HOME

TheInfoList




Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a
subarctic The subarctic zone is a region in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's sur ...
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
in the Northern Atlantic, between
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
and
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
. It is the northernmost part of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. The islands lie about to the northeast of
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
, from mainland Scotland and west of Norway. They form part of the border between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the
North Sea The North Sea is a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth.
to the east. Their total area is ,Shetland Islands Council (2012) p. 4 and the population totalled 22,920 in 2019. The islands comprise the
Shetland constituency
Shetland constituency
of the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
. The local authority, the
Shetland Islands Council The Shetland Islands Council ( sco, Shetland Islands Cooncil; gd, Comhairle Shealtainn) is the local authority for Shetland, Scotland. It was established by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and is the successor to the former Lerwick Town C ...
, is one of the 32
council areas For Local government in Scotland, local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" ( gd, comhairlean), which are all governed by unitary authority, single-tier authorities designated as "councils". They ...
of Scotland. The islands' administrative centre and only
burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii ...

burgh
is
Lerwick Lerwick (; non, Leirvik; nrn, Larvik) is the main town and port of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago ...

Lerwick
, which has been the capital of Shetland since 1708, before which time the capital was
Scalloway Scalloway ( non, Skálavágr, "bay with the large house(s)") is the largest settlement on the North Atlantic coast of Mainland, Shetland, Mainland, the largest island of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. The village had a population of roughly 900, ...
. The largest island, known as " the Mainland", has an area of , and the fifth-largest island in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands in Shetland. The archipelago has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
, complex geology, rugged coastline, and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived in Shetland since the
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
period. In the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, the islands were dominated by
Scandinavian A Scandinavian is a resident of Scandinavia or something associated with the region, including: Culture * Scandinavianism, political and cultural movement * Scandinavian design, a design movement of the 1950s * Scandinavian folklore * Scandinavia ...
influences, especially from
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
. In 1707, when Scotland and England united to form the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", ''The American Pageant, Volume 1'', Cengage Learning (2012) was a s ...

Kingdom of Great Britain
, trade between Shetland and continental northern Europe decreased. The discovery of
North Sea oil North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s ...
in the 1970s significantly boosted Shetland's economy, employment and public-sector revenues. Fishing has always been an important part of the islands’ economy. The local way of life reflects the Norse heritage of the isles, including the
Up Helly Aa Up Helly Aa ( ; literally "Up Holy .html" ;"title="ay/nowiki>">ay/nowiki> All") is a type of fire festival held annually from January to March in various communities in Shetland Islands, Shetland, Scotland to mark the end of the Yule in Scotlan ...
fire festivals and a strong musical tradition, especially the traditional
fiddle A fiddle is a bowed string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * String ...

fiddle
style. The islands have produced a variety of prose writers and poets, who have often written in the distinctive
Shetland dialect Shetland dialect (also variously known as Shetlandic, (broad or auld) Shetland or Shaetlan, and referred to as Modern Shetlandic Scots (MSS) by some linguists) is a dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discour ...
. Numerous areas on the islands have been set aside to protect the local
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...

fauna
and
flora Flora is all the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, ca ...

flora
, including a number of important seabird nesting sites. The
Shetland pony The Shetland pony is a Scottish breed A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. ...

Shetland pony
and
Shetland Sheepdog The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of herding dog backing sheep. working with sheep. ,Fairlie, New Zealand A herding dog, also known as a stock dog, shepherd dog or working dog, is a Dog type, type of dog that eithe ...

Shetland Sheepdog
are two well-known Shetland animal breeds. Other animals with local breeds include the
Shetland sheep The Shetland is a small, wool-producing breed of sheep originating in the Shetland Isles, Scotland but is now also kept in many other parts of the world. It is part of the Northern European short-tailed sheep group, and it is closely related to ...
,
cow Cow Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most common type of large domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the ...
,
goose A goose (plural geese) is a bird of any of several waterfowl Anseriformes is an order of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked ...
, and
duck Duck is the common name for numerous species of waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anati ...
. The Shetland pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
, is "" (“By law shall land be built"). The phrase is of
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
origin, is mentioned in ''
Njáls saga ''Njáls saga'' (modern Icelandic pronunciation: ) (also ''Njála'' (), ''Brennu-Njáls saga'' () or ''"The Story of Burnt Njáll"'') is a thirteenth-century Icelandic saga The sagas of Icelanders ( is, Íslendingasögur), also known as fami ...
'', and was likely borrowed from tenets of ancient provincial Norwegian laws such as the
Frostathing Law Frostathing law (Frostating's law, Frostating Law, Frostathinglaw, Frostaþing law) (''Frostatingsloven'') is one of Norway's oldest laws. It concerned the Frostating, which covered large parts of Norway, and derives its name from the ancient court ...
.


Etymology

The name ''Shetland'' may have been derived from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
words, ('
hilt The hilt (rarely called a haft or shaft) of a knife A knife (plural knives; from Old Norse 'knife, dirk') is a tool or weapon with a cutting edge or blade, often attached to a handle or hilt. One of the earliest tools used by humanity, k ...
'), and ('land'). Another possibility is that the first syllable is derived from the name of an ancient Celtic tribe. In AD 43, the Roman author
Pomponius Mela Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer ;Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece *Homer *Anaximander *Hecataeus of Miletus *Massaliote Periplus *Scylax of Caryanda (6th century BC) *Herodotus ;Hellenistic period *Pyt ...
made reference in his writing to seven islands he called the . In AD 77,
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
called these same islands the . Scholars have inferred that both of these references are to islands in the Shetland group. Another possible early written reference to the islands is
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
' report in ''
Agricola AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access) is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experiment ...
'' in AD 98. After he described the Roman discovery and conquest of Orkney, he added that the Roman fleet had seen "
Thule Thule ( grc-gre, Θούλη, Thoúlē; la, Thūlē) is the farthest north location mentioned in ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...
, too". In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as — "the Isles of Cats" (meaning the island inhabited by the tribe called ''Cat''). This may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands. Cat was the name of a Pictish people who occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland (see
Kingdom of Cat Image:Pictish kingdoms.png, This map of Scotland shows roughly where the Pictish kingdoms were located, superimposed on a (simplified) map of the traditional counties of Scotland. Cait or Cat was a legendary Picts, Pictish kingdom originating c. ...
); and their name survives in the names of the county of
Caithness Caithness ( gd, Gallaibh , sco, Caitnes; non, Katanes) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continent ...

Caithness
and in the Scottish Gaelic name for
Sutherland Sutherland ( gd, Cataibh) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it ...

Sutherland
, , which means "among the Cats". The oldest known version of the modern name Shetland is , which is the Latinised adjectival form of the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
name. It is recorded in a letter written by Harald, Count of Shetland, in 1190. By 1431, the islands were being referred to as ''Hetland'', after various intermediate transformations. It is possible that the
Pictish Pictish is the extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer ...
"cat" sound contributed to this
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
name. In the 16th century, the Shetlands were referred to as .Gammeltoft (2010) p. 21-22Sandnes (2010) p. 9 When the Scandinavian
Norn language Norn is an extinct North Germanic language The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Ge ...
previously spoken by the inhabitants of the islands was replaced by the Shetland dialect of Scots (a gradual process), became . The initial letter is the
Middle Scots Middle Scots was the Anglic language The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic ( English and Scots) and Frisian varieties. The Northumbrian Language Society also considers Northumbrian an Anglic langu ...
letter, ''
yogh The letter yogh (ȝogh) ( ; Scots Language, Scots: ; Middle English: ) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing ''y'' () and various velar consonant, velar phonemes. It was derived from the Insular G, Insular form of the letter ' ...

yogh
'', the pronunciation of which is almost identical to the original Norn sound, . When the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was often replaced by the similar-looking letter (which at the time was usually rendered with a curled tail: ⟨ʒ⟩) hence , the form used in the name of the pre-1975
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
. This is also the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...
names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse, possibly
Pictish Pictish is the extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer ...
or even pre-
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
names or elements.


