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Srinagar (English: , ) is the largest city and the
summer capital A summer capital is a city used as an administrative capital during extended periods of particularly hot ummerweather. The term is mostly of relevance in a historical context as political systems with ruling classes that would migrate to a summer ...
of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, India. It lies in the
Kashmir Valley #REDIRECT Kashmir Valley The Kashmir Valley, also known as the ''Vale of Kashmir'', is an intermontane valley in Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until t ...

Kashmir Valley
on the banks of the
Jhelum River The Jhelum River ( ur, ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Jhelum River
, a tributary of the
Indus#REDIRECT Indus River
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R from miscapitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...

Indus
, and
Dal In Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substant ...

Dal
and Anchar lakes. The city is known for its natural environment, gardens, waterfronts and
houseboat A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a home. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities. ...

houseboat
s. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts like Kashmir shawls and also
dried fruit Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying (food), drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or food dehydrator, dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradi ...

dried fruit
s. It is the northernmost city of India to have over one million people, the 32nd most populous city in the country, and the second largest city located in the
Himalayas The Himalayas, or Himalaya (; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ar ...

Himalayas
, after Kathmandu.


Origin of name

The earliest records, such as Kalhana's ''
Rajatarangini ''Rajatarangini'' (, "The River of Kings") is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographica ...

Rajatarangini
'', mentions the
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
name ''shri-nagara'' which have been interpreted distinctively by scholars in two ways: one being ''sūrya-nagar'', meaning "''City of the
Surya Surya (; sa, सूर्य, ) the sun and the solar deity in Hinduism, particularly in the Saura (Hinduism), Saura tradition found in Indian states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and ...

Surya
''" (trans) ''"City of Sun''" and other being ''"The city of "Shri''" (श्री), the Hindu goddess of wealth, meaning "''City of
Lakshmi Lakshmi (; , ), also known as Shri (, ), is one of the principal goddesses in Hinduism. She is the goddess of wealth, fortune, power, beauty and prosperity, and associated with ''Maya (religion), Maya'' ("Illusion"). Along with Parvati and Sa ...

Lakshmi
''".


History: Srinagar after 1900

In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the
insurgency An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociol ...
against Indian rule. The area continues to be a highly politicised hotbed of separatist activity with frequent spontaneous protests and strikes ("bandhs" in local parlance). On 19 January 1990, the Gawakadal massacre of at least 50 unarmed protestors by Indian forces, and up to 280 by some estimates from eyewitness accounts, set the stage for bomb blasts, shootouts, and curfews that characterised Srinagar throughout the early and mid-1990s.Dalrymple, William
''Kashmir: The Scarred and the Beautiful''
. "
The New York Review of Books ''The New York Review of Books'' (or ''NYREV'' or ''NYRB'') is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs. Published in New York City, it is inspired by the idea that the discussion of i ...
." 1 May 2008.
As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, frequent protests still occur against Indian rule, such as the 22 August 2008 rally in which hundreds of thousands of Kashmiri civilians protested against Indian rule in Srinagar. Similar protests took place every summer for the next 4 years. In 2010 alone 120 protesters, many of whom were stone pelters and arsonists, were killed by police and
CRPF The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is India's largest Central Armed Police Forces, Central Armed Police Force . It functions under the authority of the Ministry of Home Affairs (India), Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) of the Government of Ind ...
. Large scale protests were seen following the execution of Afzal Guru in February 2013. In 2016, after the death of militant leader
Burhan Wani Burhan Muzaffar Wani was a commander Commander is a common naval officer rank. Commander is also used as a rank or title in other formal organizations, including several police forces. In several countries this naval rank is termed friga ...
, there were mass protests in the valley and about 87 protesters were killed by Indian Army, CRPF and police in the
2016 Kashmir unrest Sixteen or 16 may refer to: *16 (number) 16 (sixteen) is the natural number following 15 (number), 15 and preceding 17 (number), 17. 16 is a composite number, and a square number, being 4 (number), 42 = 4 × 4. It is the smallest number with exa ...
. The city also saw increased violence against minorities, particularly the Hindu
Kashmiri Pandits The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a group of Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community of India. They belong to the Pancha-Gauda, Pancha Gauda Brahmin group from the Kashmir Valley, a mountaino ...
, starting from mid-1980s and resulting in their ultimate
exodus Exodus or the Exodus may refer to: Religion *Book of Exodus, second book of the Hebrew Torah and the Christian Bible *The Exodus, the biblical story of the migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan Historical events * Jujuy E ...
. Posters were pasted to walls of houses of Pandits, telling them to leave or die, temples were destroyed and houses burnt; but a very small minority of Pandits still remains in the city. In 2015 protests in Srinagar from local Kashmiri pandits were held in order to express demands from the government related to their official status, temples, and the ability to visit a temple in
Pakistani-administered Kashmir Kashmir, ks, کٔشیٖر, kaśīr is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. T ...

