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Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the
agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution * the abstract principle that autonomous beings, agents, are capable of acting by themselves; see autonomy Abstract principle * Agency (law), a person acting on behalf of another perso ...
of the
Government of Canada The government of Canada (french: Gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federation, federal administration of Canada. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the Corporation sole#The Crown, corporation sole, assuming distinct r ...
commissioned with producing
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...

statistics
to help better understand Canada, its population, resources,
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
, society, and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
. It is headquartered in
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
.Statistics Canada, 150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6; Statistique Canada 150, promenade du pré Tunney Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6 The agency is led by the
chief statistician of CanadaThe chief statistician of Canada (french: statisticien en chef du Canada) is the senior Civil service, public servant responsible for Statistics Canada (StatCan), an agency of the Government of Canada. The office is equivalent to that of a Deputy min ...
, currently
Anil Arora Anil Arora is the currently serving Chief Statistician of Canada, in office since 19 September 2016. He replaced Wayne Smith (statistician), Wayne Smith, who resigned to protest changes in Statistics Canada's informatics infrastructure stemming from ...
, who assumed the role on September 19, 2016. StatCan is responsible to Parliament through the
Minister of Innovation, Science and Industry The Minister of Innovation, Science, Industry and an avid Member of OnlyFans.MP.ca (french: ministre de l'Innovation, des Sciences et de l'Industrie) is the minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet The Cabinet of Canada (french: Cabinet ...
, currently
François-Philippe Champagne François-Philippe Champagne (born June 25, 1970) is a Canadian politician who has been Minister of Innovation, Science and Industry since 2021. Champagne was formerly the Minister of Foreign Affairs (Canada), Minister of Foreign Affairs from 201 ...

François-Philippe Champagne
. Statistics Canada acts as the national statistical agency for Canada, and Statistics Canada produces statistics for all the
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
as well as the federal government. In addition to conducting about 350 active
surveys Survey may refer to: Statistics and human research * Statistical survey, a method for collecting quantitative information about items in a population * Survey (human research), including opinion polls Spatial measurement * Surveying, the techniqu ...
on virtually all aspects of Canadian life, the ''
Statistics Act The ''Statistics Act'' (the ''Act'') is an Act of the Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of ...
'' mandates that Statistics Canada has a duty to conduct a country-wide
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...

census
of population every five years and a
census of agriculture A census of agriculture is a statistical operation for collecting, processing and disseminating data on the structure of agriculture, covering the whole or a significant part of a country. Typical structural data collected in a census of agricultur ...
every ten years. It has regularly been considered the best statistical organization in the world by ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'', such as in the 1991 and 1993 "Good Statistics" surveys. The
Public Policy Forum The Public Policy Forum (PPF) is an independent, non-profit Canadian think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing researc ...
and others have also recognized successes of the agency.


Leadership

The head of Statistics Canada is the chief statistician of Canada. The heads of Statistics Canada and the previous organization, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, are: * Robert H. Coats (1918–1942) * Sedley A. Cudmore (1942–1945) *
Herbert Marshall Herbert Brough Falcon Marshall (23 May 1890 – 22 January 1966) was an English stage, screen and radio actor who starred in many popular and well-regarded Hollywood films in the 1930s and 1940s. After a successful theatrical career in the ...
(1945–1956) * Walter E. Duffett (1957–1972) *
Sylvia Ostry Sylvia Ostry, (June 3, 1927 – May 7, 2020) was a high-ranking Canadians, Canadian economist and public servant. She was educated at McGill University and the University of Cambridge. Life Born Sylvia Knelman in Winnipeg, Manitoba on June 3 ...
(1972–1975) * Peter G. Kirkham (1975–1980) * James L. Fry (1980) * Martin B. Wilk (1980–1985) * Ivan P. Fellegi (1985–2008) *
Munir Sheikh Munir Sheikh (born 1947) is a Canadian economist. Early career Born in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of c ...
(2008–2010) * Wayne Smith (interim 2010; 2011–2016) *
Anil Arora Anil Arora is the currently serving Chief Statistician of Canada, in office since 19 September 2016. He replaced Wayne Smith (statistician), Wayne Smith, who resigned to protest changes in Statistics Canada's informatics infrastructure stemming from ...
(2016–)