Geography and geology

Shetland is around north of Scotland and west of
Bergen Bergen (), historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Bergen
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
. It covers an area of and has a coastline long.
Lerwick Lerwick (; non, Leirvik; nrn, Larvik) is the main town and port of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago ...

Lerwick
, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 22,920 people live within of the town.
Scalloway Scalloway ( non, Skálavágr, "bay with the large house(s)") is the largest settlement on the North Atlantic coast of Mainland, Shetland, Mainland, the largest island of the Shetland Islands, Scotland. The village had a population of roughly 900, ...
on the west coast, which was the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.Shetland Islands Council (2010) p. 10 Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as
Mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...
. The next largest are
Yell A yell is a loud vocalization; see screaming A scream is a loud speech production, vocalization in which air is passed through the vocal folds with greater force than is used in regular or close-distance vocalisation. This can be performed by a ...
,
Unst Unst (; sco, Unst; nrn, Ønst) is one of the North Isles The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zet ...

Unst
, and
Fetlar Fetlar ( sco, Fetlar) is one of the North Isles The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a ...
, which lie to the north, and
Bressay Bressay ( sco, Bressa) is a populated island in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes cal ...
and
Whalsay Whalsay ( sco, Whalsa; non, Hvalsey or ''Hvals-øy'', meaning 'Whale Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, usually exc ...
, which lie to the east. East and
West Burra West Burra is one of the Scalloway Islands, a subgroup of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipe ...
,
Muckle Roe Muckle Roe is an island in Shetland, Scotland, in St. Magnus Bay, to the west of Mainland, Shetland, Mainland. It has a population of around 130 people, who mainly crofting, croft and live in the south east of the island.Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 440 ...
,
Papa Stour Papa Stour ( sco, Papa Stour) is one of the Shetland Islands in Scotland, with a population of under fifteen people, some of whom immigration, immigrated after an appeal for residents in the 1970s. Located to the west of mainland Shetland and with ...

Papa Stour
,
Trondra Trondra ( sco, Trondra) is one of the Scalloway Islands, a subgroup of the Shetland Islands in Scotland. It shelters the harbour of Scalloway and has an area of . History Trondra was becoming rapidly depopulated until 1970, when road bridges were b ...
and
Vaila Vaila (Old Norse: "Valey") is an island in Shetland, Scotland, lying south of the Westland peninsula of the Shetland Mainland. It has an area of , and is at its highest point.Haswell-Smith, Hamish. (2004) The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh. Canongate ...
are smaller islands to the west of Mainland. The other inhabited islands are
Foula Foula (; sco, Foola; nrn, Fuglø), located in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes c ...
west of
Walls Walls may refer to: *The plural of wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unr ...
,
Fair Isle Fair Isle (; sco, Fair Isle; non, Friðarey; gd, Fara) is an island in Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An arch ...
south-west of
Sumburgh Head Sumburgh Head is located at the southern tip of the Shetland Mainland in northern Scotland. The head is a 100m high rocky spur capped by the Sumburgh Head Lighthouse. The Old Norse name was ''Dunrøstar høfdi'', it means "The Head onto the loud t ...

Sumburgh Head
, and the
Out Skerries The Out Skerries are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a ...
to the east. The uninhabited islands include
Mousa Mousa ( non, Mosey "moss island") is a small island in Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometim ...

Mousa
, known for the
Broch of Mousa Broch of Mousa (or Mousa Broch) is a preserved Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, ...
, the finest preserved example in the world of an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
broch A broch () is an Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history between the use of the first stone tools by hominins ...
; Noss to the east of
Bressay Bressay ( sco, Bressa) is a populated island in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes cal ...
, which has been a national nature reserve since 1955; St Ninian's Isle, connected to Mainland by the largest active
tombolo A tombolo is a sandy isthmus. A tombolo, from the Italian ''tombolo'', meaning 'pillow' or 'cushion', and sometimes translated as '' ayre'', is a deposition landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the E ...
in the United Kingdom; and
Out Stack Out Stack or Ootsta is an island in Shetland, Scotland and the Extreme points of the United Kingdom, northernmost point of both the United Kingdom and the British Isles. It has been described as "the full stop at the end of Great Britain". It li ...

Out Stack
, the northernmost point of the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
."Get-a-map"
,
Ordnance Survey , nativename_a = , nativename_r = , logo = Ordnance Survey 2015 Logo.svg , logo_width = 240px , logo_caption = , seal = , seal_width = , seal_caption = , picture = , picture_width = , picture_caption = , formed = , preceding1 = , di ...
, Retrieved 7 March 2011
Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: is the most northerly castle in the United Kingdom and Skaw the most northerly settlement. The geology of Shetland is complex, with numerous faults and fold axes. These islands are the northern outpost of the
Caledonian orogeny The Caledonian orogeny was a orogeny, mountain-building era recorded in the northern parts of the British Isles, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, East Greenland Orogen, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe. The Caledonian orogeny ...
, and there are outcrops of Lewisian,
Dalradian Andalusite crystals in Dalradian (Southern Highland Group) metamorphic rock at Boyndie Bay, north-east Scotland The Dalradian Supergroup (informally and traditionally the Dalradian) is a stratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) in the lithos ...
and Moine metamorphic rocks with histories similar to their equivalents on the Scottish mainland. There are also
Old Red Sandstone The Old Red Sandstone is an assemblage of rocks in the North Atlantic region largely of Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a period (geology), geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian, mil ...
deposits and
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
intrusions. The most distinctive feature is the
ophiolite An ophiolite is a section of Earth's oceanic crust The oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of the tectonic plates This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust ...

ophiolite
in Unst and Fetlar which is a remnant of the
Iapetus Ocean upright=1.35, Reconstruction of how the Iapetus Ocean and surrounding continents might have been arranged during the late Ediacaran period (geology), period The Iapetus Ocean (pronounced ) was an ocean that existed in the late Neoproterozoic and e ...
floor made up of
ultrabasic Ultramafic rocks (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous rocks, igneous and metamorphic rocks, meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% Magnesium oxide ...
peridotite Peridotite ( ) is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. Peridotite is ultramafic, as the rock contains less than 45% silica. It is high in magnesium (Mg2+), reflecting the high prop ...
and
gabbro Gabbro () is a phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusion, intrusive igneous rock formed from the slow cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich magma into a crystallinity, holocrystalline mass deep beneath the Earth's surface. Slow-cooling, coa ...

gabbro
. Much of Shetland's economy depends on the oil-bearing sediments in the surrounding seas. Geological evidence shows that in around 6100 BC a
tsunami A tsunami ( ; from ja, 津波, lit=harbour wave, ) is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquake An earthquake (also known as a quake, t ...

