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The special territories of the European Union are 32 territories of
EU member states The European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total populat ...
which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. The special territories divide themselves in three categories: 9 Outermost Regions (OMR) that form part of the European Union, though they benefit from
derogationDerogation, in civil law and common law, is the partial suppression of a law, as opposed to annulment (total abolition of a law by explicit repeal), and obrogation (the partial or total modification or repeal of a law by the imposition of a late ...
s from some EU laws due to their geographical remoteness from mainland Europe; 13 Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) that do not form part of the European Union, though they cooperate with the EU via the Overseas Countries and Territories Association; and 10 special cases that form part of the European Union (with the exception of the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
), though EU laws make ''
ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Latin phrases (full) The list also is divided alpha ...

ad hoc
'' provisions. The Outermost Regions were recognised at the signing of the
Maastricht Treaty The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Concluded in 1992 between the then-twelve Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Communities, ...
in 1992, and confirmed by the
Treaty of Lisbon The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, als ...
in 2007. The
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
states that both primary and secondary
European Union law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and ...
applies automatically to the outermost regions, with possible derogations due to the particularities of these territories. The Overseas Countries and Territories are recognised by the Article 198 of the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
which allows them to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment, and invites them to join the Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) in order to improve cooperation with the European Union. The status of an uninhabited territory, , remains unclear since it is not explicitly mentioned in primary
EU law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a whic ...
and has a ''
sui generis ''Sui generis'' ( , ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
'' status at the national level. Collectively, the special territories encompass a population of some 6.1 million people and a land area of about 2,733,792 square kilometres (1,055,500 sq mi). Around 80 percent of this area is represented by
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
. The largest region by population, the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
, accounts for more than a third of the total population of the special territories. The smallest by land area is the island of
Saba Saba (, ; , ) is a Caribbean island which is the smallest Caribbean Netherlands, special municipality (officially “Public body (Netherlands), public body”) of the Netherlands. It consists largely of the potentially active volcano Mount Scener ...

Saba
in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
(13 km2 or 5 sq mi). The French Southern and Antarctic Lands is the only special territory without a permanent population.


Outermost regions

The Outermost regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state of the European Union but situated a significant distance from
mainland Europe Mainland or continental Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly rega ...

mainland Europe
. Due to this situation, they have
derogationDerogation, in civil law and common law, is the partial suppression of a law, as opposed to annulment (total abolition of a law by explicit repeal), and obrogation (the partial or total modification or repeal of a law by the imposition of a late ...
from some EU policies despite being part of the European Union. According to the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
, both primary and secondary
European Union law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and ...
applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their "structural social and economic situation (...) which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development". Article 349 of the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
.
All form part of the European Union customs area, however some fall outside of the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area ( , ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for internationa ...

Schengen Area
and the European Union Value Added Tax Area. Seven outermost regions were recognised at the signing of the
Maastricht Treaty The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Concluded in 1992 between the then-twelve Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Communities, ...
in 1992.The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 (Treaty on European Union): Declaration on the outermost regions of the Community The
Treaty of Lisbon The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, als ...
included two additional territories (
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
and
Saint MartinSaint Martin may refer to: People * Saint Martin of Tours (c. 316–397), Bishop of Tours, France * Saint Martin of Braga (c. 520–580), archbishop of Bracara Augusta in Gallaecia (now Braga in Portugal) * Pope Martin I (598–655) * Saint Martin ...
) in 2007. Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012.
Mayotte Mayotte (french: Mayotte, ; Shimaore language, Shimaore: ''Maore'', ; mg, Maiôty) is an overseas department and region, overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (Frenc ...

Mayotte
, which was an OCT, joined the EU as an OMR with effect from 1 January 2014. The 9 Outermost Regions of the European Union are:


Autonomous Regions of Portugal

Azores The Azores ( , also ; pt, Açores ), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região ...

Azores
and
Madeira Madeira ( , , ), officially the Autonomous Region of Madeira ( pt, Região Autónoma da Madeira), is one of the two autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous regions of Portugal, the other being the Azores. It is an archipelago situated in t ...

