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Stoicism is a school of
Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge ...
founded by
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emerg ...

Zeno of Citium
in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. It is a philosophy of personal eudemonic
virtue ethics Virtue ethics (also aretaic ethics, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
informed by its system of
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
and its views on the natural world, asserting that the practice of virtue is both necessary and sufficient to achieve
eudaimonia Eudaimonia (Ancient Greek, Greek: :Wiktionary:εὐδαιμονία, εὐδαιμονία ; sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, ) is a Greek word literally translating to the state or condition of 'good spirit', and which is commonl ...
- flourishing, by means of living an ethical life. The Stoics identified the path to eudaimonia with a life spent practicing the
cardinal virtues Cardinal virtues are four virtues of mind and character in both classical philosophy and Christian theology. They are Prudence, Justice (virtue), Justice, Courage, Fortitude, Temperance (virtue), Temperance. They form a Virtue ethics, virtue theory ...
and living in accordance with nature. The Stoics are especially known for teaching that "
virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ...

virtue
is the only good" for human beings, and those external things—such as health, wealth, and pleasure—are not good or bad in themselves (''
adiaphora Adiaphoron (, plural: adiaphora from the Greek language, Greek ἀδιάφορα (pl. of ἀδιάφορον), is the negation of διάφορα, meaning "not different or differentiable". In Cynicism (philosophy), Cynicism, adiaphora represents ...
''), but have value as "material for virtue to act upon". Alongside
Aristotelian ethics Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, ...
, the Stoic tradition forms one of the major founding approaches to
virtue ethics Virtue ethics (also aretaic ethics, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. ...
. The Stoics also held that certain destructive emotions resulted from errors of judgment, and they believed people should aim to maintain a will (called ''
prohairesisProhairesis ( grc, προαίρεσις; variously translated as "moral character", "will", "volition", "choice", "intention", or "moral choice") is a fundamental concept in the Stoic STOIC (Stack-Oriented Interactive Compiler) is a 1970s progra ...
'') that is "in accordance with
nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
". Because of this, the Stoics thought the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how a person behaved. To live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they thought everything was rooted in nature. Many Stoics—such as
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
and
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
—emphasised that because "virtue is sufficient for
happiness The term ''happiness'' is used in the context of mental Mental may refer to: * of or relating to the mind Films * Mental (2012 film), ''Mental'' (2012 film), an Australian comedy-drama * Mental (2016 film), ''Mental'' (2016 film), a Bangla ...
", a sage would be emotionally resilient to misfortune. This belief is similar to the meaning of the phrase "stoic calm", though the phrase does not include the traditional Stoic views that only a sage can be considered truly free and that all moral corruptions are equally vicious.Stoicism
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Stoicism flourished throughout the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
world until the 3rd century AD, and among its adherents was Emperor
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
. It experienced a decline after
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
became the state religion in the 4th century AD. Since then it has seen revivals, notably in the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...
(
Neostoicism Neostoicism was a philosophical movement that arose in the late 16th century from the works of Justus Lipsius, that sought to combine the beliefs of Stoicism and Christianity. Lipsius was Flemish people, Flemish and a Renaissance humanist. The ...
) and in the contemporary era (
modern Stoicism Contemporary Stoicism refers to currents in culture from the 20th century and later reviving elements of Stoicism. It is different from neostoicism, an earlier revival in the 17th century. The term "contemporary Stoicism" covers both the revival ...
).


Name


Origins

Stoicism was originally known as "Zenonism", after the founder
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emerg ...

Zeno of Citium
. However, this name was soon dropped, likely because the Stoics did not consider their founders to be perfectly wise, and to avoid the risk of the philosophy becoming a
cult of personality A cult of personality, or cult of the leader, Mudde, Cas and Kaltwasser, Cristóbal Rovira (2017) ''Populism: A Very Short Introduction''. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 63. arises when a country's regime uses the techniques of mass med ...
. The name "Stoicism" derives from the Stoa Poikile (
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: ἡ ποικίλη στοά), or "painted porch", a colonnade decorated with mythic and historical battle scenes, on the north side of the
Agora Image:TyreAlMinaAgora.jpg, upAgora of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Ancient Greece, Greek polis, city-states. It is the best representation of a city-state's response to accom ...

Agora
in
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
, where Zeno and his followers gathered to discuss their ideas. Sometimes Stoicism is therefore referred to as "The Stoa", or the philosophy of "The Porch".


Modern usage

The word "stoic" commonly refers to someone who is indifferent to pain, pleasure, grief, or joy. The modern usage as a "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" was first cited in 1579 as a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
and in 1596 as an
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
. In contrast to the term "
Epicurean Epicureanism is a system of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Ph ...
", the ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy''s entry on Stoicism notes, "the sense of the English adjective 'stoical' is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins."