tsunami
caused by the
Storegga Slide The three Storegga Slides are amongst the largest known submarine landslides. They occurred under water, at the edge of Norway's continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea The Norwegian Sea ( no, Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, ...
hit Shetland, as well as the west coast of Norway, and may have created a wave of up to high in the where modern populations are highest. The highest point of Shetland is
Ronas Hill Ronas Hill (or Rönies Hill) is a hill in Shetland, Scotland. It is classed as a Marilyn (hill), Marilyn, and is the highest point in the Shetland Islands at an elevation of . A Neolithic chambered cairn is located near the summit. Location Ronas ...
at . The
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
glaciations entirely covered the islands. During that period, the Stanes of Stofast, a 2000-tonne
glacial erratic A glacial erratic is glacially deposited rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical ...

glacial erratic
, came to rest on a prominent hilltop in Lunnasting. Shetland has a national scenic area which, unusually, includes a number of discrete locations: Fair Isle, Foula, South West Mainland (including the
Scalloway IslandsImage:View from south end of East Burra Shetland.jpg, 300px, The south end of East Burra The Scalloway Islands are in Shetland opposite Scalloway on south west of the Mainland, Shetland, Mainland. They form a mini-archipelago and include: * Burra, ...
), Muckle Roe, , Fethaland and Herma Ness. The total area covered by the designation is 41,833 ha, of which 26,347 ha is marine (i.e. below low tide). In October 2018, legislation came into force in Scotland to prevent public bodies, without good reason, showing Shetland in a separate box in maps, as had often been the practice. The legislation requires the islands to be "displayed in a manner that accurately and proportionately represents their geographical location in relation to the rest of Scotland", so as make clear the islands' real distance from other areas.


Climate

Shetland has an oceanic temperate maritime climate ( Köppen: ''Cfb''), bordering on, but very slightly above average in summer temperatures, the subpolar variety, with long but cool winters and short mild summers. The climate all year round is moderate owing to the influence of the surrounding seas, with average night-time low temperatures a little above in January and February and average daytime high temperatures of near in July and August."Shetland, Scotland Climate"
climatetemp.info, Retrieved 6 January 2018
The highest temperature on record was on 6 August 1910 at
Sumburgh Head Sumburgh Head is located at the southern tip of the Shetland Mainland in northern Scotland. The head is a 100m high rocky spur capped by the Sumburgh Head Lighthouse. The Old Norse name was ''Dunrøstar høfdi'', it means "The Head onto the loud t ...

Sumburgh Head
and the lowest in the Januaries of 1952 and 1959.Shetland Islands Council (2005), pp. 5–9 The frost-free period may be as little as three months. In contrast, inland areas of nearby
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
on similar latitudes experience significantly larger temperature differences between summer and winter, with the average highs of regular July days comparable to Lerwick's all-time record heat that is around , further demonstrating the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, winters are considerably milder than those expected in nearby continental areas, even comparable to winter temperatures of many parts of England and Wales much further south. The general character of the climate is windy and cloudy with at least of rain falling on more than 250 days a year. Average yearly
precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
is , with November and December the wettest months. Snowfall is usually confined to the period November to February, and snow seldom lies on the ground for more than a day. Less rain falls from April to August although no month receives less than .
Fog Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of tiny water drop (liquid), droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface. Reprint from Fog can be considered a type of low-lying cloud usually resembling stratus cloud, s ...

Fog
is common during summer due to the cooling effect of the sea on mild southerly airflows. Because of the islands'
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
, on clear winter nights the can sometimes be seen in the sky, while in summer there is almost , a state of affairs known locally as the "simmer dim". Annual bright sunshine averages 1110 hours, and overcast days are common.


Prehistory

Due to the practice, dating to at least the early
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
, of building in stone on virtually treeless islands, Shetland is extremely rich in physical remains of the prehistoric eras and there are over 5,000 archaeological sites all told. A
midden A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones ...
site at West Voe on the south coast of Mainland, dated to 4320–4030 BC, has provided the first evidence of
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

Mesolithic
human activity in Shetland. The same site provides dates for early Neolithic activity and finds at Scord of Brouster in
Walls Walls may refer to: *The plural of wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unr ...
have been dated to 3400 BC. "Shetland knives" are stone tools that date from this period made from
felsite Felsite is a very fine-grained volcanic rock Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a formed from erupted from a . In other words, it differs from other by being of origin. Like all rock types, the concept ...
from
Northmavine Northmavine or Northmaven ( non, Norðan Mæfeið, meaning ‘the land north of the Mavis Grind Image:Mavisgrind.jpg, upright=1.5, Mavis Grind, looking south Mavis Grind ( non, Mæfeiðs grind or ', meaning "gate of the narrow isthmus") is a narro ...
.Schei (2006) p. 10 Pottery shards found at the important site of also indicate that there was Neolithic activity there although the main settlement dates from the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
. This includes a , a cluster of wheelhouses and a later broch. The site has provided evidence of habitation during various phases right up until
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
times. Heel-shaped cairns, are a style of chambered cairn unique to Shetland, with a particularly large example in Vementry. Numerous brochs were erected during the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
. In addition to Mousa there are significant ruins at Broch of Clickimin, Clickimin, Broch of Culswick, Culswick, Old Scatness and Broch of West Burrafirth, West Burrafirth, although their origin and purpose is a matter of some controversy. The later Iron Age inhabitants of the Northern Isles were probably Pictish, although the historical record is sparse. Hunter (2000) states in relation to King Bridei I of the Picts in the sixth century AD: "As for Shetland, Orkney, Skye and the Western Isles, their inhabitants, most of whom appear to have been Pictish in culture and speech at this time, are likely to have regarded Bridei as a fairly distant presence". In 2011, the collective site, "The Crucible of Iron Age Shetland", including Broch of Mousa, Old Scatness and Jarlshof, joined the UKs "Tentative List" of World Heritage Sites in Scotland, World Heritage Sites."Sites make Unesco world heritage status bid shortlist"
(22 March 2011) BBC Scotland. Retrieved 22 March 2011


History


Scandinavian colonisation

The expanding population of
Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Province * Sami District, Gambia * Sami, Cephalonia, a municipality in Greece * Sami (ancient city), in Elis, Greece * Sa ...

Scandinavia
led to a shortage of available resources and arable land there and led to a period of Viking expansion, the North Germanic peoples, Norse gradually shifting their attention from plundering to invasion. Shetland was colonised during the late 8th and 9th centuries, the fate of the existing indigenous Pictish population being uncertain, though it is now seen that Modern Shetlanders have overwhelmingly Scottish DNA according to a major research project, which shows that only 20% of isles DNA is traceable to Norwegian ancestors.
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
s then used the islands as a base for pirate expeditions to Norway and the coasts of mainland Scotland. In response, Norwegian king Harald I of Norway, Harald Hårfagre ("Harald Fair Hair") annexed the Northern Isles (comprising Orkney and Shetland) in 875. Rognvald Eysteinsson received Earl of Orkney, Orkney and Shetland as an earldom from Harald as reparation for the death of his son in battle in Scotland, and then passed the earldom on to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson, Sigurd the Mighty. The islands converted to Christianity in the late 10th century. King Olaf I of Norway, Olav Tryggvasson summoned the ''earl, jarl'' Sigurd the Stout during a visit to Orkney and said, "I order you and all your subjects to be baptised. If you refuse, I'll have you killed on the spot and I swear I will ravage every island with fire and steel". Unsurprisingly, Sigurd agreed and the islands became Christian at a stroke.Thomson (2008) p. 69 quoting the ''Orkneyinga Saga'' chapter 12. Unusually, from c. 1100 onwards the Norse ''jarls'' owed allegiance both to Norway and to the Scottish crown through their holdings as Earls of Caithness. In 1194, when Harald Maddadsson was Earl of Orkney, Earl of Orkney and Shetland, a rebellion broke out against King Sverre Sigurdsson of Norway. The ("Island Beardies") sailed for Norway but were beaten in the Sigurd Magnusson#Battle of Florvåg, Battle of Florvåg near
Bergen Bergen (), historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Bergen
. After his victory King Sverre placed Shetland under direct Norwegian rule, a state of affairs that continued for nearly two centuries.Schei (2006) p. 13


