Every player in a non-trivial game has a set of possible strategies to use when choosing what moves to make. A strategy may recursively and consider what actions can happen in each contingent state of the game—e.g. if the player takes action 1, then that presents the opponent with a certain situation, which might be good or bad, whereas if the player takes action 2 then the opponents will be presented with a different situation, and in each case the choices they make will determine their own future situation. Strategies in game theory may be random (mixed) or deterministic (pure). Pure strategies can be thought of as a special case of mixed strategies, in which only
probabilities Probability is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathe ...

probabilities
0 or 1 are assigned to actions. Strategy based games generally require a player to think through a sequence of solutions to determine the best way to defeat the opponent.


Counterterrorism Strategy

Because
counterterrorism Counterterrorism (also spelled counter-terrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics Military tactics encompasses the art of organizing and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield A ...
involves the synchronized efforts of numerous competing bureaucratic entities, national governments frequently create overarching counterterrorism strategies at the national level. A national counterterrorism strategy is a government's plan to use the instruments of national power to neutralize terrorists, their organizations, and their networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instill fear and to coerce the government or its citizens to react in accordance with the terrorists' goals. The United States has had several such strategies in the past, including the ''United States National Strategy for Counterterrorism'' (2018); the Obama-era ''National Strategy for Counterterrorism'' (2011); and the ''National Strategy for Combatting Terrorism'' (2003). There have also been a number of ancillary or supporting plans, such as the 2014 ''Strategy to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant'', and the 2016 ''Strategic Implementation Plan for Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States''. Similarly, the United Kingdom's counterterrorism strategy,
CONTESTCONTEST is the United Kingdom, United Kingdom's counter-terrorism strategy. It was first developed by Sir David Omand and the Home Office in early 2003 as the immediate response to 9/11, and a revised version was made public in 2006. Further revision ...
, seeks "to reduce the risk to the UK and its citizens and interests overseas from terrorism, so that people can go about their lives freely and with confidence."


See also

* Concept Driven Strategy *
Consultant A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and tr ...
* Odds algorithm ( Odds strategy) *
Strategy game A strategy game or strategic game is a game (e.g. a board game) in which the players' coercion, uncoerced, and often autonomous, decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome. Almost all strategy games require internal ...
*
Strategy pattern#REDIRECT Strategy pattern In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a specific task. Programming involves tasks s ...

Strategy pattern
*
Strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of th ...

Strategic planning
*
Strategic management In the field of , strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by an 's managers on behalf of stakeholders, based on consideration of and an assessment of the internal and external ...
*
Strategist A strategist is a person with responsibility for the formulation and implementation of a strategy Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία ''stratēgia'', "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general plan to achi ...
*
Strategy Markup Language{{primary sources, date=April 2017 Strategy Markup Language (StratML) is an XML-based standard vocabulary A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually develop ...
* * U.S. Army Strategist


Further reading

* Burgelman, James. ''Strategy is Destiny (2002)''
Strategy Is Destiny: How Strategy-Making Shapes a Company's Future
* Freedman, Lawrence. ''Strategy: A History'' (2013)
Strategy: A History 1st Edition
* Heuser, Beatrice. ''The Evolution of Strategy'' (2010)
The Evolution of Strategy: Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present
* Kvint, Vladimir. ''Strategy for the Global Market: Theory and Practical Applications'' (2016)
Excerpt from Google Books


References


External links

{{Authority control Planning