Pakistani-administered Kashmir
. After
revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir Revocation is the act of wikt:recall, recall or annulment. It is the cancelling of an act, the recalling of a grant or privilege, or the making void (law), void of some deed previously existing. A temporary revocation of a grant or privilege is c ...
and the subsequent devolution of the state into a union territory in August 2019, a
lockdown A lockdown is a restriction policy for people or community to stay where they are, usually due to specific risks to themselves or to others if they can move and interact freely. The term "stay-at-home" or "shelter-in-place" is often used for lo ...
was imposed in Kashmir, including in Srinagar. This lockdown continued for more than 15 months till 5 February 2021. Thousands, including three former chief ministers -
Farooq Abdullah Farooq Abdullah (born 21 October 1937) is an Indian politician and chairman of Jammu & Kashmir National Conference. He has served as the List of Chief Ministers of Jammu and Kashmir, Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir on several occasions s ...
,
Omar Abdullah Omar Abdullah (; born 10 March 1970) is an Indian politician and former Chief Minister of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir. He became the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of the State of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir ...

Omar Abdullah
and
Mehbooba Mufti Mehbooba Mufti (born 22 May 1959) is an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of co ...

Mehbooba Mufti
- were detained for an extended period. The Union Government announced the restoration of 4G mobile internet in Kashmir, including Srinagar, on 15 February 2021.


Geography

The city is located on both the sides of the
Jhelum River The Jhelum River ( ur, ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its co ...

Jhelum River
, which is called ''Vyath'' in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the
Wular Lake Wular Lake (also spelt Wullar) is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia. It is sited in Bandipora district in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and ...

Wular Lake
. The city is known for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city. There are a number of lakes and swamps in and around the city. These include the
Dal In Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substant ...

Dal
, the Nigeen, the Anchar, Khushal Sar,
Gil Sar
Gil Sar
and Hokersar. Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds. Hokersar is north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over including lake and
marshy area
marshy area
. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's
wetlands A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes prevailing, especially in the soils. ...
which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years. Birds found in Hokersar are migratory
duck Duck is the common name for numerous species of waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anati ...

duck
s and
geese A goose (plural geese) is a bird of any of several waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and An ...

geese
which include brahminy duck,
tufted duck The tufted duck (''Aythya fuligula'') is a small diving duck with a population of close to one million birds, found in northern Eurasia. The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek langu ...

tufted duck
,
gadwall The gadwall (''Mareca strepera'') is a common and widespread dabbling duck in the family Anatidae. Taxonomy The gadwall was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae, 10th edition of ''Systema Naturae' ...

gadwall
,
garganey The garganey (''Spatula querquedula'') is a small dabbling duck. It breeds in much of Europe and across the Palearctic, but is strictly bird migration, migratory, with the entire population moving to southern Africa, India (in particular Santraga ...

garganey
,
greylag goose The greylag goose or graylag goose (''Anser anser'') is a species of large goose A goose (plural geese) is a bird of any of several waterfowl Anseriformes is an order of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates cons ...

greylag goose
,
mallard The mallard () or wild duck (''Anas platyrhynchos'') is a dabbling duck that breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas, Eurasia, and North Africa, and has been introduced species, introduced to New Zealand, Australia, Peru, Bra ...

mallard
,
common merganser The common merganser (North American) or goosander (Eurasian) (''Mergus merganser'') is a large seaduck The seaducks (''Mergini'') are a tribe of the duck Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), fa ...
,
northern pintail The pintail or northern pintail (''Anas acuta'') is a duck Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), family Anatidae which also includes swans and goose, geese. Ducks are divided among several subfamil ...

