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Siberia, also known as Angaraland (or simply Angara) and Angarida, is an ancient
craton A craton (, , or ; from el, κράτος ''kratos'' "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial p ...
in the heart of Siberia. Today forming the Central Siberian Plateau, it was an independent continent before the
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
period. The Verkhoyansk Sea, a passive continental margin, was fringing the Siberian Craton to the east in what is now the
East Siberian Lowland The East Siberian Lowland ( rus, Восточно-Сибирская низменность), also known as Yana-Kolyma Lowland,Oleg Leonidovič Kryžanovskij, ''A Checklist of the Ground-beetles of Russia and Adjacent Lands.'' p. 16 is a vast plai ...
. Angaraland was named in the 1880s by Austrian geologist
Eduard Suess Eduard Suess (; 20 August 1831 - 26 April 1914) was an Austrian geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape ...
who erroneously believed that in the Paleozoic there were two large continents in the Northern Hemisphere: "Atlantis", North America connected to Europe by a peninsula (=Greenland and Iceland); and "Angara-land", eastern Asia, named after the
Angara River The Angara (Buryat language, Buryat and mn, Ангар, ''Angar'',  "Cleft"; russian: Ангара́, ''Angará'') is a major river in Siberia, which traces a course through Russia's Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. It drains out of Lak ...
in Siberia.


Precambrian history

About 2.5 billion years ago (
Siderian The Siderian Period (; el, σίδηρος, translit=sídēros, meaning "iron") is the first geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Ma to Ma (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy through Jurassic ...
), Siberia was part of a continent called
Arctica Arctica or Arctida was an ancient continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Arctica
, along with the
Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield (french: Bouclier canadien ), also called the Laurentian Plateau, is a large area of exposed Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of History of the Ea ...

Canadian Shield
. Around 1.1 billion years ago (
Stenian The Stenian Period (from grc, στενός, stenós, meaning "narrow") is the final geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used ...
), Siberia became part of the
supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers sim ...
of
Rodinia Rodinia (from the Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (росси ...

Rodinia
, a state of affairs which lasted until the
Cryogenian The Cryogenian (, from grc, κρύος, krýos, meaning "cold" and , romanized: , meaning "birth") is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy ...
about 750 million years ago when it broke up, and Siberia became part of the landmass of
Protolaurasia Laurasia () was the more northern of two large landmasses that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent from around (Mya (unit), Mya), the other being Gondwana. It separated from Gondwana (beginning in the late Triassic period) during the bre ...
. During the
Ediacaran The Ediacaran Period ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of ...
Period around 600 million years ago, Protolaurasia became part of the southern supercontinent of
Pannotia Pannotia (from Greek: ''pan- Pan may refer to: Prefix *''Pan-'', a prefix from the Greek language, Greek πᾶν, ''pan'', meaning "all", "of everything", or "involving all members" of a group ** , most but not all using the prefix People * Pan ...

Pannotia
but around 550 million years ago, both Pannotia and Protolaurasia split up to become the continents of
Laurentia Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton A craton (, , or ; from el, κράτος ''kratos'' "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, which consists of Earth's two topmost layers, the ...
,
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
and Siberia.


Paleozoic history

Siberia was an independent continent through the lower Paleozoic until, during the
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
Period, it collided with the minor continent of
Kazakhstania Kazakhstania ( kk, Qazaqstaniya), the Kazakh terranes, or the Kazakhstan Block, is a geological region in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from ...
. A subsequent collision with
Baltica Baltica is a paleocontinent A paleocontinent or palaeocontinent is a distinct area of continental crust 350px, The thickness of Crust (geology)#Earth's crust, Earth's crust (km) Continental crust is the layer of Igneous rock, igneous, Sedim ...
during the
Permian The Permian ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
completed the formation of the supercontinent
Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea () was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí G ...

Pangaea
. The
Siberian Traps The Siberian Traps (russian: Сибирские траппы, ) is a large region of volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a formed from erupted from a . In other words, it differs from other ...
formed.


Mesozoic and Cenozoic history

Pangaea split up during the
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
though Siberia stayed with
Laurasia Laurasia () was the more northern of two large landmasses that formed part of the Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea () was a supercontinent In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("s ...
. Laurasia gradually split up during the
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
with Siberia remaining part of present-day northeastern
Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a ...

Eurasia
. Today, Siberia forms part of the landmass of
Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia, Field, Henry.The University of California African Expedition: I, Egypt, ''American Anthropologist,'' New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia), nickname A nickname (al ...

Afro-Eurasia
. To the east it is joined to the
North American Plate The North American Plate is a tectonic plate This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant th ...
at the
Chersky Range The Chersky Range (, ) is a chain of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, an ...
. In around 250 million years from now Siberia may be in the
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
region and part of the new supercontinent of
Pangaea Ultima Pangaea Proxima (also called Pangaea Ultima, Neopangaea, and Pangaea II) is a possible future supercontinent configuration. Consistent with the supercontinent cycle, Pangaea Proxima could occur within the next 300 million years. This potential con ...
.


Features

*
Aldan Shield Aldan Shield (russian: Алданский щит) is a Shield (geology), shield in Siberia. It is an exposed Basement (geology), basement of the Siberian Craton. Together with the Anabar Shield further to the northwest, the Aldan Shield is one of ...
* Anabar Shield * Daldyn Terrane * Magan Terrane * Olenyok Uplift * Tungus Terrane


See also

* *


References


External links

* (History of Siberia as well as other parts of Asia) {{palaeo-geo-stub Historical continents Tectonic plates Historical tectonic plates
Continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...
Paleozoic Asia Paleozoic geology Geology of Russia Natural history of Asia North Asia Geology of Krasnoyarsk Krai Geology of the Sakha Republic