Basic tenets

The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, constructed from ideals of
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
,
monistic Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence. Various kinds of monism can be distinguished: * ''Priority monism'' states that all existing things go back to a source that is distinct from them; e.g ...
physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the main focus of human knowledge, though their logical theories were of more interest for later philosophers. Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive
emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a comb ...

emotion
s; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (''
logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

logos
''). Stoicism's primary aspect involves improving the individual's ethical and moral well-being: "''Virtue'' consists in a ''will'' that is in agreement with Nature."Russell, Bertrand. ''A History of Western Philosophy,'' p. 254 This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy",Russell, Bertrand. ''A History of Western Philosophy'', p. 264 and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all men alike are products of nature".Russell, Bertrand. ''A History of Western Philosophy'', p. 253. The Stoic ethic espouses a
deterministic Determinism is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...
perspective; in regard to those who lack Stoic virtue,
Cleanthes Cleanthes (; grc-gre, Κλεάνθης ''Kleanthēs''; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, i ...
once opined that the wicked man is "like a dog tied to a cart, and compelled to go wherever it goes". A Stoic of virtue, by contrast, would amend his will to suit the world and remain, in the words of
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
, "sick and yet happy, in peril and yet happy, dying and yet happy, in exile and happy, in disgrace and happy", thus positing a "completely autonomous" individual will, and at the same time a universe that is "a rigidly deterministic single whole". This viewpoint was later described as " Classical Pantheism" (and was adopted by Dutch philosopher
Baruch Spinoza Baruch (de) Spinoza (; ; ; born Baruch Espinosa; later as an author and a correspondent Benedictus de Spinoza, anglicized to Benedict de Spinoza; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Por ...

Baruch Spinoza
).


History

DateFormat = yyyy ImageSize = width:1000 height:250 PlotArea = left:15 right:10 bottom:20 top:0 Colors = id:bleuclair value:rgb(0.56,0.56,0.86) id:rouge value:red id:rougeclair value:rgb(0.86,0.56,0.56) id:bleu value:rgb(0.76,0.76,0.96) id:grilleMinor value:rgb(0.86,0.86,0.86) id:grilleMajor value:rgb(0.56,0.56,0.56) id:protohistoire value:rgb(1,0.7,0.7) id:noir value:black id:canvas value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97) id:Holo value:rgb(0.4,0.8,0.7) id:PSup value:rgb(0.5,1,0.5) id:PMoy value:rgb(0.6,1,0.6) id:PInf value:rgb(0.7,1,0.7) # vert clair id:Plio value:rgb(0.8,1,0.8) # vert p�le id:gris value:gray(0.80) id:grilleMajor value:rgb(0.80,0.80,0.80) id:Timeperiod value:red id:Timeperiod2 value:rgb(0.86,0.56,0.56) Period = from:-400 till:300 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal format:yyyy AlignBars = justify ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:50 start:-400 gridcolor:grilleMinor ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:50 start:-400 gridcolor:grilleMajor BackgroundColors = canvas:canvas bars:canvas BarData= bar:Timeperiod barset:auteurs Define $marquerouge = text:"*" textcolor:rouge shift:(0,-3) fontsize:10 PlotData= width:15 fontsize:M textcolor:noir align:center # Époques bar:Timeperiod color:Timeperiod shift:(0,-3) from:start till:end color:gris # Arrière plan from:-400 till:300 text: "The Stoics" color:Timeperiod2 # auteurs width:6 align:left fontsize:M shift:(5,-5) anchor:till barset:auteurs from:-335 till:-264 text:"
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emerg ...

Zeno of Citium
" color:Pinf from:-330 till:-232 text:"
Cleanthes Cleanthes (; grc-gre, Κλεάνθης ''Kleanthēs''; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, i ...
" color:Pinf from:-281 till:-205 text:"
Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (; grc-gre, Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, ; ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosop ...

Chrysippus
" color:Pinf from:-240 till:-152 text:"
Diogenes of Babylon Diogenes of Babylon (also known as Diogenes of Seleucia; grc-gre, Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; la, Diogenes Babylonius; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the head A head is the part of an organism In ...
" color:Pinf from:-210 till:-129 text:" Antipater of Tarsus" color:Pinf from:-180 till:-100 text:"
Panaetius Panaetius (; grc-gre, Παναίτιος ''Panetios''; c. 185 – c. 110/109 BC) of Rhodes was a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon and Antipater of Tarsus in Athens, before moving to Rome where he did much to introd ...
" color:Pinf from:-140 till:-51 text:"
Posidonius Posidonius (; grc-gre, Ποσειδώνιος , "of Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted eleme ...
" color:Pinf from:-4 till:65 text:"
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
" color:Pinf from:25 till:95 text:"
Musonius Rufus Gaius Musonius Rufus (; grc-gre, Μουσώνιος Ῥοῦφος) was a Roman Stoic STOIC (Stack-Oriented Interactive Compiler) is a 1970s programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set arc ...
" color:Pinf from:55 till:135 text:"
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
" color:Pinf from:121 till:180 text:"
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
" color:Pinf
Beginning around 301 BC,
Zeno Zeno or Zenon ( grc, Ζήνων) may refer to: People * Zeno (name), including a list of people and characters with the name Philosophers * Zeno of Elea (), philosopher, follower of Parmenides, known for his paradoxes * Zeno of Citium (333 – 2 ...