northern pintail
,
common pochard The common pochard (; ''Aythya ferina'') is a medium-sized diving duck. The scientific name is derived from Greek '' aithuia'' an unidentified seabird Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded ...
, ferruginous pochard,
red-crested pochard The red-crested pochard (''Netta rufina'') is a large diving duck The diving ducks, commonly called pochards or scaups, are a category of duck Duck is the common name for numerous species in the waterfowl family (biology), family Anatida ...

red-crested pochard
,
ruddy shelduck The ruddy shelduck (''Tadorna ferruginea''), known in India as the Brahminy duck, is a member of the family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affin ...

ruddy shelduck
,
northern shoveller The northern shoveler (; ''Spatula clypeata''), known simply in Britain as the shoveller, is a common and widespread duck. It breeds in northern areas of Europe and across the Palearctic and across most of North America, wintering in southern Euro ...
,
common teal The Eurasian teal (''Anas crecca''), common teal, or Eurasian green-winged teal is a common and widespread duck Duck is the common name for numerous species of waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise a ...

common teal
, and
Eurasian wigeon The Eurasian wigeon or European wigeon, also known as the widgeon or the wigeon (''Mareca penelope'') is one of three species of wigeon in the dabbling duck genus ''Mareca''. It is common and widespread within its Palearctic range. Taxonomy The ...

Eurasian wigeon
.


Climate

Srinagar has a
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(
Köppen Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Carl Köppen (1833-1907), German military advisor in Meiji (era), Meiji era Japan * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), Germa ...
''Cfa''). The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to , and drops below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...
connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads and avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of . The average annual rainfall is around . Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is and the lowest is .


Economy

In November 2011, the
City Mayors Foundation The City Mayors Foundation, also known as City Mayors, is an international think tank dedicated to urban affairs. It has been active since 2003 and runs the biennial World MayorWorld Mayor is a biennial award organized by City Mayors Foundation, Th ...
an advocacy think tankannounced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.


Tourism

Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the "
Venice of the East The following is an incomplete list of places which have been nicknamed Venice of the East List See also * Venezuela, country whose name means "Little Venice" * Venice of the North * Little Venice (disambiguation), Little Venice * Paris of the E ...
". Lakes around the city include
Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. ...

Dal Lake
noted for its
houseboat A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a home. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities. ...

houseboat
s and Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal Lake and Nigeen Lake,
Wular Lake Wular Lake (also spelt Wullar) is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia. It is sited in Bandipora district in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and ...

Wular Lake
and
Manasbal Lake Manasbal Lake is located in Safapora area of Ganderbal District in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir in India. The name Manasbal is said to be a derivative of the Lake Manasarovar.http://kashmir-touris ...

Manasbal Lake
both lie to the north of Srinagar. Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia. Srinagar has some
Mughal gardens Mughal gardens are a type of garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildli ...
, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies);
Nishat Bagh Nishat Bagh () is a Terrace garden, terraced Mughal garden built on the eastern side of the Dal Lake, close to Srinagar in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is the second largest Mughal gard ...
(the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; the Naseem Bagh. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in the city, set up in 1969. The Indian government has included these gardens under "Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir" in the tentative list for sites to be included in
world Heritage sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. The
Sher Garhi Palace Sher Garhi Palace is a former palace in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. The complex is located in the south of the Downtown Srinagar, Old City at the banks of the Jhelum river. It was the residence of the ...
houses administrative buildings from the state government. Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel. The lies on a hill top in the middle of the city. File:Srinagar floating market.jpg, Floating vegetable market on Dal Lake, the only of its kind in India File:Dal LakeVR.jpg,
Shikara The shikara is a type of wooden boat found on Dal Lake and other water bodies of Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. Shikaras are of various sizes and are used for multiple purposes, including transportati ...

Shikara
s on
Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. ...