Publications

Statistics Canada publishes numerous documents covering a range of statistical information about Canada, including census data,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
and
health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each ...
indicators, immigration economics,
income distribution In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour ...
, and social and justice conditions. It also publishes a
peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
statistics journal, ''
Survey Methodology Survey methodology is "the study of survey Survey may refer to: Statistics and human research * Statistical survey Survey methodology is "the study of survey methods". As a field of applied statistics concentrating on Survey (human research) ...
''. Statistics Canada provides free access to numerous aggregate data tables on various subjects of relevance to Canadian life. Many tables used to be published as the Canadian Socio-economic Information Management System, or CANSIM, which has since been replaced by new, more easily manipulated data tables Subject areas include Aboriginal peoples, Agriculture, Business, consumer and property services, Business performance and ownership, Children and youth, Construction, Crime and justice, Culture and leisure, Economic accounts, Education, training and learning, Energy, Environment, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Families, households and housing, Government, Health, Income, pensions, spending and wealth, Information and communications technology, International trade, Labour, Languages, Manufacturing, Population and demography, Prices and price indexes, Reference, Retail and wholesale, Science and technology, Seniors, Society and community, Transportation, and Travel and tourism. ''The Daily'' is Statistics Canada's free online bulletin that provides current information from StatCan, updated daily, on current social and economic conditions. Statistics Canada also provides the Canadian Income Survey (CIS)—a cross-sectional survey that assesses the income, income sources, and the economic status of individuals and families in Canada. Data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) is combined with data from the CIS. The February 24, 2020 reported statistics on the poverty based on the market basket measure (MBM).


Data accessibility and licensing

As of February 1, 2012 "information published by Statistics Canada is automatically covered by the Open License with the exception of Statistics Canada's postal products and Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs)." Researchers using StatCan data are required to "give full credit for any Statistics Canada data, analysis and other content material used or referred to in their studies, articles, papers and other research works." The use of Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs) is governed by the Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) License signed by the universities and Statistics Canada. Aggregate data available through the Canadian Socio-economic Information Management System CANSIM, and the Census website is
Open Data Open Data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar ...

Open Data
under the Statistics Canada Open License Agreement. By 24 April 2006, electronic publications on Statistics Canada's web site were free of charge with some exceptions. The historical
time series In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...

time series
data from CANSIM is also available via numerous third-party data vendors, including Haver Analytics, Macrobond Financial, and Thomson Reuters Datastream.


Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN)

The Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN) is a network of quantitative social sciences which includes 27 facilities across Canada that provide "access to a vast array of social, economic, and health data, primarily gathered" by Statistics Canada and disseminate "research findings to the policy community and the Canadian public."


History

Statistics Canada was formed by the Statistics Act, which came into force on May 1, 1971. It replaced the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was accorded to Canada, Australia, Dominion of New Zealand, New Zealand, Dominion of Newfoundland, Newfoundland, Union of Sout ...
, which was formed in 1918. Statistics Canada published a print copy of the yearly almanac entitled ''Canada Year Book'' from 1967 to 2012 when it ceased publication due to ebbing demand and deep budgetary cutbacks to StatCan by the federal government. It was a yearly compendium of statistical lore and information on the nation's social and economic past, people, events and facts. The ''Canada Year Book'' was originally edited by a volunteer from the
Department of Finance A finance minister is an executive or cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass she ...
and published by a private company, which offset costs with advertisement sales. This method continued until 1879, at which time the record ceases, until 1885, at which time the Department of Agriculture took up the burden. The duty of publication was transferred to the Dominion Bureau of Statistics upon its formation in 1918. On June 18, 2005, after years of study by expert panels, discussion, debate (privacy vs the interests of genealogists and historians), Bill S-18 ''An Act to Amend the Statistics Act'' was passed which released personal census records for censuses taken between 1911 and 2001, inclusive. Debate over the census and their contents had periodically created changes in the
Statistics Act The ''Statistics Act'' (the ''Act'') is an Act of the Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the Canadian federalism, federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, and is composed of ...
such as a 2005 amendment making the privacy restrictions of the census information expire after more than a century. In addition, with Bill S-18, starting with the 2006 Census, Canadians can consent to the public release of their personal census information after 92 years. Census returns are in the custody of Statistics Canada and the records are closed until 92 years after the taking of a census, when those records may be opened for public use and transferred to
Library and Archives Canada Library and Archives Canada (LAC; french: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal syst ...
subject to individual consent where applicable. The mandatory long census form was cancelled by the federal government in 2010 in favour of a voluntary household survey (NHS). The mandatory long form census was reinstated in time for the 2016 Census of Population. In 2011, Statistics Canada released an audit acknowledging that from 2004 to 2011, their automated computer processes had "inadvertently made economic data available to data distributors before the official publication time." In November 2011, in response to the audit, StatCan stopped that process.