Increased Scottish interest

From the mid-13th century onwards Scottish monarchs increasingly sought to take control of the islands surrounding the mainland. The process was begun in earnest by Alexander II of Scotland, Alexander II and was continued by his successor Alexander III of Scotland, Alexander III. This strategy eventually led to an invasion of Scotland by Haakon IV of Norway, Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway. His fleet assembled in Bressay Sound before sailing for Scotland. After the stalemate of the Battle of Largs, Haakon retreated to Orkney, where he died in December 1263, entertained on his deathbed by recitations of the sagas. His death halted any further Norwegian expansion in Scotland and following this ill-fated expedition, the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, Hebrides and Mann were yielded to the Kingdom of Scotland as a result of the 1266 Treaty of Perth, although the Scots recognised continuing Norwegian sovereignty over Orkney and Shetland.


Absorption by Scotland

In the 14th century, Orkney and Shetland remained a Norwegian possession, but Scottish influence was growing. Jon Haraldsson, who was murdered in Thurso in 1231, was the last of an unbroken line of Norse jarls, and thereafter the earls were Scots noblemen of the houses of Earl of Angus, Angus and Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, St Clair. On the death of Haakon VI of Norway, Haakon VI in 1380, Norway formed a Kalmar Union, political union with Denmark, after which the interest of the royal house in the islands declined. In 1469, Shetland was pledge (law), pledged by Christian I of Denmark, Christian I, in his capacity as King of Norway, as security against the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland. As the money was never paid, the connection with the Crown of Scotland became permanent. In 1470, William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness ceded his title to James III, and the following year the Northern Isles were directly absorbed to the Crown of Scotland, an action confirmed by the Parliament of Scotland in 1472. Nonetheless, Shetland's connection with Norway has proved to be enduring. From the early 15th century onward Shetlanders sold their goods through the Hanseatic League of German merchantmen. The Hansa would buy shiploads of salted fish, wool and butter, and import salt, cloth, beer and other goods. The late 16th century and early 17th century were dominated by the influence of the despotic Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney, Robert Stewart, Earl of Orkney, who was granted the islands by his half-sister Mary, Queen of Scots, Mary Queen of Scots, and his son Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney, Patrick. The latter commenced the building of Scalloway Castle, but after his imprisonment in 1609, the Crown annexed Orkney and Shetland again until 1643, when Charles I of England, Charles I granted them to William Douglas, 7th Earl of Morton. These rights were held on and off by the Mortons until 1766, when they were sold by James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton to Laurence Dundas.


18th and 19th centuries

The trade with the North German towns lasted until the 1707 Act of Union 1707, Act of Union, when high salt duties prevented the German merchants from trading with Shetland. Shetland then went into an economic depression, as the local traders were not as skilled in trading salted fish. However, some local merchant-lairds took up where the German merchants had left off, and fitted out their own ships to export fish from Shetland to the Continent. For the independent farmers of Shetland this had negative consequences, as they now had to fish for these merchant-lairds."History"
, visit.shetland.org, Retrieved 20 March 2011
Smallpox afflicted the islands in the 17th and 18th centuries (as it did all of Europe), but as Smallpox vaccine, vaccines became available after 1800, health improved. The islands were very badly hit by the Highland Potato Famine, potato famine of 1846 and the government introduced a Relief Plan for the islands under the command of Rear Admiral Robert Craigie, Captain Robert Craigie of the Royal Navy who stayed in Lerwick to oversee the project 1847–1852. During this period Craigie also did much to improve and increase roads in the islands. Population increased to a maximum of 31,670 in 1861. However, British rule came at price for many ordinary people as well as traders. The Shetlanders' nautical skills were sought by the Royal Navy. Some 3,000 served during the Napoleonic wars from 1800 to 1815 and impressment, press gangs were rife. During this period 120 men were taken from Fetlar alone, and only 20 of them returned home. By the late 19th century 90% of all Shetland was owned by just 32 people, and between 1861 and 1881 more than 8,000 Shetlanders emigrated.Schei (2006) pp. 16–17, 57 With the passing of the Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Act 1886, Crofters' Act in 1886 the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone, William Gladstone emancipated crofters from the rule of the landlords. The Act enabled those who had effectively been landowners' serfs to become owner-occupiers of their own small farms. By this time fishermen from Holland, who had traditionally gathered each year off the coast of Shetland to fish for herring, triggered an industry in the islands that boomed from around 1880 until the 1920s when stocks of the fish began to dwindle. The production peaked in 1905 at more than a million barrels, of which 708,000 were exported. The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland's counties: Zetland County Council, which was created in 1890, was established at County Buildings, Lerwick, County Buildings in Lerwick.


20th century

During World War I, many Shetlanders served in the Gordon Highlanders, a further 3,000 served in the Merchant Navy, and more than 1,500 in a special local naval reserve. The 10th Cruiser Squadron was stationed at Swarbacks Minn (the stretch of water to the south of Muckle Roe), and during a single year from March 1917 more than 4,500 ships sailed from Lerwick as part of an escorted convoy system. In total, Shetland lost more than 500 men, a higher proportion than any other part of Britain, and there were further waves of emigration in the 1920s and 1930s.Nicolson (1972) pp. 91, 94–95 During World War II, a Norwegian naval unit nicknamed the "Shetland bus, Shetland Bus" was established by the Special Operations Executive in the autumn of 1940 with a base first at Lunna House, Lunna and later in Scalloway to conduct operations around the coast of Norway. About 30 fishing vessels used by Norwegian refugees were gathered and the Shetland Bus conducted covert operations, carrying intelligence agents, refugees, instructors for the resistance, and military supplies. It made over 200 trips across the sea, and Leif Larsen, the most highly decorated Allies of World War II, allied naval officer of the war, made 52 of them."The Shetland Bus"
, scotsatwar.org.uk, Retrieved 23 March 2011
Several RAF airfields and sites were also established at Sullom Voe and several lighthouses suffered enemy air attacks. Oil reserves discovered in the later 20th century in the seas both east and west of Shetland have provided a much-needed alternative source of income for the islands. The East Shetland Basin is one of Europe's prolific petroleum provinces. As a result of the oil revenue and the cultural links with Norway, a small Shetland Movement, Home Rule movement developed briefly to recast the constitutional position of Shetland. It saw as its models the Isle of Man, as well as Shetland's closest neighbour, the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
, an autonomous dependency of Denmark. The population stood at 17,814 in 1961.