Madeira
are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as
Autonomous Regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
, with a degree of self-governance. Some derogations from the application of EU law apply in regards to taxation, fishing and transportation. Their
VAT A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal ...
is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the
EU VAT Area The European Union value-added tax (or EU VAT) is a value added tax on Good (economics), goods and services within the European Union (EU). The EU's institutions do not collect the tax, but member states of the European Union, EU member states a ...
.


Canary Islands

The
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
are a
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
off the African coast which form one of the 17 
autonomous communities of Spain eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name = , map = , category = Autonomous administrative ...

autonomous communities of Spain
–the country's principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the
EU VAT Area The European Union value-added tax (or EU VAT) is a value added tax on Good (economics), goods and services within the European Union (EU). The EU's institutions do not collect the tax, but member states of the European Union, EU member states a ...
.Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1
Eur-lex.europa.eu.
/ref> The Canary Islands are the most populous and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of
Las Palmas Las Palmas (, ; ), officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off th ...

Las Palmas
on the island of
Gran Canaria Gran Canaria (, ; ), also Grand Canary Island, is the third largest and second most populous island of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa which is part of Spain. the island had a population of that co ...

Gran Canaria
.


French overseas regions

French Guiana French Guiana ( or ; french: link=no, Guyane ) is an overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity A single territorial collectivity (french: collectivité territoriale ''unique'') is a chartered subdivision of France ...

French Guiana
,
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
,
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
,
Mayotte Mayotte (french: Mayotte, ; Shimaore language, Shimaore: ''Maore'', ; mg, Maiôty) is an overseas department and region, overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (Frenc ...

Mayotte
, and
Réunion Réunion (french: La Réunion, ; previously ''Île Bourbon''; rcf, label= Reunionese Creole, La Rénion) is an island in the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or t ...

Réunion
are five French overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
is legal tender; however, they are outside the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area ( , ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for internationa ...

Schengen Area
and the EU VAT Area. Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments, having changed from an overseas collectivity with OCT status on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region, and thus part of the EU, on 1 January 2014.


Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint MartinSaint Martin may refer to: People * Saint Martin of Tours (c. 316–397), Bishop of Tours, France * Saint Martin of Braga (c. 520–580), archbishop of Bracara Augusta in Gallaecia (now Braga in Portugal) * Pope Martin I (598–655) * Saint Martin ...
is the only
overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities (''collectivité d'outre-mer The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the regions of France, French regions, bu ...
of France with the status of being an outermost region of the EU. As with the French overseas departments, the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area. On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
were broken away from the French overseas department of
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,Rapport d'information nombre 329
(2004–2005) de MM. Jean-Jacques Hyest, Christian Cointat et Simon Sutour, fait au nom de la commission des lois, déposé le 10 mai 2005.
European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the
Treaty of Lisbon The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, als ...
, which listed them as an outermost region.See Articles 349 and 35
of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.


Overseas countries and territories

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU. Their status is described in the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
, and they are not part of the EU or the
European Single Market The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market A single market is a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organiza ...

European Single Market
. The Overseas Countries and Territories Association was created to improve economic development and cooperation between the OCTs and the EU, and includes most OCTs except three territories which do not have a permanent local population. The OCTs have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA).Council Decision of 27 November 2001 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community
("Overseas Association Decision") (2001/822/EC).
They were listed in the Article 198 of the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other ...
, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment. Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs. Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that "the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement." Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services. The OCTs are not subject to the EU's common external customs tariffs but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis. They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU). OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support. When the
Rome Treaty The Treaty of Rome, or EEC Treaty (officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community), brought about the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC), the best known of the European Communities (EC). The treaty was signed ...
was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed:
French West Africa French West Africa (french: Afrique-Occidentale française, links=no, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial empires#Second French colonial empire, French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), Fre ...

French West Africa
,
French Equatorial Africa French Equatorial Africa (french: link=no, Afrique-Équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa Equatorial Africa is an ambiguous term that sometimes is used to refer either to ...

French Equatorial Africa
,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (), officially the Territorial Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (french: link=no, Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon ), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity The France, ...