2012 layoffs

Nearly half of Statistics Canada's 5000 employees were notified in April 2012 that their jobs might be eliminated as part of
austerity Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. There are three primary types of austerity measures: higher taxes to fund spending, ...

austerity
measures imposed by the Conservative federal government in the
2012 Canadian federal budget The Canadian federal budget for fiscal year 2012–13 was presented to the House of Commons of Canada The House of Commons of Canada (french: Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, which al ...
. The 2,300 employees underwent a process to determine which ones were not impacted, which were eliminated and which were given early retirement or put in new positions. These budget cuts reduced the amount of information Statistics Canada was able to produce during that time period.


The census

By law, every household must complete the Canada Census form. In May 2006, an Internet version of the census was made widely available for the first time. Another census was held in May 2011, again with the internet being the primary method for statistical data collection. The most recent census was held in May 2021, with the resulting data expected to be released throughout 2021.


2011 Voluntary Long Form or National Household Survey

On June 17, 2010 an
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that ...
was created by the minister of industry defining the questions for the 2011 Census as including only the short-form questions; this was published in the ''
Canada Gazette The ''Canada Gazette'' (french: Gazette du Canada) is the official government gazette A government gazette (also known as an official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical ...
'' on June 26, 2010, however a news release was not issued by Minister of Industry Tony Clement until July 13, 2010. This release stated in part "The government will retain the mandatory short form that will collect basic demographic information. To meet the need for additional information, and to respect the privacy wishes of Canadians, the government has introduced the voluntary National Household Survey". On July 30, 2010 Statistics Canada published a description of the National Household Survey. The minister of industry,
Tony Clement Tony Peter Clement (born January 27, 1961) is a Canadians, Canadian former federal politician and former House of Commons of Canada, Member of Parliament for Parry Sound—Muskoka in Ontario. Before entering federal politics, Clement served as ...

Tony Clement
initially indicated that these changes were being made based on consultations with Statistics Canada but was forced to admit that the change from a mandatory to voluntary form was not one of the recommendations received from StatCan after the head of the organization
Munir Sheikh Munir Sheikh (born 1947) is a Canadian economist. Early career Born in Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of c ...
resigned in protest. Information has since been uncovered that indicates attempts on the part of the government to distance themselves from the decision, instructing Statistics Canada officials to delete the phrase "as per government decision" from documents which were being written to inform Statistics Canada staff of the change. The minister has since claimed that concerns over privacy and the threat of jail time are the reasons for the change and has refused to reverse his decision stating that the prime minister supports the legislation. The argument over privacy has subsequently been undermined by a privacy commissioner statement that she was “satisfied with the measures Statistics Canada had put into place to protect privacy”. Other industry professionals have also come out in defense of Statistics Canada’s record on privacy issues. The government has maintained its position, most recently expressed by Lynn Meahan, press secretary to the industry minister, that the new census will result in "useable (sic) and useful data that can meet the needs of many users." During the 2010 debates, the Freedom Party of Ontario, a small group based on
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophic ...

Ayn Rand
's writings, whose 42 candidates received 12,381 votes (or 0.26% of the popular vote) in the 2014 election, opposed the long census. They also opposed bilingualism, political correctness and the inclusion of a question on race on the 1996 Canadian census. FPO claimed that Canadian and British traditions had been dishonoured by multiculturalism. They are among a minority who argue that using statistical data to analyze resource allocation is not beneficial. Central to the debate on this issue is the effect on the quality of data which will be collected by Statistics Canada under the new system. Many groups have made the claim that a voluntary system will not provide a quality of data consistent with what Statistics Canada is known for while others feel that politically motivated changes to StatCan methodology taints the reputation of the whole organization in the international setting. Supporters of the change have offered models of European countries who are adopting alternate systems, although in these states the census is being replaced with a database of information on each citizen rather than a voluntary poll and none of these systems are planned for the Canadian 2011 census. They also challenge the current system's ability to cope with rapid socio-demographic changes, though this would not be addressed without increasing the frequency of the survey. Some public opposition to the changes has been expressed through the social media network
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
. According to ''
The Globe and Mail ''The Globe and Mail'' is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *W ...