Dal Lake
File:The Houseboats of Dal Lake.jpg, The Houseboats of Dal Lake File:Wular scenic.jpg, Scenic View of Wular Lake File:India - Srinagar - 023 - Nishat Bagh Mughal Gardens.jpg, Nishat Bagh Mughal Gardens File:Masbal.jpg, Manasbal Lake File:Chashme Shahi kashmir.jpg, Chashme Shahi Mughal Gardens File:Shalimar Gardens, Kashmir.jpg, Shalimar Mughal Gardens File:Bot garden lake.jpg, Small lake at Botanical garden File:Hari Parbat Fort, Srinagar (5).jpg, Hari Parbat Fort File:WLM@J&K-Pari Mahal.jpg, Pari Mahal File:Dal Lake In Mid Summer.jpg, Dal Lake in winter


Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) under leadership of
Mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...
. The Srinagar district along with the adjoining
Budgam Budgam (), known as Badgom ( ; ) in Kashmiri, is a town in Budgam district Budgam district is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas ...
and
Ganderbal Ganderbal is a town and a municipality committee in Ganderbal district in the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, seco ...
districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.


Stray dog controversy

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals. The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.


Demographics

As of 2011 census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population. Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 70%. The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population. Males constituted 53.0% and females 47% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000. The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 96% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2.75% of the population. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.


Transport


Road

The city is served by many highways, including and National Highway 1D.


Air

Srinagar International Airport has regular domestic flights to
Leh Leh () is the joint capital and largest town of the union territory of Ladakh in India. Leh, located in the Leh district, was also the historical capital of the Kingdom of Ladakh, the seat of which was in the Leh Palace, the former residence ...

Leh
,
Jammu Jammu is the winter capital Some countries have multiple capitals. In some cases, one city is the capital for some purposes, and one or more others are capital for other purposes, without any being considered an official capital in preferen ...
,
Chandigarh Chandigarh (; ) is a city, district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . ...

Chandigarh
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with
Air India Express Air India Express is an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dep ...

Air India Express
flights to
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
.


Rail

Srinagar is a station on the long Banihal-Baramulla line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar,
Anantnag Anantnag (/ə'nʌntna:g/ or /-nɑːg/ ; ), also called Islamabad, is the administrative headquarters of the Anantnag district in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is located at a distance o ...
and
Qazigund Qazigund, also known as Gateway Of Kashmir, is a town and in the union territory #REDIRECT Union territory#REDIRECT Union territory A union territory ( hi, script=latn, kendraśāsit pradeś, , centrally administered province) is a type of adm ...
. The railway track also connects to
Banihal Banihal is a town and a notified area committee A Nagar Panchayat (town panchayat; ) or Notified Area Council (NAC) in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of co ...

Banihal
across the
Pir Panjal The Pir Panjal Range (Kashmiri: ) is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the ...
mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for a train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR. The train also runs during heavy snow. There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city. The feasibility report for the Srinagar Metro is planned to be carried out by
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) is a centre-state public sector company that operates the Delhi Metro The Delhi Metro is a Rapid transit, mass rapid transit (MRT) system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Farida ...
.


Cable car

In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on
Hari Parbat #REDIRECT Hari Parbat Hari Parbat (), also called as Koh-i-Maran (), is a hill overlooking Srinagar, the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country ...

Hari Parbat
was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of 300 million INR was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the .


Boat

Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to
Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake #REDIRECT Dal Lake Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. ...

Dal Lake
, where
shikara The shikara is a type of wooden boat found on Dal Lake and other water bodies of Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. Shikaras are of various sizes and are used for multiple purposes, including transportati ...

shikara
s (wooden boats) are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River
Jhelum Jhelum ( ur, , ) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River , name_other = Hydaspes, Bidaspes, Vitastā, Bihat, Wihat, Bihatab, Biyatta, Jailam , image = Jhelum River-Pakistan.jpg , image_size = , im ...

Jhelum
.


Culture

Like the territory of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.


Places of worship

There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include: * , only domed mosque in the city. * Jama Masjid, Srinagar, one of the oldest mosques in Kashmir *
Khanqah-e-Moula Khanqah-e-Moula, also known as Shah-e-Hamadan Masjid and Khanqah is a mosque located in the Downtown Srinagar, Old City of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. Situated on the right bank of the river Jhelum bet ...
, first Islamic centre in Kashmir * , in Eidgah Locality *
Hari Parbat #REDIRECT Hari Parbat Hari Parbat (), also called as Koh-i-Maran (), is a hill overlooking Srinagar, the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country ...