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
,
Comoros Archipelago The Comoro Islands or Comoros (Shikomori ''Komori''; ar, جزر القمر , ''Juzur al-Qomor''; french: Les Comores) form an archipelago of volcanic islands situated off the southeastern coast of Africa, to the east of Mozambique and northwest o ...
,
French Madagascar The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (french: Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colonial empire, French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958. History The Franco-Hova Wars (1883–1896) resulte ...
,
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to t ...
,
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
,
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise "La Marseillaise" is the national anthem A national anthem is a Patriotism, patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the ...
, French Southern and Antarctic Lands,
French Togoland French Togoland (French: '' Togo français'') was a French colonial French Colonial describes several styles of architecture File:Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjust ...
,
French Cameroons French Cameroon or French Cameroons (french: link=no, Cameroun) was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa. It now forms part of the independent country of Cameroon. History Beginnings The area of present-day Cameroon came ...
,
Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: link=no, Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions ...

Belgian Congo
,
Ruanda-Urundi Ruanda-Urundi, later Rwanda-Burundi, () was a colonial territory, once part of German East Africa German East Africa (german: Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colonial empire, German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which includ ...
,
Trust Territory of Somalia The Trust Territory of Somaliland, officially the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration" (in Italian: ''Amministrazione fiduciaria italiana della Somalia'') was a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergove ...
,
Netherlands New Guinea 300px, Steamboat connections in Dutch New Guinea in 1915 Netherlands New Guinea ( nl, Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was a part of the Dutch East Indies until 1949, later an overseas territory of ...
. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (
Mayotte Mayotte (french: Mayotte, ; Shimaore language, Shimaore: ''Maore'', ; mg, Maiôty) is an overseas department and region, overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (Frenc ...

Mayotte
). As of July 2014, there are still 13 OCTs (six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark) of which all have joined OCTA. The 13 Overseas Countries and Territories of the European Union are:


Overseas Countries and Territories Association

The Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) is an organisation founded on 17 November 2000 and headquartered in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
. All OCTs have joined OCTA as of February 2020. Its purpose is to improve economic development in overseas countries and territories, as well as cooperation with the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. On 25 June 2008, a Cooperation Treaty between the EU and OCTA was signed in Brussels. The current chairman is the Premier of
Curaçao Curaçao ( ; ; pap, Kòrsou, ) is a Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Cari ...
,
Eugene Rhuggenaath Eugene Rhuggenaath (born 4 February 1970) is a Curaçaoan politician and party leader of the Partido Alternativa Real (PAR). He was Minister for Economic Development in the List of cabinets of Curaçao#Cabinet Koeiman, Cabinet-Koeiman in 2016. He w ...
.


French overseas territories

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French
Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (french: Îles Éparses or ''Îles Éparses de l'océan Indien'') consist of four small coral islands, an atoll, and a reef in the Indian Ocean, and have constituted the 5th district of the French South ...
, and the French claim of
Adélie Land Adélie Land (french: Terre Adélie) is a Territorial claims in Antarctica, claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica. It stretches from a portion of the Southern Ocean coastline all the way inland to the South Pole. France has administere ...
in
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
) is a French Overseas Territory but has no permanent population. It has ''sui generis'' status within France.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (), officially the Territorial Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (french: link=no, Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon ), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity The France, ...

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
,
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
,
French Polynesia )Territorial motto: ( en, "Great Tahiti of the Golden Haze") , anthem = "La Marseillaise "La Marseillaise" is the national anthem A national anthem is a Patriotism, patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the ...
, and
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (; french: Wallis-et-Futuna or ', Fakauvea Wallisian, or Uvean ( wls, Fakauvea, links=no), is the Polynesian language spoken on Wallis (island), Wallis Island (also ...
are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
is a "''
sui generis ''Sui generis'' ( , ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
'' collectivity". Saint Barthélemy and Saint Pierre and Miquelon use the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
, while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the
CFP Franc The CFP franc (called the ''franc'' in everyday use) is the currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jp ...
, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities. On 22 February 2007,
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
and
Saint MartinSaint Martin may refer to: People * Saint Martin of Tours (c. 316–397), Bishop of Tours, France * Saint Martin of Braga (c. 520–580), archbishop of Bracara Augusta in Gallaecia (now Braga in Portugal) * Pope Martin I (598–655) * Saint Martin ...
were separated from the French overseas department of
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions, European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community. The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the
Lisbon Treaty The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, als ...
which listed them as outermost regions. However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States, and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the
European Council The European Council (informally EUCO) is a collegiate body that defines the overall political directions and priorities of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are loc ...
to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.