Zeno
taught philosophy at the Stoa Poikile ("Painted Porch"), from which his philosophy got its name. Unlike the other schools of philosophy, such as the
Epicureans Roman Epicurus bust Epicureanism is a system of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosoph ...
, Zeno chose to teach his philosophy in a public space, which was a
colonnade In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Ancient Roman architecture, Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even m ...

colonnade
overlooking the central gathering place of Athens, the
Agora Image:TyreAlMinaAgora.jpg, upAgora of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre The agora (; grc, ἀγορά ''agorá'') was a central public space in ancient Ancient Greece, Greek polis, city-states. It is the best representation of a city-state's response to accom ...

Agora
. Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father,
Antisthenes Antisthenes (; el, Ἀντισθένης; c. 446c. 366 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates. Antisthenes first learned rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or ...
, had been a disciple of
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
. Zeno's most influential follower was
Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (; grc-gre, Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, ; ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosop ...

Chrysippus
, who was responsible for molding what is now called Stoicism. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control. Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases: * Early Stoa, from Zeno's founding to
Antipater Antipater (; grc, Ἀντίπατρος, translit=Antipatros, lit=like the father; c. 400 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, ...
. * Middle Stoa, including
Panaetius Panaetius (; grc-gre, Παναίτιος ''Panetios''; c. 185 – c. 110/109 BC) of Rhodes was a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon and Antipater of Tarsus in Athens, before moving to Rome where he did much to introd ...
and
Posidonius Posidonius (; grc-gre, Ποσειδώνιος , "of Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted eleme ...
. * Late Stoa, including
Musonius Rufus Gaius Musonius Rufus (; grc-gre, Μουσώνιος Ῥοῦφος) was a Roman Stoic STOIC (Stack-Oriented Interactive Compiler) is a 1970s programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set arc ...

Musonius Rufus
,
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
,
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
, and
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
. No complete works survive from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive. Stoicism became the foremost popular philosophy among the educated elite in the Hellenistic world and the Roman Empire, to the point where, in the words of
Gilbert Murray George Gilbert Aimé Murray (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece, ...

Gilbert Murray
"nearly all the ..professed themselves Stoics."


Logic


Propositional logic

Diodorus CronusDiodorus Cronus ( el, Διόδωρος Κρόνος; died c. 284 BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
, who was one of Zeno's teachers, is considered the philosopher who first introduced and developed an approach to logic now known as
propositional logic Propositional calculus is a branch of logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fal ...
, which is based on statements or propositions, rather than terms, differing greatly from Aristotle's
term logic In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, Syllogism, syllogistic logic or Aristotelianism, Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle and was developed further in ancient history mostly ...
. Later,
Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (; grc-gre, Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, ; ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosop ...

Chrysippus
developed a system that became known as Stoic logic and included a deductive system, Stoic Syllogistic, which was considered a rival to Aristotle's Syllogistic (see
Syllogism A syllogism ( grc-gre, συλλογισμός, ''syllogismos'', 'conclusion, inference') is a kind of logical argument In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements (in a natural language), called the premises or premisses (bo ...
). New interest in Stoic logic came in the 20th century, when important developments in logic were based on propositional logic.
Susanne Bobzien Susanne Bobzien (born 1960) is a German-born philosopherWho'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy. She currently is senior research f ...

Susanne Bobzien
wrote, "The many close similarities between Chrysippus's philosophical logic and that of
Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (; ; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He worked as a mathematics professor at the University of Jena, and is understood by many to be the father of analy ...
are especially striking."''Ancient Logic''
by
Susanne Bobzien Susanne Bobzien (born 1960) is a German-born philosopherWho'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy. She currently is senior research f ...

Susanne Bobzien
. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Bobzien also notes that "Chrysippus wrote over 300 books on logic, on virtually any topic logic today concerns itself with, including
speech act In the philosophy of language In analytic philosophy Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, exist ...
theory, sentence analysis, singular and plural expressions, types of predicates, indexicals, existential propositions, sentential connectives,
negation In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, ...

negation
s, disjunctions, conditionals,
logical consequence Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies ...
,
valid argument In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, ...
forms, theory of deduction, propositional logic,
modal logic Modal logic is a collection of formal system A formal system is an used for inferring theorems from axioms according to a set of rules. These rules, which are used for carrying out the inference of theorems from axioms, are the logical calculus ...
,
tense logicIn logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, acc ...
,
epistemic logicEpistemic modal logic is a subfield of modal logic Modal logic is a collection of formal systems originally developed and still widely used to represent statements about Linguistic modality, necessity and possibility. The basic Unary operation, unar ...
, logic of suppositions, logic of imperatives, ambiguity and logical
paradox A paradox is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to one's expectation. It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-contradictory or a logically u ...

paradox
es."


