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The Scots ( sco, Scots Fowk; gd, Albannaich) are a
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense ...

nation
and
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
native to
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. Historically, they emerged in the
early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
from an amalgamation of two
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
-speaking peoples, the
Picts The Picts were a group of peoples who lived in what is now northern and eastern Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply ...
and
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a g ...

Gaels
, who founded the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. Inte ...
(or ''
Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) ...
'') in the 9th century. In the following two centuries, the Celtic-speaking
Cumbrians ''Yr Hen Ogledd'' (), in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages. Its denizens spoke a variety of the Brittonic lang ...
of
Strathclyde Strathclyde ( in Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Sco ...
and the Germanic-speaking
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditional ...
of north
Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social scie ...

Northumbria
became part of Scotland. In the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
, during the 12th-century
Davidian Revolution The Davidian Revolution is a name given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland, David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the i ...
, small numbers of
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
nobles migrated to the Lowlands. In the 13th century, the Norse-Gaels of the
Western Isles The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an island chain off the west coast ...
became part of Scotland, followed by the Norse of the
Northern Isles The Northern Isles ( sco, Northren Isles; gd, Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; non, Norðreyjar; nrn, Nordøjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland. They are part of Scotland, as the Hebr ...
in the 15th century. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" refers to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word ''
Scoti ''Scoti'' or ''Scotti'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the po ...
'' originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered
pejorative A pejorative or slur is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning ...
by some, the term
Scotch Scotch most commonly refers to: * Scotch (adjective), a largely obsolescent adjective meaning "of or from Scotland" **Scotch, old-fashioned name for the indigenous languages of the Scottish people: ***Scots language ("Broad Scotch") *** Scottish Ga ...
has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. People of Scottish descent live in many countries. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the
Highland Highlands or uplands are any mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is large ...
and
Lowland Clearances The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmer ...
, Scottish emigration to various locales throughout the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, and latterly
industrial decline The former decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_in_the_United_States.html" "title="Decline_of_Detroit.html" ;"title="Detroit.html" ;"title="Packard Automotive Plant in Detroit">Packard Automotive Plant in Detroit is one of the ...
and unemployment, have resulted in the spread of Scottish languages and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
. Large populations of Scottish people settled the '
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...
and South America, Australia and New Zealand. The highest concentrations of people of Scottish descent in the world outside of Scotland are in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
and Prince Edward Island in Canada, Otago and Southland, New Zealand, Murihiku/Southland in New Zealand, the
Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands (; es, Islas Malvinas, ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece ...

Falkland Islands
, and
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
in the United Kingdom. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States.


Scottish ethnic and cultural groups


History of ethnogeneses

In the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the
Picts The Picts were a group of peoples who lived in what is now northern and eastern Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply ...
, the
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a g ...

Gaels
, the
Britons The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed ...
, and the
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditional ...

Angles
, with the last of these settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke
Celtic languages The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historica ...
, and these included, at least initially, the
Britons The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed ...
, as well as the
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a g ...

Gaels
and the
Picts The Picts were a group of peoples who lived in what is now northern and eastern Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply ...
.
Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

Germanic peoples
included the Angles of
Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social scie ...

Northumbria
, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the
Firth of Forth The Firth of Forth ( gd, Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scotland, Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Fife on the north coast and Lothian on the south. Name ''Firth'' is a cognate of ''fjord ...

Firth of Forth
to the north and the
River Tweed The River Tweed, or Tweed Water ( gd, Abhainn Thuaidh, sco, Watter o Tweid, cy, Tuedd), is a river long that flows east across the Border region The Border Region is a Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS Level III NUTS 3 ...
to the south. They also occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle. Their language,
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
, was the earliest form of the language which eventually became known as Scots. Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country. King Edgar divided the
Kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria (; ang, Norþanhymbra Rīċe; la, Regnum Northanhymbrorum) was an early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is now Northern England and Lothian, south-east Scotland. The name derives from the Old English meaning "the people o ...