The Globe and Mail
'', by 2015 an increasing number of economists joined organizations such as the Canadian Chamber of Commerce,
Canadian Federation of Independent Business The Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a co ...
,
Canadian Economics Association The Canadian Economics Association (CEA) is the academic association of Canadian economists. Its object is to advance economic knowledge through study and research, and to encourage informed discussion of economic questions. The Association will not ...
,
Martin Prosperity Institute The Joseph L. Rotman School of Management (commonly known as the Rotman School of Management, the Rotman School or just Rotman), is the University of Toronto's graduate business school, located in Downtown Toronto. The University of Toronto has bee ...
, Toronto Region Board of Trade, Restaurants Canada and the Canadian Association of Business Economics to call for a reinstatement of the mandatory long form. Edmonton's chief economist preferred the long form and argues that the National Housing Survey is only useful at the aggregate city level and leaves "a dearth of data on long-term changes at the neighbourhood level and within demographic groups... making it difficult to make decisions such as "where to build a library, where to build a fire hall" without specific demographic information. Because it was not mandatory there was a lower response rate and therefore increased risk of under-representation of some vulnerable segments of society, for example aboriginal peoples, newly arrived immigrants. This makes it more difficult to "pinpoint trends such as income inequality, immigrant outcomes in the jobs market, labour shortages and demographic shifts."


2015 reinstatement of mandatory long form

One day after his election in November 2015, the Liberal government of
Justin Trudeau Justin Pierre James Trudeau (; , born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician who is the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada, prime minister of Canada since November 2015 and the leader of the Liberal Party of Canada, Liberal Part ...

Justin Trudeau
reinstated the mandatory Census long form and it was used in the 2016 Census.


Political reactions

Former industry minister Tony Clement recanted on his support for the elimination of the long form. He avowed that there were ways to protect both indispensable data and Canadians’ privacy. Blaming his party for a “collective” decision to terminate the long form, he said, “I think I would have done it differently.” He implied incorrectly that Statistics Canada head Munir Sheikh had agreed with the cancellation when it was done.


Standard geographic units

Statistics Canada divided Canada into the following standard geographic units for statistical purposes in the 2016 Census. *
Province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

Province
or
territory A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most country, countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally ...

territory
**
Census division Census divisions, in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and n ...
*** Census consolidated subdivision ****
Census subdivision The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), con ...
: municipalities and municipal equivalents as defined by Statistics Canada in consultation with provincial and territorial governments including the following types: *****
Canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division) A canton is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative r ...
: townships in Quebec ***** Chartered community: present in the Northwest Territories *****
City A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

City
*****
Community A community is a social unit The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term "unit of observation" in that the former refer ...

Community
: present in Prince Edward Island ***** Community government: present in the Northwest Territories ***** County municipality: rural territories in Nova Scotia ***** Cree reserve land: present in Quebec *****
Cree villageThe following is a list of the types of Local government in Quebec, local and Administrative subdivisions of Quebec#Supralocal level, supralocal territorial units in Quebec, including those used solely for statistical purposes, as defined by the Mini ...
: present in Quebec *****
Crown colony A Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original coun ...
: present in Saskatchewan *****
District municipality A district municipality is a designation for a class of municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subn ...
: rural or urban territories of British Columbia *****
Hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a genre of drama Drama is the specific Mode (litera ...
: present in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut ***** Improvement district: rural municipalities in Alberta ***** Indian government district: present in British Columbia *****
Indian reserve In Canada, an Indian reserve (french: réserve indienne) is specified by the ''Indian Act The ''Indian Act'' (, long name ''An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians'') is a Canadian act of Parliament that concerns India ...
*****
Indian settlement An Indian settlement is a census subdivision outlined by the Canadian government Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada for census purposes. These areas have at least 10 status Indian or non-status Indian people who live, m ...
***** Inuit reserve land: present in Quebec ***** Island municipality: present in British Columbia *****
Local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. As the str ...
: present in Manitoba *****
Municipal district A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governm ...
: rural municipalities in Alberta and Nova Scotia *****
Municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
: rural territories in Quebec ***** Naskapi village: present in Quebec ***** Naskapis reserve land: present in Quebec ***** Nisga'a land: present in British Columbia *****
Northern hamlet In most cases in Saskatchewan, a Hamlet (place), hamlet is an unincorporated community with at least five occupied dwellings situated on separate lots and at least 10 separate lots, the majority of which are an average size of less than one acre. Sa ...
: present in Saskatchewan ***** Northern village (village nordique): present in Saskatchewan and Quebec *****
Parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
: rural territories in Quebec (parish municipalities) and New Brunswick *****
Regional district electoral areaThis is a list of Regional District Electoral Areas in the province of British Columbia, Canada, sorted by List of British Columbia Regional Districts, regional district. These are unincorporated areas outside of municipal boundaries. {{TOC_Right A ...
: unorganized rural areas in British Columbia *****
Regional municipality#REDIRECT Regional municipality A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government similar to and at the same municipal government level as a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adm ...
: present in Nova Scotia *****
Resort village A resort village is a type of incorporated List of communities in Saskatchewan#Urban municipalities, urban municipality in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. A resort village is created from an organized Ham ...
: present in Saskatchewan *****
Rural community Sociologists This is a list of sociologists. It is intended to cover those who have made substantive contributions to social theory and research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of k ...