Categories

The Stoics held that all
being In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, la ...

being
s (ὄντα)—though not all things (τινά)—are
material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ...
. Besides the existing beings they admitted four incorporeals (asomata): time, place, void, and sayable. They were held to be just 'subsisting' while such a status was denied to universals. Thus, they accepted
Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (; grc-gre, Ἀναξαγόρας, ''Anaxagoras'', "lord of the assembly";  BC) was a Pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the i ...

Anaxagoras
's idea (as did Aristotle) that if an object is hot, it is because some part of a universal heat body had entered the object. But, unlike Aristotle, they extended the idea to cover all
accidents An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences, other times being inconsequential. The occurrence of such an event may or may not have unrecognized or unaddressed risks contributing to its cause. Mo ...
. Thus if an object is red, it would be because some part of a universal red body had entered the object. They held that there were four
categories Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such ...
. *
substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and takes up space * Substance th ...
(ὑποκείμενον) ::The primary matter, formless substance, (''ousia'') that things are made of *
quality Quality may refer to: Concepts *Quality (business), the ''non-inferiority'' or ''superiority'' of something *Quality (philosophy), an attribute or a property *Quality (physics), in response theory *Energy quality, used in various science disciplin ...
(ποιόν) ::The way matter is organized to form an individual object; in Stoic physics, a physical ingredient (''
pneuma ''Pneuma'' () is an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following peri ...
'': air or breath), which informs the matter *somehow disposed (πως ἔχον) ::Particular characteristics, not present within the object, such as size, shape, action, and posture *Somehow disposed in relation to something (πρός τί πως ἔχον) ::Characteristics related to other phenomena, such as the position of an object within time and space relative to other objects Stoics outlined what we have control over categories of our own action, thoughts and reaction. The opening paragraph of The ''
Enchiridion Enchiridion is a small manual or handbook. It can refer more specifically to: * ''Enchiridion of Epictetus'', a short manual of Stoic ethical advice * The ''Enchiridion de metris'' of Hephaestion (grammarian), Hephaestion, an ancient treatise on po ...
'' states the categories as: "Things in our control are opinion, pursuit, desire, aversion, and, in a word, whatever are our own actions. Things not in our control are body, property, reputation, command, and, in a word, whatever are not our own actions." These suggest a space that is within our own control.


Epistemology

The Stoics propounded that
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
can be attained through the use of
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
.
Truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In ...

Truth
can be distinguished from
fallacy A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of ...
—even if, in practice, only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the
sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, the brain receives signals from the senses ...

sense
s constantly receive sensations: pulsations that pass from objects through the senses to the
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fun ...

mind
, where they leave an impression in the
imagination Imagination is the ability to produce and simulate novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental Phenomenon, phenomena. Often the term is also identified with the phenomena themselves. ...

imagination
(
phantasiai {{Pyrrhonism sidebar In Hellenistic philosophy the term ''phantasiai'' (φαντασίαι) is information based on sense experience. Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ''Plátōn'', in Attic Greek, Classical Att ...
) (an impression arising from the mind was called a phantasma). The mind has the ability to judge (συγκατάθεσις, ''synkatathesis'')—approve or reject—an impression, enabling it to distinguish a true representation of reality from one that is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can achieve only varying degrees of hesitant approval, which can be labeled
belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconsci ...

belief
or opinion (''
doxa Doxa (; from verb )Henry Liddell, Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott (philologist), Robert Scott. 1940.δοκέω" In ''A Greek–English Lexicon, A Greek-English Lexicon'', edited by Henry Stuart Jones, H. S. Jones and R. McKenzie. Oxford. ...

doxa
''). It is only through reason that we gain clear comprehension and conviction (''
katalepsis ''Katalepsis'' ( el, κατάληψις, "grasping") in Stoic philosophy, meant comprehension. To the Stoic philosophers, ''katalepsis'' was an important premise regarding one's state of mind as it relates to grasping fundamental philosophical c ...
''). Certain and true knowledge (''
episteme Episteme (Ancient Greek: ; French: ''épistémè'') is a philosophical term that refers to a principled system of understanding; scientific knowledge. The term comes from the Ancient Greek verbs, Ancient-Greek verb ''epístamai'' (ἐπῐ́στ ...
''), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of one's peers and the collective judgment of humankind.