Dutch overseas territories

Six territories of the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
—all of which are Caribbean islands—have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to various EU funds (such as the
European Development Fund The European Development Fund (EDF) is the main instrument for European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised a ...
). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament. Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the
European Court of Justice European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...

European Court of Justice
granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote.Judgments of the Court in Cases C-145/04 and C-300/04: Kingdom of Spain v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and M.G. Eman and O.B. Sevinger v College van burgemeester en wethouders van Den Haa

/ref> None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The United States dollar, US dollar is used on Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and Sint Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the
Aruban florin The florin (; sign: Afl.; code In communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use of suff ...
.
Aruba Aruba ( , , ) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-1 ...

Aruba
,
Curaçao Curaçao ( ; ; pap, Kòrsou, ) is a Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Cari ...
, and
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (, ) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-10-10.png , ...

Sint Maarten
are classified as "countries" under Dutch law, and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the projected effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions. It concluded that the choice would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions, and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.
Bonaire Bonaire ( or ; ; pap, Boneiru, ) is an island in the Leeward Antilles The Leeward Antilles ( nl, Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dram ...

Bonaire
,
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius (, ), also known locally as Statia (),Tuchman, Barbara W. ''The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution'' New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. is an island in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes ...

Sint Eustatius
, and
Saba Saba (, ; , ) is a Caribbean island which is the smallest Caribbean Netherlands, special municipality (officially “Public body (Netherlands), public body”) of the Netherlands. It consists largely of the potentially active volcano Mount Scener ...

Saba
(collectively called
Caribbean Netherlands The Caribbean Netherlands ( nl, Caribisch Nederland, ) are the three #Administration, special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea. They consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba,"Bonaire, Sin ...

Caribbean Netherlands
) are "special municipalities" of the . Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), was reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015, as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies. In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation. The islands inherited their OCT status from the
Netherlands Antilles nl, In vrijheid verenigd"Unified by freedom" , national_anthem = , common_languages = Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belg ...
which was dissolved in 2010. The
Netherlands Antilles nl, In vrijheid verenigd"Unified by freedom" , national_anthem = , common_languages = Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belg ...
were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and
Netherlands New Guinea 300px, Steamboat connections in Dutch New Guinea in 1915 Netherlands New Guinea ( nl, Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was a part of the Dutch East Indies until 1949, later an overseas territory of ...
only, which it subsequently did.Treaty Establishing the EEC – Protocol on the Application of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community to the non-European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands , at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty: The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only. Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven.
Treaty establishing the EEC
/ref> Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.


Greenland

Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
joined the then
European Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Community
in 1973 as a
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
along with Denmark, but after gaining autonomy with the introduction of
home rule Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a part (administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

home rule
within the
Kingdom of Denmark The Danish Realm ( da, Danmarks Rige; fo, Danmarkar Ríki; kl, Danmarkip Naalagaaffik), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (; ; ), is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized governm ...

Kingdom of Denmark
, Greenland voted to leave in
1982 Events January * January 1 - In Peninsular Malaysia, time is switched for 30 minutes, to match Time in Malaysia, the time in use in East Malaysia, to become UTC+8 (GMT+8.00). Singapore follows after that. *January 1 - Eddie Murphy makes his ...
and left in
1985 The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year The year 1985 was proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Youth Year (IYY). It was held to focus attention on issues of concern to and relating to youth. The proclama ...
, to become an OCT. The main reason for leaving is disagreements about the
Common Fisheries Policy The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries Fishery is the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life. Commercial fisheries include wild fisheries and Fish farming, fish farms, both in fresh water (about 10% of all ...
(CFP) and to regain control of Greenlandic fish resources to subsequently remain outside EU waters. Greenlandic nationals (OCT-nationals) are, nonetheless,
EU citizens Citizenship of the European Union is afforded to all citizens of member states of the European Union The European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a ...
due to Greenland's associated relationship with the EU within the meaning of EU treaties as well as holding Danish nationality. The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under "Council Decision 2013/755/EU"; based specifically on "Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014" (outlining the relations) and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.