Economy

Today, the main revenue producers in Shetland are agriculture, aquaculture, fishing, renewable energy in Scotland, renewable energy, the petroleum, petroleum industry (crude oil and natural gas production), the creative industries and tourism. Unst also has a Spaceport, rocket launch site called SaxaVord Spaceport (previously known as Shetland Space Centre). A February 2021 news item indicated that a rocket manufacturer from Germany, HyImpulse Technologies, planned to launch spacecraft powered by hydrogen from the Spaceport, starting in 2023. During the previous month, the Space Centre had filed plans with Council for a "satellite launch facility and associated infrastructure". As of February 2021, information on the Promote Shetland Web site indicated that "Shetland is less reliant on tourism than many Scottish islands" and that oil was an important sector of the economy. The "process of gradually transitioning from oil to clean renewable energy ... production of clean hydrogen" was also emphasized. Fishing remained the primary sector and was expected to grow.


Fishing

Fishing is central to the islands' economy today, with the total catch being in 2009, valued at over £73.2 million. Atlantic mackerel, Mackerel makes up more than half of the catch in Shetland by weight and value, and there are significant landings of haddock, atlantic cod, cod, atlantic herring, herring, merlangius merlangus, whiting, lophius piscatorius, monkfish and shellfish. A report published in October 2020 was optimistic about the future of this sector in: "With new fish markets in Lerwick and Scalloway, and plans to expand its aquaculture offerings in Yell, Shetland is preparing for more growth in its biggest industry". As of February 2021, the Promote Shetland Web site stated that "more fish is landed in Shetland than in England, Wales and Northern Ireland combined', that "Shetland harvests 40,000 tonnes of salmon a year, worth £180 million" and that "6,500 tonnes of mussels are grown in Shetland, more than 80 per cent of the total Scottish production".


Energy and fossil fuels

Oil and gas were first landed in 1978 at Sullom Voe, which has subsequently become one of the largest terminals in Europe. Taxes from the oil have increased public sector spending on social welfare, art, sport, environmental measures and financial development. Three quarters of the islands' workforce is employed in the service sector, and the
Shetland Islands Council The Shetland Islands Council ( sco, Shetland Islands Cooncil; gd, Comhairle Shealtainn) is the local authority for Shetland, Scotland. It was established by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and is the successor to the former Lerwick Town C ...
alone accounted for 27.9% of output in 2003. Shetland's access to oil revenues has funded the Shetland Charitable Trust, which in turn funds a wide variety of local programmes. The balance of the fund in 2011 was £217 million, i.e., about £9,500 per head. In January 2007, the Shetland Islands Council signed a partnership agreement with Scottish and Southern Energy for the Viking Wind Farm, a 200-turbine wind farm and subsea cable. This renewable energy project would produce about 600 watt, megawatts and contribute about £20 million to the Shetland economy per year. The plan met with significant opposition within the islands, primarily resulting from the anticipated visual impact of the development. The PURE project in Unst is a research centre which uses a combination of wind power and fuel cells to create a wind-Hydrogen Hybrid Power Systems, wind hydrogen system. The project is run by the Unst Partnership, the local community's development trust. A status report on hydrogen production in Shetland, published in September 2020, stated that Shetland Islands Council (SIC) had "joined a number of organisations and projects to drive forward plans to establish hydrogen as a future energy source for the isles and beyond". For example, it was a member of the Scottish Hydrogen Fuel Cell Association (SHFCA). The ORION project, previously named the Shetland Energy Hub, was underway; the plan was to create an energy hub that would use clean electricity in the development of "new technologies such as blue and green hydrogen generation". In December 2020 the Scottish government released a hydrogen policy statement with plans for incorporating both Blue hydrogen, blue and green hydrogen for use in heating, transportation and industry. The government also planned an investment of £100 million in the hydrogen sector "for the £180 million Emerging Energy Technologies Fund". Shetland Islands Council planned to obtain further specifics about the availability of funding. The government had already agreed that the production of "green" hydrogen from wind power near Sullom Voe Terminal was a valid plan. A December 2020 report stated that "the extensive terminal could also be used for direct refuelling of hydrogen-powered ships" and suggested that the fourth jetty at Sullom Voe "could be suitable for ammonia export".


Farming and textiles

Farming is mostly concerned with the raising of Shetland (sheep), Shetland sheep, known for their unusually fine wool. Knitwear is important both to the economy and culture of Shetland, and the Fair Isle (technique), Fair Isle design is well known. However, the industry faces challenges due to plagiarism of the word "Shetland" by manufacturers operating elsewhere, and a certification trademark, "The Shetland Lady", has been registered. Crofting, the farming of small plots of land on a legally restricted tenancy basis, is still practised and is viewed as a key Shetland tradition as well as an important source of income. Crops raised include oats and barley; however, the cold, windswept islands make for a harsh environment for most plants.


Media

Shetland is served by a weekly local newspaper, ''The Shetland Times'' and the online ''Shetland News'' with radio service being provided by BBC Radio Shetland and the commercial radio station SIBC.


Tourism

Shetland is a popular destination for cruise ships, and in 2010 the Lonely Planet guide named Shetland as the sixth best region in the world for tourists seeking unspoilt destinations. The islands were described as "beautiful and rewarding" and the Shetlanders as "a fiercely independent and self-reliant bunch". Overall visitor expenditure was worth £16.4 million in 2006, in which year just under 26,000 cruise liner passengers arrived at Lerwick Harbour. This business has grown substantially with 109 cruise ships already booked in for 2019, representing over 107,000 passenger visits. In 2009, the most popular visitor attractions were the Shetland Museum, the RSPB reserve at Sumburgh Head, Bonhoga Gallery at Weisdale Mill and Jarlshof. Geopark Shetland (now Shetland UNESCO Global Geopark) was established by the Amenity Trust in 2009 to boost sustainable tourism to the islands. According to the Promote Shetland ogranisation's Web site, tourism increased "by £12.6 million between 2017–19 with more than half of visitors giving their trip a perfect rating". Extremely popular in many countries, with five series having been filmed and aired by early 2021, Shetland (TV series) was inspired by the Ann Cleeves books about the fictional Detective Inspector Jimmy Perez. This has created an interest in Shetland and some tourists visit because they wish to see the places where the series is set and filmed. In 2018, series star Douglas Henshall said in an interview, "When we were there filming, there’s people from Australia and different parts of America who had come specifically because of the show ... It’s showing all over the world. Now you get a lot of people from Scandinavia on these noir tours". An October 2018 report stated that 91,000 passengers from cruise ships arrived that year (a record high), an increase over the 70,000 in 2017. There was a drop in 2019 to "over 76,000 cruise ship passengers".


Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic

Tourism dropped significantly in 2020 (and into 2021) due to restrictions necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the major decline in the number of cruise ships that continued to operate worldwide. As of early February 2021, the Promote Shetland website was still stating this information: "At present, nobody should travel to Shetland from a Level 3 or Level 4 local authority area in Scotland, unless it's for essential purposes". That page reiterated the government recommendation "that people avoid any unnecessary travel between Scotland and England, Wales, or Northern Ireland". A September 2020 report stated that "The Highlands and Islands region has been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to date, when compared to Scotland and the UK as a whole". The tourism industry required short term support for "business survival and recovery" and that was expected to continue as the sector was "severely impacted for as long as physical distancing and travel restrictions". As of 31 December 2020, the usage of ferries and buses was restricted to those traveling for essential purposes. The Island Equivalent scheme was introduced in early 2021 by the Scottish government to financially assist hospitality and retail businesses "affected by Level 3 coronavirus restrictions". Previous schemes in 2020 included the Strategic Framework Business Fund and the Coronavirus Business Support Fund.