Physics

According to the Stoics, the
Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

Universe
is a
material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ...
reasoning substance (''
logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

logos
''), known as God or
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...

Nature
, which was divided into two classes: the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter, which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion". The active substance, which can be called
Fate Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lat ...

Fate
or Universal Reason (''logos''), is an intelligent
aetherAether, æther or ether may refer to: Metaphysics and mythology * Aether (classical element), the material supposed to fill the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere * Aether (mythology), the personification of the "upper sky", spac ...
or primordial
fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecula ...

fire
, which acts on the passive matter: Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter it governs. The
soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually non-humans, such as ...

soul
s of humans and animals are emanations from this primordial Fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate: Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be "transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the ''seminal reason'' ("
logos spermatikos This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy. A ; adiaphora: ἀδιάφορα: indifferent things, neither good nor bad. ;agathos: ἀγαθός: good, proper object of desire. ;anthrôpos: ἄνθρωπος: human ...
") of the Universe". Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to Reason, that is, to live a life according to
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...
. Stoic theology is a fatalistic and naturalistic pantheism: God is never fully transcendent but always Immanence, immanent, and identified with
Nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter an ...

Nature
. Abrahamic religions personalize God as a world-creating entity, but Stoicism equates God with the totality of the universe; according to Stoic cosmology, which is very similar to the Hindu cosmology, Hindu conception of existence, there is no absolute start to time, as it is considered infinite and cyclic. Similarly, the space and
Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

Universe
have neither start nor end, rather they are cyclical. The current Universe is a phase in the present cycle, preceded by an infinite number of Universes, doomed to be destroyed ("Ekpyrosis, ekpyrōsis", ''conflagration'') and Palingenesis, re-created again, and to be followed by another infinite number of Universes. Stoicism considers all existence as cyclical, the cosmos as eternally self-creating and self-destroying (see also Eternal return). Stoicism, just like Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, does not posit a beginning or end to the Universe.Ferguson, Everett. ''Backgrounds of Early Christianity''. 2003, p. 368. According to the Stoics, the ''logos'' was the active
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
or ''anima mundi'' pervading and animating the entire Universe. It was conceived as material and is usually identified with God or Nature. The Stoics also referred to the ''seminal reason'' ("
logos spermatikos This is a glossary of terms which are commonly found in Stoic philosophy. A ; adiaphora: ἀδιάφορα: indifferent things, neither good nor bad. ;agathos: ἀγαθός: good, proper object of desire. ;anthrôpos: ἄνθρωπος: human ...
"), or the law of generation in the Universe, which was the principle of the active reason working in inanimate matter. Humans, too, each possess a portion of the divine ''logos'', which is the primordial Fire and reason that controls and sustains the Universe. The first philosophers to explicitly describe Nominalism, nominalist arguments were the Stoics, especially
Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (; grc-gre, Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, ; ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosop ...

Chrysippus
.


Ethics

Ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts than today. The word "stoic" has since come to mean "unemotional" or indifferent to pain because Stoic ethics taught freedom from "passion" by following "reason". The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions; rather, they sought to transform them by a resolute "asceticism, askēsis", that enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm. Logic, reflection, and focus were the methods of such self-discipline, temperance is split into self-control, discipline, and modesty. Borrowing from the Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: "Follow where reason leads". One must therefore strive to be free of the Stoic passions, passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of ''pathos'' (plural ''pathe'') translated here as ''passion'' was "anguish" or "suffering", that is, "passively" reacting to external events, which is somewhat different from the modern use of the word. Terms used in Stocism related to ''pathos'' include ''propathos'' or instinctive reaction (e.g., turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and ''eupathos'', which is the mark of the Stoic sage (''sophos''). The ''eupatheia'' are feelings that result from the correct judgment in the same way that passions result from incorrect judgment. The idea was to be free of suffering through ''apatheia'' (Greek: ; literally, "without passion") or Inner peace, peace of mind, where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense—being Objectivity (philosophy), objective or having "clear judgment" and the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows. For the Stoics, reason meant using logic and understanding the processes of nature—the logos or universal reason, inherent in all things. According to reason and virtue, living according to reason and virtue is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four
cardinal virtues Cardinal virtues are four virtues of mind and character in both classical philosophy and Christian theology. They are Prudence, Justice (virtue), Justice, Courage, Fortitude, Temperance (virtue), Temperance. They form a Virtue ethics, virtue theory ...
(''Arete (moral virtue), aretai'') of Stoic philosophy is a classification derived from the teachings of Plato (''The Republic (Plato), Republic'' IV. 426–35): * Wisdom (Greek: φρόνησις "''phronesis''" or σοφία "''sophia''", Latin: ''prudentia'' or sapientia) * Courage (Greek: ανδρεία "''andreia''", Latin: ''fortitudo'') * Justice (Greek: δικαιοσύνη "''dikaiosyne''", Latin: ''iustitia'') * Temperance (virtue), Temperance (Greek: σωφροσύνη ''"sophrosyne''", Latin: ''temperantia'') Following Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and evil are the results of human ignorance of the reason in nature. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason, which leads to the conclusion of unkindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then is the practice of Stoic philosophy: to examine one's own judgments and behavior and determine where they diverge from the universal reason of nature. The Stoics accepted that suicide was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that might prevent them from living a virtuous life.Don E. Marietta, (1998), ''Introduction to ancient philosophy'', pp. 153–54. Sharpe Plutarch held that accepting life under tyranny would have compromised Cato the Younger, Cato's self-consistency (''constantia'') as a Stoic and impaired his freedom to make the honorable moral choices. Suicide could be justified if one fell victim to severe pain or disease, but otherwise suicide would usually be seen as a rejection of one's social duty.William Braxton Irvine, (2009), ''A guide to the good life: the ancient art of Stoic joy'', p. 200. Oxford University Press