Kingdom of Northumbria
between Scotland and England; at least, most medieval historians now accept the 'gift' by Edgar. In any case, after the later
Battle of Carham The Battle of Carham (c. 1018) was fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Northumbrians at Carham on Tweed. Uhtred the Bold, Uhtred, son of Waltheof of Bamburgh, fought the combined forces of Malcolm II of Scotland and Owen the Bald (Kin ...
the Scottish kingdom encompassed many English people, with even more quite possibly arriving after the
Norman invasion of England The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French provinces, all ...
in 1066. South-east of the
Firth of Forth The Firth of Forth ( gd, Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scotland, Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Fife on the north coast and Lothian on the south. Name ''Firth'' is a cognate of ''fjord ...

Firth of Forth
, then in
Lothian Lothian (; sco, Lowden, Loudan, -en, -o(u)n; gd, Lodainn ) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills and the Moorfoot Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish c ...

Lothian
and the Borders ( OE: ''Loðene''), a northern variety of
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
, also known as
Early Scots Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History ...
, was spoken. As a result of return from exile in England in 1113, ultimately to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of
Anglo-NormanAnglo-Norman may refer to: *Anglo-Normans The Anglo-Normans ( nrf, Anglo-Normaunds, ang, Engel-Norðmandisca) were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, F ...
military force, David invited Anglo-Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him. This
Davidian Revolution The Davidian Revolution is a name given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland, David I (1124–1153). These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the i ...
, as many historians call it, brought a European style of
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
to Scotland along with an influx of people of French descent – by invitation, unlike
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
where it was by conquest. To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the
StewartsStewart's or Stewarts can refer to: *Stewart's Fountain Classics, brand of soft drink **Stewart's Restaurants, chain of restaurants where the soft drink was originally sold *Stewart's wilt, bacterial disease affecting maize *Stewart's (department st ...
, the
Bruce The English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including spee ...

Bruce
s, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces and the Melvilles. The
Northern Isles The Northern Isles ( sco, Northren Isles; gd, Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; non, Norðreyjar; nrn, Nordøjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland. They are part of Scotland, as the Hebr ...
and some parts of
Caithness Caithness ( gd, Gallaibh , sco, Caitnes; non, Katanes) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continent ...

Caithness
were Norn-speaking (the west of Caithness was Gaelic-speaking into the 20th century, as were some small communities in parts of the Central Highlands). From 1200 to 1500, the
Early Scots Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History ...
language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between
Galloway Galloway ( ; sco, Gallowa; la, Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the counties of Scotland, historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. It is administered as part of the council areas of Scotland, counci ...

Galloway
and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic ''
The Brus 210px, ''A, fredome is a noble thing'', part of the most-cited passage from Barbour's ''Brus''. ''The Brus'', also known as ''The Bruce'', is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbo ...
'' in the late 14th century in Aberdeen. From 1500 on, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "s" (the language formerly called Scottis by English speakers and known by many Lowlanders in the 18th century as " Erse") and the Inglis-speaking " Lowlanders" (a language later to be called Scots). However, movement between the two regions increased over the last few centuries. Highlanders moved to major cities (e.g. Glasgow and Edinburgh) and regions bordering the southern Highlands (e.g. Lowland Stirlingshire and Perthshire). This is evidenced by people with traditional Gaelic surnames (including anglicised varieties) currently living in these areas. Lowlanders also settled in Highland regions such as
Moray Moray ( ; sco, Moray; gd, Moireibh or ') is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It lies in the north-east of the country, with a coastline on the Moray Firth, and borders the council areas of Aberdeenshire and Highland ( ...

Moray
, which was traditionally Gaelic-speaking but replaced with
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
in the 19th century.Withers, C. ''Gaelic in Scotland 1698-1981'' (1984) John Donald Publishers Today, immigrants have brought other languages, such as
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
,
Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a ge ...
and
Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonpr ...
, but almost every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language.