Quarries

* Brindister: * Scord:
Scalloway 05
* Sullom: * Vatster:


Transport

Transport between islands is primarily by ferry, and Shetland Islands Council operates various SIC Ferries, inter-island services. Shetland is also served by a domestic connection from Lerwick to Aberdeen on mainland Scotland. This service, which takes about 12 hours, is operated by NorthLink Ferries. Some services also call at Kirkwall, Orkney, which increases the journey time between Aberdeen and Lerwick by 2 hours. There are plans for road tunnels to some of the islands, especially
Bressay Bressay ( sco, Bressa) is a populated island in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes cal ...
and
Whalsay Whalsay ( sco, Whalsa; non, Hvalsey or ''Hvals-øy'', meaning 'Whale Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, usually exc ...
; however, it is hard to convince the mainland government to finance them. Sumburgh Airport, the main airport in Shetland, is located close to Sumburgh Head, south of Lerwick. Loganair operates flights to other parts of Scotland up to ten times a day, the destinations being Kirkwall, Aberdeen, Inverness, Glasgow and Edinburgh. Tingwall Airport, Lerwick/Tingwall Airport is located west of Lerwick. Operated by Directflight Limited in partnership with Shetland Islands Council, it is devoted to inter-island flights from the Shetland Mainland to Fair Isle Airport, Fair Isle and Foula Airfield, Foula. Scatsta Airport was an airport near Sullom Voe which allowed frequent charter flights from Aberdeen Airport, Aberdeen to transport oilfield workers. The airport closed on 30 June 2020. Public bus services are operated in Mainland, Shetland, Mainland,
Whalsay Whalsay ( sco, Whalsa; non, Hvalsey or ''Hvals-øy'', meaning 'Whale Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea, usually exc ...
, Burra, Shetland, Burra,
Unst Unst (; sco, Unst; nrn, Ønst) is one of the North Isles The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zet ...

Unst
and Yell, Shetland, Yell. The archipelago is exposed to wind and tide, and there are numerous sites of wrecked ships. Lighthouses are sited as an aid to navigation at various locations.


Public services

The
Shetland Islands Council The Shetland Islands Council ( sco, Shetland Islands Cooncil; gd, Comhairle Shealtainn) is the local authority for Shetland, Scotland. It was established by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and is the successor to the former Lerwick Town C ...
is the Local Government authority for all the islands and is based in Lerwick Town Hall. Shetland is sub-divided into 18 community council areas and into 12 list of civil parishes in Scotland, civil parishes that are used for statistical purposes.


Education

As of early 2021, Shetland had 22 primary schools, five junior high schools, and two high schools: Anderson High School, Lerwick, Anderson High School and Brae High School. Shetland College UHI is a partner of the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI). UHI’s Centre for Rural Creativity partners with Shetland Arts Development Agency to provide courses on film, music and media up to Masters level at Mareel. The North Atlantic Fisheries College (NAFC) also operates in partnership with UHI offering "a range of training courses relevant to the maritime industries". The Institute for Northern Studies, operated by UHI, provides "postgraduate teaching and research programmes"; one of the three locations is at Shetland.


Sport

The Shetland Football Association oversees two divisions — a Premier League and a Reserve League — which are affiliated with the Scottish Amateur Football Association. Seasons take place during summer. The islands are represented by the Shetland football team, which regularly competes in the Island Games.


Churches and religion

The Reformation reached the archipelago in 1560. This was an apparently peaceful transition and there is little evidence of religious intolerance in Shetland's recorded history. In the 2011 census, Shetland registered a higher proportion of people with no religion than the Scottish average. Nevertheless, a variety of religious denominations are represented in the islands. The Methodist Church of Great Britain, Methodist Church has a relatively high membership in Shetland, which is a District of the Methodist Church (with the rest of Scotland comprising a separate District). The Church of Scotland had a Presbyterian polity, Presbytery of Shetland that includes Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church, St. Columba's Church in Lerwick. On 1 June 2020 the Presbytery of Shetland merged with the Presbytery of Aberdeen becoming the Presbytery of Aberdeen and Shetland. In addition there was further church reorganisation in the islands with a series of church closures and all parishes mergeing into one, covering the whole of Shetland. The Catholic population is served by the church of St. Margaret and the Sacred Heart in Lerwick. The Parish is part of the Diocese of Aberdeen. The Scottish Episcopal Church (part of the Anglican Communion) has regular worship at St Magnus' Church, Lerwick; St Colman's Church, Burravoe; and the Chapel of Christ the Encompasser, Fetlar; the last of which is maintained by the Society of Our Lady of the Isles, the most northerly and remote Anglican religious order of nuns. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a congregation in Lerwick. The former print works and offices of the local newspaper, The Shetland Times, has been converted into a chapel.


Politics

Shetland is represented in the British House of Commons, House of Commons as part of the Orkney and Shetland (UK Parliament constituency), Orkney and Shetland United Kingdom constituencies, constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP). As of February 2021, and since 2001 UK general election, 2001, the MP is Alistair Carmichael, a Liberal Democrat. He grew up on Islay, the son of hill farmers who raised sheep and cattle and worked at various occupations before running for election. This seat has been held by the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats or their predecessors the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party since 1950 UK general election, 1950, longer than any other seat in the United Kingdom. In the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
the Shetland (Scottish Parliament constituency), Shetland constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the plurality voting system, first past the post system. Tavish Scott of the Scottish Liberal Democrats had held the seat since the creation of the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
in 1999. Beatrice Wishart MSP, also of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, was elected to replace Tavish Scott in August 2019. Shetland is within the Highlands and Islands (Scottish Parliament electoral region), Highlands and Islands scottish Parliament constituencies and regions, electoral region. The political composition of the Shetland Islands Council is 21 Independent (politician), Independents and 1 Scottish National Party. In the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, 2014 referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom, Shetland voted to remain in the United Kingdom by the third largest margin of the 32 local authority areas, by 63.71% to 36.29% in favour of the Union. In the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Shetland voted to remain an European Union, EU Member state of the European Union, member state, with 56.5% voting to remain and 43.5% voting to leave. In comparison to the rest of Scotland, Shetland had lower-than-average support for remaining in the EU. The Wir Shetland movement was set up in 2015 to campaign for greater autonomy. In September 2020, the Shetland Islands Council voted 18–2 to explore replacing the council with a new system of government which controls a fairer share of the islands revenue streams and has a greater influence over their own affairs, which could include very lucrative oil fields and fishing waters.