The doctrine of "things indifferent"

In philosophical terms, things that are indifferent are outside the application of Moral absolutism, moral law—that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or that do not affect morality, are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent (, ''
adiaphora Adiaphoron (, plural: adiaphora from the Greek language, Greek ἀδιάφορα (pl. of ἀδιάφορον), is the negation of διάφορα, meaning "not different or differentiable". In Cynicism (philosophy), Cynicism, adiaphora represents ...
'') arose in the Stoic school as a corollary of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice ( ''kathekonta'', "convenient actions", or actions in accordance with nature; and ἁμαρτήματα ''hamartemata'', mistakes). As a result of this dichotomy, a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent. Eventually three sub-classes of "things indifferent" developed: things to prefer because they assist life according to nature; things to avoid because they hinder it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense. The principle of ''adiaphora'' was also common to the Cynics. Philipp Melanchthon revived the doctrine of things indifferent during the Renaissance.


Spiritual exercise

Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims; it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or "asceticism, askēsis"). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included History of logic#Stoics, logic, Socratic dialogue and Introspection, self-dialogue, memento mori, contemplation of death, mortality salience, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to mindfulness and some forms of Buddhist meditation), and daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions e.g. with diary, journaling. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder. In his ''Meditations'', Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II.I:
Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of the ignorance of real good and ill ... I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together ...
Prior to Aurelius, Epictetus in his ''Discourses of Epictetus, Discourses,'' distinguished between three types of act: judgment, desire, and inclination. According to philosopher Pierre Hadot, Epictetus identifies these three acts with logic, physics and ethics respectively. Hadot writes that in the ''Meditations'', "Each maxim develops either one of these very characteristic ''topoi'' [i.e., acts], or two of them or three of them." Seamus Mac Suibhne has described the practices of spiritual exercises as influencing those of reflective practice. Many parallels between Stoic spiritual exercises and modern cognitive behavioral therapy have been identified. Stoics were also known for consolatory orations, which were part of the ''consolatio'' literary tradition. Three such Seneca's Consolations, consolations by Seneca have survived. Stoics commonly employ ‘The View from Above’, reflecting on society and otherness in guided visualization, aiming to gain a "bigger picture", to see ourselves in context relevant to others, to see others in the context of the world, to see ourselves in the context of the world to help determine our role and the importance of happenings. Marcus Aurelius, ''Meditations'', in Book 7.48 it is stated;
A fine reflection from Plato. One who would converse about human beings should look on all things earthly as though from some point far above, upon herds, armies, and agriculture, marriages and divorces, births and deaths, the clamour of law courts, deserted wastes, alien peoples of every kind, festivals, lamentations, and markets, this intermixture of everything and ordered combination of opposites.


Love and sexuality

Stoics considered sexuality an element within the law of nature that was not to be good or bad by itself, but condemned passionate desire as something to be avoided. Early exponents differed significantly from late stoics in their view of romantic love and Intimate relationship, sexual relationships. Zeno advocated for a republic ruled by love and not by law, where marriage would be abolished, wives would be held in common, and eroticism would be practiced with both boys and girls with educative purposes, to develop
virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ...

virtue
in the loved ones. However, he didn't condemn marriage per se, considering it equally a natural occurrence. He regarded homosexuality, same sex relationships positively, and maintained that wise men should "have carnal knowledge no less and no more of a favorite than of a non-favorite, nor of a female than of a male." Zeno favored love over desire, clarifying that the ultimate goal of sexuality should be virtue and friendship. Among later stoics, Epictetus maintained Homosexuality, homosexual and Heterosexuality, heterosexual sex as equivalent in this field, and condemned only the kind of desire that led one to act against judgement. However, contemporaneous positions generally advanced towards equating sexuality with passion, and although they were still not hostile to sexual relationships by themselves, they nonetheless believed those should be limited in order to retain self-control. Musonius spoused the only natural kind of sex was that meant for procreation, defending a companionate form of marriage between man and woman, and considered relationships solely undergone for pleasure or affection as unnatural. This view was ultimately influential in other currents of thought.