Hari Parbat
hill hosts shrine of Sharika Mata temple * a holy shrine for
Kashmiri Hindus Kashmiri Hindus are ethnic Kashmiris Kashmiris, also known as Koshurs (), are first-language speakers of the Kashmiri language Kashmiri () or Koshur (, /kəːʃur/) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spok ...
* * * Gurdwara Chatti Patshahi * * All Saints Church, Srinagar * Holy Family Catholic Church (Srinagar) Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Mazar-e-Shuhada,
Roza Bal The Roza Bal or Rouza Bal or Rozabal is a shrine located in the Khanyar quarter in downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...
shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, ("The Stone Mosque"), Hamza Makhdoom shrine, tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal. Apart from these, dozens of smaller mosques are located all over the city. Several temples and temple ghats are located on the banks of river Jhelum in Srinagar, including Shurayar temple, Gadhadhar temple, Pratapishwar temple, Ganpatyar Ganesh temple, Purshyar temple, Sheshyar temple, Raghunath Mandir, Durga Patshala and Dhar temple. Gurdwaras are located in Rainawari, Amira Kadal, Jawahar Nagar, Mehjoor Nagar, Shaheed Gunj, Maharajpur and Indra Nagar areas of the city. There are three Christian churches in Srinagar. The Sheikh Bagh Cemetery is a Christian cemetery located in Srinagar that dates from the British colonial era. The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a British colonel from the 9th Lancers of 1850 and the cemetery is valued for the variety of persons buried there which provides an insight into the perils faced by British colonisers in India. It was damaged by floods in 2014. It contains a number of war graves. The notable interments here are Robert Thorpe and Jim Borst. File:Hazratbal Shrine.jpg, built in around 1700 AD File:Shankaracharya temple.jpg, The built in around 200 BC File:Khanqah-e-Moula 01.jpg,
Khanqah-e-Moula Khanqah-e-Moula, also known as Shah-e-Hamadan Masjid and Khanqah is a mosque located in the Downtown Srinagar, Old City of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, India. Situated on the right bank of the river Jhelum bet ...
File:Ancient Temple-Hari Parbat-2.JPG, Sharika Mata Temple File:Pathar Masjid in Srinagar.jpg, File:Gurdwara_Chatti_Patshahi_Srinagar.jpg, Gurdwara Chatti Patsahi


Performing arts


Education

Srinagar is home to The National Institute of Technology Srinagar, formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). It is one of the oldest among the National Institutes of Technology that were established during the second Five-Year Plans of India, Five year plan. Other educational institutions are: Schools * Tyndale Biscoe School * Presentation Convent Higher Secondary School * Burn Hall School * Mallinson Girls School * Delhi Public School, Srinagar * Woodlands House School * Little Angels High School, Srinagar * Modern High School, Solina, Srinagar * Green Valley Educational Institute Medical colleges * Government Medical College, Srinagar * SMHS Hospital * Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Universities * University of Kashmir * Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir * Central University of Kashmir General degree colleges * Amar Singh College * Sri Pratap College * Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar


Broadcasting

Srinagar is broadcasting hub for radio channels in UT which are Radio Mirchi 98.3FM, Red FM 93.5 and AIR Srinagar. State television channel DD Kashir is also broadcast.


Sports

, Srinagar. ''The home of Real Kashmir FC'' The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, where international cricket matches have been played. The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation (although the situation has now improved quite considerably). Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches. It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered one of the best golf courses of India. Football is also followed by the youth of Srinagar and Polo ground is maintained for the particular sports recently. There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam (Water rafting), Gulmarg (skiing).


Notable People

*Joanna Lumley (1946–Present) *Agha Shahid Ali (1949-2001)


See also

* Kashmir conflict * Downtown (Srinagar) * Kashmir Shaivism * List of State Protected Monuments in Jammu and Kashmir * List of colleges in Srinagar * Lal Chowk


References


Bibliography

*Hewson, Eileen. (2008) ''Graveyards in Kashmir India''. Wem, England: Kabristan Archives.


External links

*
Srinagar district administrationOfficial website of Jammu and KashmirDelhi to Srinagar train
{{Authority control Srinagar, Metropolitan cities in India Cities and towns in Srinagar district Indian union territory capitals Municipal corporations in Jammu and Kashmir WikiProject Jammu and Kashmir