Shetland flag

Roy Grönneberg, who founded the local chapter of the Scottish National Party in 1966, designed the flag of Shetland in cooperation with Bill Adams to mark the 500th anniversary of the transfer of the islands from Norway to Scotland. The colours are identical to those of the flag of Scotland, but are shaped in the Nordic cross. After several unsuccessful attempts, including a referendum, plebiscite in 1985, the Lord Lyon King of Arms approved it as the official flag of Shetland in 2005."Flag of Shetland"
, Flags of the World, Retrieved 19 March 2011


Local culture and the arts

After the islands were officially transferred from Norway to Scotland in 1472, several Scots families from the Scottish Lowlands emigrated to Shetland in the 16th and 17th centuries.Goodacre, S. ''et al'' (2005
"Genetic evidence for a family-based Scandinavian settlement of Shetland and Orkney during the Viking periods"
''Heredity'' 95, pp. 129–135. nature.com, Retrieved 20 March 2011
Studies of the genetic makeup of the islands' population, however, indicate that Shetlanders are just under half Scandinavian in origin, and sizeable amounts of Scandinavian ancestry, both patrilineal and matrilineal, have been reported in Orkney (55%) and Shetland (68%). This combination is reflected in many aspects of local life. For example, almost every place name in use can be traced back to the Vikings. The Lerwick
Up Helly Aa Up Helly Aa ( ; literally "Up Holy .html" ;"title="ay/nowiki>">ay/nowiki> All") is a type of fire festival held annually from January to March in various communities in Shetland Islands, Shetland, Scotland to mark the end of the Yule in Scotlan ...
is one of several fire festivals held in Shetland annually in the middle of winter, starting on the last Tuesday of January. The festival is just over 100 years old in its present, highly organised form. Originally held to break up the long nights of winter and mark the end of Yule, the festival has become one celebrating the isles' heritage and includes a procession of men dressed as Vikings and the burning of a replica longship. Shetland also competes in the biennial International Island Games Association, International Island Games, which it hosted in 2005 Island Games, 2005. The cuisine of Shetland is based on locally produced lamb, beef and seafood, some of it organic food, organic. The real ale-producing Valhalla Brewery is the most northerly in Britain. The Shetland Black is a variety of blue potato with a dark skin and indigo-coloured flesh markings.


Language

The
Norn language Norn is an extinct North Germanic language The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Ge ...
was a form of Old Norse language, Old Norse spoken in the Northern Isles, and continued to be spoken until the 18th century. It was gradually replaced in Shetland by an insular dialect of Scots, known as Shetlandic, which is in turn being replaced by Scottish English. Although Norn was spoken for hundreds of years, it is now extinct and few written sources remain, although influences remain in the Insular Scots dialects. Shetland dialect is used in local radio and dialect writing, and is kept alive by organisations such as Shetland Forwirds, and the Shetland Folk Society.


Music

Shetland's culture and landscapes have inspired a variety of musicians, writers and film-makers. The Forty Fiddlers was formed in the 1950s to promote the traditional fiddle style, which is a vibrant part of local culture today. Notable exponents of Shetland folk music include Aly Bain, Jenna Reid, Fiddlers' Bid, and the late Tom Anderson (fiddler), Tom Anderson and Peerie Willie Johnson. Thomas Fraser (singer), Thomas Fraser was a country musician who never released a commercial recording during his life, but whose work has become popular more than 20 years after his death in 1978. The annual Shetland Folk Festival began in 1981 and is hosted on the first weekend of May.


Writers

Walter Scott's 1822 novel ''The Pirate (novel), The Pirate'' is set in "a remote part of Shetland", and was inspired by his 1814 visit to the islands. The name ''Jarlshof'' meaning "Earl's Mansion" is a coinage of his."Jarlshof"
, Gazetteer for Scotland, Retrieved 2 August 2008
Robert Cowie, a doctor born in Lerwick published the 1874 work. Hugh MacDiarmid, the Scots poet and writer, lived in Whalsay from the mid-1930s through 1942, and wrote many poems there, including a number that directly address or reflect the Shetland environment, such as "On A Raised Beach", which was inspired by a visit to West Linga. The 1975 novel ''North Star'' by Hammond Innes is largely set in Shetland and Raman Mundair's 2007 book of poetry ''A Choreographer's Cartography'' offers a British Asian perspective on the landscape. The ''Shetland Quartet'' by Ann Cleeves, who previously lived in
Fair Isle Fair Isle (; sco, Fair Isle; non, Friðarey; gd, Fara) is an island in Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An arch ...
, is a series of crime novels set around the islands. In 2013, her novel ''Red Bones'' became the basis of BBC crime drama television series ''Shetland (TV series), Shetland''. Vagaland, who grew up in Walls, was arguably Shetland's finest poet of the 20th century. Haldane Burgess was a Shetland historian, poet, novelist, violinist, linguist and socialist, and Rhoda Bulter (1929–1994) is one of the best-known Shetland poets of recent times. Other 20th- and 21st-century poets and novelists include Christine De Luca, Robert Alan Jamieson who grew up in Sandness, the late Lollie Graham of Veensgarth, Stella Sutherland of
Bressay Bressay ( sco, Bressa) is a populated island in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes cal ...
, the late William J. Tait from Yell and Laureen Johnson. There is one monthly magazine in production: ''Shetland''. The quarterly ''The New Shetlander'', founded in 1947, is said to be Scotland's longest-running literary magazine. For much of the later 20th century, it was the major vehicle for the work of local writers — and of others, including early work by George Mackay Brown.


Films and television

Michael Powell made ''The Edge of the World'' in 1937, a dramatisation based on the true story of the evacuation of the last 36 inhabitants of the remote island of St Kilda, Scotland, St Kilda on 29 August 1930. St Kilda lies in the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Outer Hebrides but Powell was unable to get permission to film there. Undaunted, he made the film over four months during the summer of 1936 in Foula and the film transposes these events to Shetland. Forty years later, the documentary ''Return to the Edge of the World'' was filmed, capturing a reunion of cast and crew of the film as they revisited the island in 1978. A number of other films have been made on or about Shetland including ''A Crofter's Life in Shetland'' (1932), ''A Shetland Lyric'' (1934), ''Devil's Gate (2004 film), Devil's Gate'' (2003) and ''It's Nice Up North'' (2006), a comedy documentary by Graham Fellows. The Screenplay film festival takes place annually in Mareel, a cinema, music and education venue. The BBC One television series ''Shetland (TV series), Shetland'', a crime drama, is set in the islands and is based on the book series by Ann Cleeves. The programme is filmed partly in Shetland and partly on the Scottish mainland.


Wildlife

Shetland has three national nature reserve (United Kingdom), national nature reserves, at the seabird colonies of Hermaness and Noss, and at Keen of Hamar to preserve the Serpentine soil, serpentine flora. There are a further 81 SSSIs, which cover 66% or more of the land surfaces of
Fair Isle Fair Isle (; sco, Fair Isle; non, Friðarey; gd, Fara) is an island in Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An arch ...
,
Papa Stour Papa Stour ( sco, Papa Stour) is one of the Shetland Islands in Scotland, with a population of under fifteen people, some of whom immigration, immigrated after an appeal for residents in the 1970s. Located to the west of mainland Shetland and with ...

Papa Stour
,
Fetlar Fetlar ( sco, Fetlar) is one of the North Isles The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a ...
, Noss and
Foula Foula (; sco, Foola; nrn, Fuglø), located in the Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes c ...
. Mainland has 45 separate sites.Shetland Islands Council (2010) p. 52


Flora

The landscape in Shetland is marked by the grazing of sheep and the harsh conditions have limited the total number of plant species to about 400. Native trees such as sorbus aucuparia, rowan and malus sylvestris, crab apple are only found in a few isolated places such as cliffs and loch islands. The flora is dominated by Arctic-alpine plants, wild flowers, moss and lichen. Scilla verna, Spring squill, plantago coronopus, buck's-horn plantain, Scots lovage, rhodiola rosea, roseroot and silene uniflora, sea campion are abundant, especially in sheltered places. Shetland mouse-ear (''Cerastium nigrescens'') is an endemism, endemic flowering plant found only in Shetland. It was first recorded in 1837 by botanist Thomas Edmondston. Although reported from two other sites in the nineteenth century, it currently grows only on two serpentine hills in the island of Unst. The nationally scarce mertensia, oysterplant is found in several islands and the British IUCN Red List, Red Listed bryophyte ''Thamnobryum, Thamnobryum alopecurum'' has also been recorded. Listed marine algae include: ''Polysiphonia fibrillosa'' (Dillwyn) Sprengel, ''Polysiphonia atlantica'' Kapraun and J.Norris, ''Polysiphonia brodiaei'' (Dillwyn) Sprengel, ''Polysiphonia elongata'' (Hudson) Sprengel, ''Polysiphonia elongella'', Harvey The Shetland Monkeyflower is unique to Shetland and is a mutation of the Erythranthe, Monkeyflower ''(mimulus guttatus'') introduced to Shetland in the 19th century.