Social philosophy

A distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism; according to the Stoics, all people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In the ''Discourses of Epictetus, Discourses'',
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
comments on man's relationship with the world: "Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, whereof the city political is only a copy." This sentiment echoes that of Diogenes of Sinope, who said, "I am not an Athens, Greece, Athenian or a Ancient Corinth, Corinthian, but a citizen of the world." They held that external differences, such as rank and wealth, are of no importance in social relationships. Instead, they advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco-Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus. In particular, they were noted for their urging of clemency toward slaves. Seneca exhorted, "Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies."


Influence on Christianity

In St. Ambrose of Milan's ''Duties'', "The voice is the voice of a Christian bishop, but the precepts are those of
Zeno Zeno or Zenon ( grc, Ζήνων) may refer to: People * Zeno (name), including a list of people and characters with the name Philosophers * Zeno of Elea (), philosopher, follower of Parmenides, known for his paradoxes * Zeno of Citium (333 – 2 ...

Zeno
." Regarding what he called "the Divine Spirit", Maxwell Staniforth wrote:
Cleanthes, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zeno's 'creative fire', had been the first to hit upon the term ''pneuma'', or 'spirit', to describe it. Like fire, this intelligent 'spirit' was imagined as a tenuous substance akin to a current of air or breath, but essentially possessing the quality of warmth; it was immanent in the universe as God, and in man as the soul and life-giving principle. Clearly, it is not a long step from this to the 'Holy Spirit' of Christian theology, the 'Lord and Giver of life', visibly manifested as tongues of fire at Pentecost and ever since associated—in the Christian as in the Stoic mind—with the ideas of vital fire and beneficient warmth.
Regarding the Trinity, Staniforth wrote:
Again in the doctrine of the Trinity, the ecclesiastical conception of Father, Word, and Spirit finds its germ in the different Stoic names of the Divine Unity. Thus Seneca, writing of the supreme Power which shapes the universe, states, 'This Power we sometimes call the All-ruling God, sometimes the incorporeal Wisdom, sometimes the Holy Spirit, sometimes Destiny.' The Church had only to reject the last of these terms to arrive at its own acceptable definition of the Divine Nature; while the further assertion 'these three are One', which the modern mind finds paradoxical, was no more than commonplace to those familiar with Stoic notions.
The Paul of Tarsus, apostle Paul met with Stoics during his stay in Athens, reported in . In his Pauline epistles, letters, Paul reflected heavily from his knowledge of Stoic philosophy, using Stoic terms and metaphors to assist his new Gentile converts in their understanding of Christianity. Stoic influence can also be seen in the works of St. Ambrose, Marcus Minucius Felix, and Tertullian. The Fathers of the Church regarded Stoicism as a "pagan philosophy";Agathias. ''Histories,'' 2.31. nonetheless, early Christian writers employed some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism. Examples include the terms "logos", "
virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ...

virtue
", "Spirit", and "conscience".Ferguson, Everett. ''Backgrounds of Early Christianity''. 2003, p. 368. But the parallels go well beyond the sharing and borrowing of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature or God, a sense of the innate depravity—or "persistent evil"—of humankind, and the futility and temporary nature of worldly possessions and attachments. Both encourage ''Ascesis'' with respect to the passions and inferior emotions, such as lust, and envy, so that the higher possibilities of one's humanity can be awakened and developed. Stoic writings such as ''Meditations'' by
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
have been highly regarded by many Christians throughout the centuries. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church accept the Stoic ideal of Apatheia, dispassion to this day. Middle and Roman Stoics taught that sex is just within marriage, for unitive and procreative purposes only. This teaching is Catholic theology of sexuality, accepted by the Catholic Church to this day. Ambrose, Saint Ambrose of Milan was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology.


Stoic philosophers

*
Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (; grc-x-koine, Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, ; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emerg ...

Zeno of Citium
(332–262 BC), founder of Stoicism and the Stoic Academy (Stoa) in Athens * Aristo of Chios (fl. 260 BC), pupil of Zeno; * Herillus of Carthage (fl. 3rd century BC) * Cleanthes, Cleanthes (of Assos) (330–232 BC), second head of Stoic Academy *
Chrysippus Chrysippus of Soli (; grc-gre, Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, ; ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosop ...