Special cases

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. 10 member state territories have ''
ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Latin phrases (full) The list also is divided alpha ...

ad hoc
'' arrangements in their relationship with the EU. In those special cases, VAT rules do not apply and they may also be exempt from
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...
or
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rules.} , style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 8,686 , (''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'') ,
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(''de jure'') , , , , , , - , , , ,
Livigno Livigno (; local lmo, Livígn ; german: Luwin) is a town, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The pr ...
, style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 6,721 , rowspan=2, , rowspan=2,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, , , , , , , , - , , , , style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 1,961 , , , , , , , - , , , , style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 1,536 , rowspan=2, , rowspan=2,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, , , , , , , , - , , ,
Heligoland Heligoland (; german: link=no, Helgoland ; Heligolandic Frisian: ''deät Lun'', , Mooring Frisian: ''Hålilönj,'' Danish: ''Helgoland'') is a small archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, i ...
, style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 1,265 , , , , , , , , - , , ,
Monastic Republic of Mount Athos The Monastic Republic of Mount Athos () is an Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approx ...
, style=text-align:right , , style=text-align:right , 1,811 , , Greek (''de jure'') , , , , , , , , - ! !! !!Total !style=text-align:right , 3,930 km2 (1,517 sq mi) !style=text-align:right , 303,283 ! !! !! !! !! !!


Åland

Åland Åland (; fi, Ahvenanmaa: ; ; ) is an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, su ...
, an autonomous archipelago belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour. EU law, including the fundamental
four freedoms The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by U.S. President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#F ...
, applies to Åland. However, there are some derogations due to the islands' special status. Åland is outside the VAT area and is exempt from common rules in relation to
turnover tax A turnover tax is similar to VAT A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or l ...
es, excise duties and indirect taxation. In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of ''hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus'' (regional citizenship). Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status. The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.


Büsingen am Hochrhein

The
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
village of is an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
entirely surrounded by
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, and as such is, for practical purposes, in a
customs union A customs union is generally defined as a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed ...

customs union
with the latter non-EU country. The euro is legal tender, though the Swiss franc is preferred. Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and the EU VAT area. Swiss VAT generally applies. Büsingen was also outside of the Schengen area until Switzerland joined on 12 December 2008.


Campione d'Italia and Livigno

The Italy, Italian
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
village of is enclaved by
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
's Ticino Cantons of Switzerland, canton as well as Lake Lugano, Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a ''comune'' in the Province of Como, whilst
Livigno Livigno (; local lmo, Livígn ; german: Luwin) is a town, ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The pr ...
, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a ''comune'' in the Province of Sondrio. Both ''comuni'' are part of the Lombardy Regions of Italy, region. Although part of the EU, Livigno is excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno's tax status dating back to Napoleonic times. Campione is excluded from the EU VAT area. It was excluded from the EU customs area until the end of 2019. Shops and restaurants in Campione accept payments in both euros and Swiss francs, and prices are displayed in both euros and Swiss francs.


Ceuta and Melilla

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the Common Agricultural Policy, common agricultural and fisheries policies. They are also outside the customs union and VAT area, but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges. While nominally part of the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area ( , ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for internationa ...

Schengen Area
(Schengen visas are valid), Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.Declaration No. 1. on Ceuta and Melilla attached to the Final Act of the Accession Treaty of the Kingdom of Spain to the Schengen Agreement
OJ L 239, 22.9.2000, p. 69


Cyprus

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two treaty, protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003—numbers 3 and 10, known as the "Sovereign Base Areas Protocol" and the "Cyprus Protocol" respectively – reflect this complex situation. EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol.Protocol 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003
(OJ L 236, 23.9.2003, p. 955).
If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island. Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus. Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are nominally entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus as it is governed de facto by a separate state, albeit a state recognized only by Turkey.


Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship. Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, although the United Kingdom was an EU member at the time, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas. This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty so that EU law, while still not applying in principle, applied to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty. This protocol applied EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas' authorities also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law. The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus could remain fully open and would not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas would have become a ''de facto'' part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implemented it. The base areas are already ''de facto'' members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound and their adoption of the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
as legal tender from 2008. Because Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the sovereign base areas, Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants. In a declaration attached to the London-Zürich Agreements, Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960, the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes. Under a protocol to the Brexit withdrawal agreement, certain provisions of EU law on agriculture, customs, indirect taxation, social security and border control continue to apply to the sovereign base areas.Protocol relating to the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus
Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, EUR-Lex, 12 November 2019.


United Nations buffer zone

The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007), and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is "to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone". Inhabited villages located in the buffer zone are legally administered by the Republic of Cyprus but policed by UN peacekeepers.Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.


Faroe Islands

The
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
are not part of the EU, and they have not been part of the EU since Denmark joined the community in 1973. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union. However, Faroese people may become EU citizens by changing their residence to the Danish mainland. The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area. This means that there is no formal passport control, but an identity check at check-in for air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.


Heligoland

Heligoland Heligoland (; german: link=no, Helgoland ; Heligolandic Frisian: ''deät Lun'', , Mooring Frisian: ''Hålilönj,'' Danish: ''Helgoland'') is a small archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, i ...
is an archipelago of Germany situated in the North Sea off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.


Mount Athos

Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece's EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status, guaranteed by article 105 of the Constitution of Greece, Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area. Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area ( , ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for internationa ...

Schengen Area
. The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece's accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos's "special status" should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.


Areas of extraterritoriality

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement. These listed examples pass the external EU border.


Saimaa Canal

Finland concession (territory), leases the -long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights. The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Visa policy of Russia, Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border. Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.


Värska–Ulitina road

The road from Värska Parish, Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.


Switzerland

Some roads and railways along the border of Switzerland allow transit between two Swiss places though neighbour countries without customs controls (and before 2008 passport controls), or between the border and international airports. See Privileged transit traffic#Switzerland.


Former special territories

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC): * Belgium (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation until 1962) * France (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation) * Italy (with Italian Somaliland, from ECSC formation until 1960) * The Netherlands (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation) * Portugal (with multiple territories, from 1986 enlargement of the European Communities, 1986 enlargement until 2002) * United Kingdom (with multiple territories, from 1973 enlargement of the European Communities, 1973 enlargement) Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the
Maastricht Treaty The Treaty on European Union, commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). Concluded in 1992 between the then-twelve Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Communities, ...
in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then. These were: * Cambodia (gained independence from France in 1953), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Laos (gained independence from France in 1954), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Vietnam (gained independence from France in 1954), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Tunisia (gained independence from France in 1956), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Morocco (gained independence from France in 1956), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Guinea (gained independence from France in 1958), had OCT statuss:Treaty establishing the EEC - Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories to which the provisions of Part IV of the Treaty apply, Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories * Cameroon (Cameroun, French-administered part gained independence from France in 1960 along with some of Cameroons, UK-administered parts); had OCT status for the French part * Togo (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Mali (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Senegal (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Madagascar (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Democratic Republic of the Congo, DR Congo (gained independence from Belgium in 1960), had OCT status * Somalia (Trust Territory of Somalia, Italian-administered part gained independence from Italy in 1960 along with British Somaliland, UK-administered part); had OCT status for the Italian part * Benin (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Niger (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Burkina Faso (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Ivory Coast (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Chad (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Central African Republic (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Republic of the Congo, Congo (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Gabon (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Mauritania (gained independence from France in 1960), had OCT status * Burundi (gained independence from Belgium in 1962), had OCT status * Rwanda (gained independence from Belgium in 1962), had OCT status *
Netherlands New Guinea 300px, Steamboat connections in Dutch New Guinea in 1915 Netherlands New Guinea ( nl, Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was a part of the Dutch East Indies until 1949, later an overseas territory of ...
(transferred from the Netherlands to United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, UN in 1962, later annexed by Indonesia), had OCT status * Suriname (gained independence from the Netherlands in 1975), had OCT status, EURATOM application unsure.See th
Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
an