Constructs of a unitary ethnicity

Historian
Susan Reynolds Susan Reynolds (born 1929) is a British medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affa ...
has put forward how, since the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, there have been attempts to obfuscate the ethnic plurality of Scottish people due to the political practicalities of
nation building Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a commo ...
. Academics have explored how 15th and 16th-century Scottish poets and orators, such as
Blind Harry Blind Harry ( 1440 – 1492), also known as Harry, Hary or Henry the Minstrel, is renowned as the author of ''The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace'', more commonly known as '' The Wallace''. This was ...
, constructed terms such as 'trew Scottis' in an effort to diminish differences between the ethnic groups living within Scotland in the popular consciousness. A 1974 International Political Science Association report defined this ethnic plurality in Scotland as the following: "The basic ethnic and cultural division in the British Isles has been that between the Anglo-Saxon peoples of England and the Scottish Lowlands and the Celtic peoples of Wales, Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. In 2014, historian Steven L. Danver, who specialises in indigenous ethnic research, wrote regarding Lowlands Scots and Gaelic Scots' unique ancestries: The people of Scotland are divided into two groups - Lowland Scots in the southern part of the country and Highland Scots in the north - that differ from one another ethnically, culturally, and linguistically ... Lowlanders differ from Highlanders in their ethnic origin. While Highland Scots are of Celtic (Gaelic) descent, Lowland Scots are descended from people of Germanic stock. During the seventh century C.E., settlers of Germanic tribes of Angles moved from Northumbria in present- day northern England and southeastern Scotland to the area around Edinburgh. Their descendants gradually occupied all of the Lowlands. Knox College's Dr Stuart Macdonald, who specialises in early modern Scottish history, writes that during the 18th and 19th centuries, the people of Scotland remained grouped into multiple ethnicities:
To speak of Scots as a single ethnic group is also somewhat problematic. It would be more accurate in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to talk of two distinct Scottish ethnic communities divided by language and culture, and, at times, mutual antagonisms – Highlanders and Lowlanders.
With regard to these two centuries, sociologist Ian Carter's research into marriage patterns found no intermarrying between the groups.


Scottish diaspora

Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish. In addition, there are many more people with Scots ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.


United States

In the 2013
American Community Survey The American Community Survey (ACS) is a demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, such as ancestry, citizenship, educati ...
5,310,285 identified as Scottish and 2,976,878 as of Scots-Irish descent.
Americans Americans are the citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recogn ...
of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census. The number of Americans with a Scottish ancestor is estimated to between 9 and 25 millionJames McCarthy and Euan Hague, 'Race, Nation, and Nature: The Cultural Politics of "Celtic" Identification in the American West', ''Annals of the Association of American Geographers'', Volume 94 Issue 2 (5 Nov 2004), p. 392, citing J. Hewitson, ''Tam Blake and Co.: The Story of the Scots in America'' (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1993). Tartan Day 2007
''scotlandnow'', Issue 7 (March 2007). Retrieved 7 September 2008.
(up to 8.3% of the total US population), and "Scotch-Irish", 27 to 30 million (up to 10% of the total US population), but these subgroups overlap and are often not distinguishable. The majority of Scotch-Irish originally came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England before migrating to the province of
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
in Ireland (see ''
Plantation of Ulster The Plantation of Ulster ( gle, Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ul ...

Plantation of Ulster
'') and thence, beginning about five
generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not ex ...

generation
s later, to North America in large numbers during the 18th century.


Canada

As the third-largest
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
in Canada and amongst the first Europeans to settle in the country, Scottish people have made a large impact on
Canadian culture The culture of Canada embodies the artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally ...
since colonial times. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial Scottish descent is 4,714,970, or 15.10% of the nation's total population. Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles origins. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
(
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
for "New Scotland"). There, in
Cape Breton Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, Île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 1 ...
, where both lowland and highland Scots settled in large numbers,
Canadian Gaelic Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in Canadian English as often simply Gaelic, is a collective term for the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken in Atlantic ...
is still spoken by a small number of residents. Cape Breton is the home of the
Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts The Gaelic College ( gd, Colaisde na Gàidhlig) is a non-profit educational institution located in the community of St. Ann's, on Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Island, along the Cabot Trail. Founded in 1938, its focus has been on the pe ...

Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts
. Glengarry County in present-day
Eastern Ontario Eastern Ontario (census population 1,763,186 in 2016) (french: Est de l'Ontario) is a secondary region of Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a cou ...
is a historic county that was set up as a settlement for
Highland Scots The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the Gaels The Gaels (; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Sc ...

Highland Scots
, where many from the Highlands settled to preserve their culture in result of the Highland Clearances. Gaelic was the native language of the community since its settlement in the 18th century although the number of speakers decreased since as a result of English migration. As of the modern 21st century, there are still a few Gaelic speakers in the community.
John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-American economist, diplomat, public official, and intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Cr ...

John Kenneth Galbraith
in his book ''The Scotch'' (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in
Southwestern Ontario Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' ...
and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.


Australia

By 1830, 15.11% of the colonies' total non-Aboriginal population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20–25% of the non-Aboriginal population. The
Australian Gold Rush During the Australian gold rushes, starting in 1851, significant numbers of workers moved from elsewhere in Australia and overseas to where gold had been discovered. Gold had been found several times before but the Colony of New South Wales, co ...
of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated to Australia, far more than other British or Irish populations at the time.The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press. Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90–95%. By 1860, Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of
Western Victoria Western Victoria is a wine grape growing zone in the southwestern part of the state of Victoria in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Au ...
,
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
included
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...
, the
Hunter Valley The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It ...
and the
Illawarra Illawarra is a Regions of New South Wales, region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast, New South Wales, South Coast region. It encompa ...

Illawarra
. Much settlement followed the
Highland Potato Famine The Highland Potato Famine ( gd, Gaiseadh a' bhuntàta) was a period of 19th-century Scottish Highlands, Highland and Scottish history (1846 to roughly 1856) over which the agricultural communities of the Hebrides and the western Scottish Highland ...
,
Highland Clearances The Highland Clearances ( gd, Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal , the "eviction of the Gaels The Gaels (; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots ...
and the
Lowland Clearances The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century. Thousands of cottars and tenant farmer ...
of the mid-19th century. In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12% of the non-Aboriginal population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia in the period from 1861 to 1914, 13.5% were Scots. Just 5.3% of the convicts transported to Eastern Australia between 1789 and 1852 were Scots. A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century and substantial numbers of Scots continued to arrive after 1945.The Scots in Australia (2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press. From 1900 until the 1950s, Scots favoured New South Wales, as well as Western Australia and Southern Australia. A strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the
Highland Games Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic ...
, dance,
Tartan Day Tartan Day is a North American celebration of Scottish heritage on 6 April, the date on which the Declaration of Arbroath The Declaration of Arbroath ( la, Declaratio Arbroathis; sco, Declaration o Aiberbrothock; gd, Tiomnadh Bhruis) is ...
celebrations, clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found throughout modern Australia. According to the 2011 Australian census, 130,204 Australian residents were born in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, while 1,792,600 claimed Scottish ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.9% of the total population of Australia.


New Zealand

Significant numbers of Scottish people also settled in New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country. The
South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand upright=1.25, Whakaari / White Island in the Bay of Plenty New Zealand consists of many islands, estimated around six hundred, mainly remnan ...

South Island
city of
Dunedin Dunedin ( ; mi, Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island The South Island, also officially named , is the larger of the two major in surface area, the other being the smaller but more populous . It is bordered to the nort ...

Dunedin
, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
by the city's Scottish founders. Scottish migration to New Zealand dates back to the earliest period of European colonisation, with a large proportion of
Pākehā Pākehā (or Pakeha; ; ) is generally a Māori language, Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent. ''Pākehā'' is not a legal concept and has no definition under New Zealand law. The term can apply to Fair skin, ...
New Zealanders being of Scottish descent. However, identification as "British" or "European" New Zealanders can sometimes obscure their origin. Many Scottish New Zealanders also have Māori or other non-European ancestry. The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many
Caledonia Caledonia () was the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Caledonia
n societies were formed, well over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders. In the 1961
census A census is the procedure of systematically calculating, acquiring and recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In ...
there were 47,078 people living in New Zealand who were born in Scotland; in the 2013 census there were 25,953 in this category.