Rural community
: present in New Brunswick *****
Rural municipality A rural municipality is a classification of municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational enti ...
: present in Manitoba and Saskatchewan *****
Self-government __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation without intervention from an external authority (sociology), authority. It may refer to personal con ...
: present in Yukon ***** Settlement: present in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut ***** Special area: rural municipalities in Alberta *****
Specialized municipality A specialized municipality is a unique type of municipal status in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Alberta's specialized municipalities are unique local governments formed without the creation of special le ...
: present in Alberta ***** Subdivision of county municipality: rural territories within Nova Scotia's county municipalities ***** Subdivision of unorganized area: unorganized rural territories of Newfoundland and Labrador *****
Summer village Summer is the hottest of the four temperate In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenom ...

Summer village
: present in Alberta ***** Teslin land: present in Yukon *****
Town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

Town
*****
Township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings g ...
: present in Ontario ***** Township and royalty: rural territories in Prince Edward Island ***** United cantons: townships that have been united in Quebec *****
Unorganized area An unorganized area or unorganized territory (french: Territoire non organisé) is any geographic region in Canada that does not form part of a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporati ...
*****
Village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...

Village
*****
Ville ''Ville'' () is the French word nowadays meaning "city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition ...

Ville
: cities and towns in Quebec ***Aggregated dissemination area (ADA) * Economic region *
Designated place A designated place (DPL) is a type of community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term ...
* Federal electoral district *
Forward sortation area A Canadian postal code is a six-character String (computer science), string that forms part of a mail, postal address in Canada. Like Postcodes in the United Kingdom, British, Postal addresses in the Republic of Ireland#Eircode, Irish and Postal ...
* Statistical area classifications **
Census metropolitan area The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest b ...
(CMA) or
census agglomeration The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
(CA): a cluster of adjacent census subdivisions where: in the case of a CMA, the cluster has a population of 100,000 or greater in which at least 50,000 live in the core; and, in the case of a CA, the cluster has a population of at least 10,000 in the core ***
Census tract A census tract, census area, census district or meshblock is a geographic region defined for the purpose of taking a census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information about the members of a given S ...
(applicable to all CMAs and 15 CAs) *** Population centre (previously "urban area") ****Large urban ****Medium ****Small ***Rural area **Non-CMA or non-CA (like CMAs and CAs, includes small population centres and rural areas, but excludes large urban and medium population centres)


See also

*
List of national and international statistical services The following is a list of national and international statistical services. Central national statistical services Nearly every country in the world has set a central public sector unit entirely devoted to the production, harmonisation and dissemin ...
*
Institut de la statistique du Québec The Institut de la statistique du Québec (or Quebec Statistical Institute in translation) is the governmental statistics agency of Quebec. It is responsible for producing, analyzing, and publishing official statistics to enhance knowledge, discus ...

Institut de la statistique du Québec
*
Official statistics Official statistics are statistics published by Government, government agencies or other public bodies such as international organizations as a Public good (economics), public good. They provide quantitative or qualitative information on all major ...
*
United Nations Statistics Division The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations t ...


References


Further reading

*


External links


Statistics Canada website



2006 Census

CANSIM
{{authority control Federal departments and agencies of Canada Demographics of Canada Government agencies established in 1971 Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
1971 establishments in Canada