Chrysippus
(280–204 BC), third head of the academy *
Diogenes of Babylon Diogenes of Babylon (also known as Diogenes of Seleucia; grc-gre, Διογένης Βαβυλώνιος; la, Diogenes Babylonius; c. 230 – c. 150/140 BC) was a Stoic philosopher. He was the head A head is the part of an organism In ...
(230–150 BC) * Antipater of Tarsus (210–129 BC) * Panaetius of Rhodes (185–109 BC) *
Posidonius Posidonius (; grc-gre, Ποσειδώνιος , "of Poseidon Poseidon (; grc-gre, Ποσειδῶν, ) was one of the Twelve Olympians upright=1.8, Fragment of a relief Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted eleme ...
of Apameia * Diodotus the Stoic, Diodotus teacher of Cicero * Cato the Younger (94–46 BC) *
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
* Gaius Musonius Rufus (1st century AD) * Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD) * Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus (1st century AD) * Lucius Annaeus Cornutus *
Epictetus Epictetus (; grc-gre, Ἐπίκτητος, ''Epíktētos''; 50 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was born into slavery at Hierapolis Hierapolis ( grc, Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient Greek city located on ho ...

Epictetus
(55–135 AD) * Hierocles (Stoic), Hierocles *
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
(121–180 AD)


See also

* 4 Maccabees * Ecclesiastes * Dehellenization * Deixis * Glossary of Stoic terms * Ekpyrosis, palingenesis, Apocatastasis#Stoicism, apocatastasis * Ekpyrotic universe (cosmological theory) * Megarian school * ''Oikeiôsis'' * Stoic passions * ''Paradoxa Stoicorum'' * Plank of Carneades * Sage (philosophy) * ''Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta'' * "Stoic Opposition" * Tirukkural


References


Further reading


Primary sources

* A. A. Long and David Sedley, D. N. Sedley, ''The Hellenistic Philosophers'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. * Inwood, Brad & Gerson Lloyd P. (eds.) ''The Stoics Reader: Selected Writings and Testimonia'' Indianapolis: Hackett 2008. * George Long (scholar), Long, George ''Enchiridion'' by Epictetus, Prometheus Books, Reprint Edition, January 1955. * Gill C. ''Epictetus, The Discourses'', Everyman 1995. * Irvine, William, ''A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) * Hadas, Moses (ed.), ''Essential Works of Stoicism'', Bantam Books 1961. * Harvard University Press ''Epictetus Discourses Books 1 and 2'', Loeb Classical Library Nr. 131, June 1925. * Harvard University Press ''Epictetus Discourses Books 3 and 4'', Loeb Classical Library Nr. 218, June 1928. * Long, George, ''Discourses of Epictetus'', Kessinger Publishing, January 2004. * Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (transl. Robin Campbell), ''Letters from a Stoic: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium'' (1969, reprint 2004) *
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ( ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was a Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoicism, Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Nicc ...

Marcus Aurelius
, ''Meditations'', translated by Maxwell Staniforth; , or translated by Gregory Hays; . wikisource:Author:Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Also Available on wikisource translated by various translators * Oates, Whitney Jennings, ''The Stoic and Epicurean Philosophers, The Complete Extant Writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius and Marcus Aurelius'', Random House, 9th printing 1940.


Studies

* Bakalis, Nikolaos, ''Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics. Analysis and Fragments'', Trafford Publishing, 2005, * Lawrence C. Becker, Becker, Lawrence C., ''A New Stoicism'' (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998) * Brennan, Tad, ''The Stoic Life'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; paperback 2006) * Brooke, Christopher. ''Philosophic Pride: Stoicism and Political Thought from Lipsius to Rousseau'' (Princeton UP, 2012
excerpts
* Hall, Ron
''Secundum Naturam (According to Nature)''
Stoic Therapy, LLC, 2021. * Inwood, Brad (ed.), ''The Cambridge Companion to The Stoics'' (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) * John Lachs, Lachs, John, ''Stoic Pragmatism'' (Indiana University Press, 2012) * A. A. Long, Long, A. A., ''Stoic Studies'' (Cambridge University Press, 1996; repr. University of California Press, 2001) * Robertson, Donald, ''The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Stoicism as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy'' (London: Karnac, 2010) * Robertson, Donald
''How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius''
'New York: St. Martin's Press, 2019. * Sellars, John, ''Stoicism'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006) * William O. Stephens, Stephens, William O., ''Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom'' (London: Continuum, 2007) * Strange, Steven (ed.), ''Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations'' (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) * Eduard Zeller, Zeller, Eduard; Reichel, Oswald J., ''The Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics'', Longmans, Green, and Co., 1892


External links

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The Stoic Therapy eLibrary

The Stoic Library




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BBC Radio 4's In Our Time programme on Stoicism
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An introduction to Stoic Philosophy

The Stoic Registry (formerly New Stoa) :Online Stoic Community

Modern Stoicism (Stoic Week and Stoicon)

The Four Stoic Virtues
{{Authority control Stoicism, Ancient Greece Ancient Rome History of philosophy Philosophy of life Virtue Virtue ethics