The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by :s:Treaty of Amsterdam/Article 8#III. PROTOCOLS, Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
* Algeria (gained independence from France in 1962), had a status similar to OMRs:The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, European Economic Community Treaty, Art 227 * Bahamas (gained independence from the UK in 1973), had OCT status * Grenada (gained independence from the UK in 1973), had OCT status * Comoros (gained independence from France in 1975), had OCT status * Seychelles (gained independence from the UK in 1976), had OCT status *
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to t ...
(gained independence from France as Djibouti in 1977), had OCT status * Solomon Islands (gained independence from the UK in 1976), had OCT status * Tuvalu (gained independence from the UK in 1978), had OCT status * Dominica (gained independence from the UK in 1978), had OCT status * Saint Lucia (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status * Kiribati (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (gained independence from the UK in 1979), had OCT status * Zimbabwe (gained ''de jure'' independence from the UK in 1980), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferencesAccording to Art.227 (EEC) and Art.198 (EURATOM) these Treaties shall not apply to those overseas countries and territories having special relations with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which are not listed in Annex IV to the EEC Treaty. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong are not listed in the annex. * Vanuatu (gained independence from the UK and France in 1980), generally had OCT status * Belize (gained independence from the UK in 1981), had OCT status * Antigua and Barbuda (gained independence from the UK in 1981), had OCT status * Saint Kitts and Nevis (gained independence from the UK in 1983), had OCT status * Brunei (gained independence from UK in 1984), had OCT status * Hong Kong (sovereignty transferred from the UK to China in 1997), no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences * Macao (sovereignty transferred from Portugal to China in 1999), EURATOM was applicable, besides the ECSC preferences * Timor-Leste (East Timor) (gained independence from United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, Indonesia in 2002, considered under Portuguese administration before that), no Community treaty applied there The United Kingdom Brexit, left the EU in 2020. When it was a member, some of its Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories, overseas territories were partially integrated with the EU. *Gibraltar was part of the EU and partially inside its single market. *Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man were not part of the EU, but were in its customs union and enjoyed free trade. *Akrotiri and Dhekelia continue to have partial integration with Cyprus, an EU member state, even after the UK is no longer an EU member. *Other territories were fully outside EU integration. Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their "mainland", because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows: * The Austrian areas of Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz formerly enjoyed a special legal status. The two areas have road access only to Germany, and not directly to other parts of Austria. They were in customs union, customs and currency union with Germany and there were no border controls between Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz, respectively, and Germany. When Austria entered the EU (and its customs union) in 1995, the customs union became defunct. The entry into force of the Schengen Agreement for Austria (1997) and the introduction of the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
(2002) caused Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz to lose their remaining legal privileges. It is now legally treated in the same manner as the rest of Austria. * Saar (protectorate), Saar (Saar statute, merged with West Germany on 1 January 1957), was fully part of European Coal and Steel Community, the Community as French-administered European territory * West Berlin (German reunification, merged with West Germany on 3 October 1990), was subject to the full application of the treaties * East Germany was until 1972 on paper a part of one Germany and the European Community, since West Germany, the NATO countries and the European Community did not recognize East Germany until 1972. East Germany did not recognize any membership of the EC. The West German government treated trade with East Germany as inter-German trade and not subject to the EC trade tariffs. The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details. *
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
*
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (french: Saint-Barthélemy, ), officially the , is an overseas collectivity The French overseas collectivities ('' collectivité d'outre-mer'' or ''COM''), are first-order administrative divisions of France, like the F ...
*
Mayotte Mayotte (french: Mayotte, ; Shimaore language, Shimaore: ''Maore'', ; mg, Maiôty) is an overseas department and region, overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (Frenc ...