Fauna

Shetland has numerous seabird colonies. Birds found in the islands include Atlantic puffin, European storm-petrel, storm-petrel, red-throated diver, northern gannet and great skua (locally called the "bonxie").SNH (2008) p. 16 Numerous rarities have also been recorded including black-browed albatross and snow goose, and a single pair of snowy owls bred in Fetlar from 1967 to 1975. The Shetland wren, Fair Isle wren and Shetland starling are subspecies endemism, endemic to Shetland."Endemic Vertebrates of Shetland"
, Nature in Shetland, Retrieved 12 March 2011
There are also populations of various moorland birds such as Eurasian curlew, curlew, Northern lapwing, lapwing, common snipe, snipe and eurasian golden plover, golden plover. One of the early ornithologists that wrote about the wealth of birdlife in Shetland was Edmund Selous (1857–1934) in his book ''The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands'' (1905). He writes extensively about the gulls and terns, about the arctic skuas, the black guillemots and many other birds (and the seals) of the islands. The geographical isolation and recent glacial history of Shetland have resulted in a depleted mammalian fauna and the brown rat and house mouse are two of only three species of rodent present in the islands. The Shetland field mouse is the third and the archipelago's fourth endemic subspecies, of which there are three varieties in Yell, Foula and Fair Isle. They are variants of ''Wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus'' and archaeological evidence suggests that this species was present during the Middle
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
(around 200 BC to 400 AD). It is possible that ''Apodemus'' was introduced from Orkney where a population has existed since at the least the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
.


Domesticated animals

There is a variety of indigenous breeds, of which the diminutive
Shetland pony The Shetland pony is a Scottish breed A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. ...

Shetland pony
is probably the best known, as well as being an important part of the Shetland farming tradition. The first written record of the pony was in 1603 in the Court Books of Shetland and, for its size, it is the strongest of all the horse breeds."Breed History"
, Shetland Pony Studbook Society, Retrieved 11 May 2012
Others are the
Shetland Sheepdog The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of herding dog backing sheep. working with sheep. ,Fairlie, New Zealand A herding dog, also known as a stock dog, shepherd dog or working dog, is a Dog type, type of dog that eithe ...

Shetland Sheepdog
or "Sheltie", the endangered Shetland cattle and Shetland goose and the
Shetland sheep The Shetland is a small, wool-producing breed of sheep originating in the Shetland Isles, Scotland but is now also kept in many other parts of the world. It is part of the Northern European short-tailed sheep group, and it is closely related to ...
which is believed to have originated prior to 1000 AD. The Grice was a breed of semi-domesticated pig that had a habit of attacking lambs. It became extinct sometime between the middle of the nineteenth century and the 1930s.


See also


Lists

* List of counties of the United Kingdom * List of islands in Scotland * List of populated places in Shetland


About Shetland

* Mavis Grind * Udal law


Others

* * Battle of Florvåg * Rögnvald Kali Kolsson * Timeline of prehistoric Scotland * Prehistoric Scotland * Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles


Notes


References


General references

* Armit, I.; (2003), ''Towers in the North: The Brochs of Scotland'', Stroud, Tempus, * Ballin Smith, B. and Banks, I.; (ed. 2002), ''In the Shadow of the Brochs, the Iron Age in Scotland'', Stroud, Tempus, * Barrett, James H.; "The Norse in Scotland" in Brink, Stefan, (ed. 2008), ''The Viking World'', Abingdon, Routledge, * Clapperton, Chalmers M.; (ed. 1983), ''Scotland: A New Study'', Newton Abbott, David & Charles * Gillen, Con; (2003), ''Geology and landscapes of Scotland'', Harpenden, Terra Publishing, * James Graham-Campbell, Graham-Campbell, James; (1999), ''Cultural Atlas of the Viking World'', Facts On File, * Fleming, Andrew; (2005), ''St. Kilda and the Wider World: Tales of an Iconic Island'', Windgather Press, * Gammeltoft, Peder; (2010),
Shetland and Orkney Island-Names – A Dynamic Group
", ''Northern Lights, Northern Words'', Selected Papers from the FRLSU Conference, Kirkwall 2009, edited by Robert McColl Millar * * * James Hunter (historian), Hunter, James; (2000), ''Last of the Free: A History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland'', Edinburgh, Mainstream, * Jones, Charles; (ed. 1997), ''The Edinburgh history of the Scots language'', Edinburgh University Press, * Keay, J. & Keay, J.; (1994), ''Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland'', London, HarperCollins, * Noble, Gordon; Poller, Tessa & Verrill, Lucy; (2008), ''Scottish Odysseys: The Archaeology of Islands'', Stroud, Tempus, * Omand, Donald; (ed. 2003), ''The Orkney Book'', Edinburgh, Birlinn, * Nicolson, James R.; (1972), ''Shetland'', Newton Abbott, David & Charles * Sandnes, Berit; (2003),
From Starafjall to Starling Hill: An investigation of the formation and development of Old Norse place-names in Orkney
'', (pdf), Doctoral Dissertation, NTU Trondheim * Schei, Liv Kjørsvik; (2006), ''The Shetland Isles'', Grantown-on-Spey, Colin Baxter Photography, * NatureScot, Scottish Natural Heritage, (2008), ''The Story of Hermaness National Nature Reserve'', Lerwick * Shetland Islands Council, (2005)
"Shetland In Statistics 2005"
(pdf), Economic Development Unit, Lerwick, Retrieved 19 March 2011 * Shetland Islands Council, (2010)
"Shetland in Statistics 2010"
(pdf), Economic Development Unit, Lerwick, Retrieved 6 March 2011 * Thomson, William P. L.; (2008), ''The New History of Orkney'', Edinburgh, Birlinn, * Turner, Val; (1998), ''Ancient Shetland'', London, B. T. Batsford/Historic Scotland, * William J. Watson, Watson, William J.; (1994), ''The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland'', Edinburgh, Birlinn, , First published 1926.


Further reading

* *Shepherd, Mike (2015). Oil Strike North Sea: A first-hand history of North Sea oil. Luath Press. *


External links

*
Shetland Islands Council

www.shetland.org

shetlopedia.com, – The Online Shetland Encyclopedia

HIE Area Profile – Shetland
(PDF file) from Highlands and Islands Enterprise
Shetlink – Shetland's Online Community

National Library of Scotland: Scottish Screen Archive
(selection of archive films about Shetland) {{Authority control Shetland, Council areas of Scotland Counties of Scotland Former Norwegian colonies Former Danish colonies Highlands and Islands of Scotland Lieutenancy areas of Scotland National scenic areas of Scotland Northern Isles Kingdom of Norway (872–1397) Archipelagoes of Scotland Archipelagoes of the Atlantic Ocean Counties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922)