Mayotte


Non-EU countries and territories with partial EU integration

Some European countries are strongly connected to the European Union, through the European Economic Area or similar agreements. These countries are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
, the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). They are inside the single market (with exceptions) and the Schengen area, but outside the Eurozone, customs territory, and VAT area. Norway and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
have special areas. *Liechtenstein: Limitations on free movement of workers as a result of indefinite use of safeguard measures in Article 112 of the EEA Agreement. *Norway **Svalbard: Not part of the Schengen area, Norwegian VAT areaVAT act of 19 June 2009 no. 58
Norwegian Tax Administration, updated May 2014.
or the EU single market; free movement of people into the territory regardless of nationalityImmigrants warmly welcomed
Al Jazeera, 4 July 2006.
*
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
**Samnaun: Outside Swiss VAT areaFederal Act on Value Added Tax
Federal law of the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
Under the Northern Ireland Protocol of the Brexit withdrawal agreement, Northern Ireland remains de facto part of the
European Single Market The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market A single market is a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organiza ...

European Single Market
and the European Union Customs Union for the purposes of goods only, in order to prevent the creation of a customs border on the island of Ireland. In addition, the British Overseas Territories, British territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is partially integrated with Cyprus in the areas of agriculture, customs, indirect taxation, social security and border control.


Summary


Summary

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EU member states and their sovereign territories. Member states that do not have special-status territories are not included (as there the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union and Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification#Background, states under a safeguard clause or transitional period). Some territories of EFTA member states also have a European Free Trade Association#EFTA and the European Union, special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some Microstates and the European Union#Summary, European microstates. }'' stipulates the use of the Netherlands Antillean guilder as official tender until the official introduction of the US Dollar, probably on 1-1-2011. , - , scope="row", , (#Overseas countries and territories, OCT) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , (#Overseas countries and territories, OCT) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , (#Overseas countries and territories, OCT) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , (#Overseas countries and territories, OCT) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , (#Overseas countries and territories, OCT) , See th
PRO PRI.htm Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
an

The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by :s:Treaty of Amsterdam/Article 8#III. PROTOCOLS, Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
, , , , , , , , - , colspan="11" , , - , scope="rowgroup" colspan="2", , except: , , , , , , , , , , - , rowspan="2" style="border-top:hidden", , scope="row", , (#Outermost regions, OMR) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , (#Outermost regions, OMR) , , , , , , , , , - , colspan="11" , , - , scope="rowgroup" colspan="2", , except: , , , , , , , , , , - , rowspan="3" style="border-top:hidden", , scope="row", , (#Outermost regions, OMR) , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , , , , , , , , , , - , scope="row", , , , , , , , , , , - , colspan="11", , -valign="top" !scope="col" width="12%" colspan="2", Member states and territories !scope="col" width="12%", Application of Law of the European Union, EU law !scope="col" width="7%", EURATOM !scope="col" width="7%", Citizenship of the European Union, EU citizen­ship !scope="col" width="7%", Elections in the European Union, EU elections !scope="col" width="12%", Schengen Agreement, Schengen area !scope="col" width="7%", European Union Value Added Tax Area, EU VAT area !scope="col" width="7%", European Union Customs Union, EU customs territory !scope="col" width="9%", EU single market !scope="col" width="9%", Eurozone, Euro­zone , - , colspan="11" , , - , scope="col" colspan="11" , Legend for the "Application of EU law" column:   Full. Part of the EU.s:Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union/Part Seven: General and Final Provisions#Article 355, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union § Article 355Minimal or none. Not part of the EU territory. Summary for member states that do not have special-status territories, but do not participate in certain EU provisions as they are either not yet eligible or have an opt-outs in the European Union, opt-out. A list of the remaining member states which do not have special-status territories, and participate in all EU provisions:








See also

* Dependent territory * Elections in the European Union * Enlargement of the European Union * European Union Association Agreement *
European Union law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and ...
* Eurosphere * Eurozone * Foreign relations of the European Union * Freedom of movement for workers * * Future enlargement of the European Union * History of the European Union * Member state of the European Union * Microstates and the European Union * Opt-outs in the European Union * Outline of the European Union * Withdrawal from the European Union


Notes


References


External links

*
Information on the "Territorial status of EU countries and certain territories" from the European Commission
*
Review of CARIFORUM-EU EPA – and Implications for the British and Dutch Caribbean Octs
– What the CARIFORUM-EU trade deal means for current EU territories
Regional policy & outermost regions
{{European Union topics Foreign relations of the European Union Special territories of the European Union, * da:Oversøiske lande og territorier