United Kingdom

Many people of Scottish descent live in other parts of the United Kingdom. In
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
particularly the colonial policies of
James VI James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...

James VI
, known as the
plantation of Ulster The Plantation of Ulster ( gle, Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ul ...

plantation of Ulster
, resulted in a Presbyterian and Scottish society, which formed the
Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots: ''Ulstèr-Scotch'', ga, Albanaigh na hUladh), also called Ulster Scots ...
community. The
Protestant Ascendancy The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. ...
did not however benefit them much, as the ascendancy was predominantly
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
. The number of people of Scottish descent in England and Wales is difficult to quantify due to the many complex migrations on the island, and ancient migration patterns due to wars, famine and conquest. The 2011 Census recorded 708,872 people born in Scotland resident in England, 24,346 resident in Wales and 15,455 resident in Northern Ireland.
Northamptonshire Northamptonshire (; abbreviated Northants.), archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a historic county in the East Midlands The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the ITL 1 statistical regions of England ...

Northamptonshire
town
Corby Corby is a town in North Northamptonshire, England, located north-east of Northampton. From 1974 to 2021, the town served as the administrative headquarters of the Borough of Corby. At the 2011 United Kingdom census, 2011 Census, the town had a ...
became a centre for Scottish migration in the 1930s. In 1961 a third of residents were born in Scotland, and in 2011 the figure was 12.7%.


Rest of Europe

Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The Scots have emigrated to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and soldiers. Many emigrated to France, Poland,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
, Germany, Scandinavia, and the Netherlands. Recently some scholars suggested that up to 250,000 Russian nationals may have Scottish ancestry.


Africa

A number of Scottish people settled in South Africa in the 1800s and were known for their road-building expertise, their farming experience, and architectural skills.


Latin America

The largest population of Scots in Latin America is found in Argentina, followed by Chile, Brazil and Mexico.


Scots in mainland Europe


Netherlands

It is said that the first people from the Low Countries to settle in Scotland came in the wake of Maud, Countess of Huntingdon, Maud's marriage to the Scottish king, David I of Scotland, David I, during the Scotland in the High Middle Ages, Middle Ages. Craftsmen and tradesmen followed courtiers and in later centuries a brisk trade grew up between the two nations: Scotland's primary goods (wool, hides, salmon and then coal) in exchange for the luxuries obtainable in the Netherlands, one of the major hubs of European trade. By 1600, trading colonies had grown up on either side of the well-travelled shipping routes: the Dutch settled along the eastern seaboard of Scotland; the Scots congregating first in Campvere—where they were allowed to land their goods duty-free and run their own affairs—and then in Rotterdam, where Scottish and Dutch Calvinism coexisted comfortably. Besides the thousands (or, according to one estimate, over 1 million) of local descendants with Scots ancestry, both ports still show signs of these early alliances. Now a museum, 'The Scots House' in the town of Veere was the only place outwith Scotland where Scots Law was practised. In Rotterdam, meanwhile, the doors of the Scots International Church have remained open since 1643.


Russia

The first Scots to be mentioned in Russia's history were the Scottish soldiers in Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovy referred to as early as in the 14th century. Among the 'soldiers of fortune' was the ancestor to famous Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov, called George Learmonth. A number of Scots gained wealth and fame in the times of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. These include Admiral Thomas Gordon (Royal Scots Navy officer), Thomas Gordon, Commander-in-Chief of Kronstadt, Patrick Gordon, Paul Menzies, Samuel Greig, Charles Baird (engineer), Charles Baird, Charles Cameron (architect), Charles Cameron, Adam Menelaws and William Heste, William Hastie. Several doctors to the Russian court were from Scotland, the best known being Sir James Wylie, 1st Baronet, James Wylie. The next wave of migration established commercial links with Russia. The 19th century witnessed the immense literary cross-references between Scotland and Russia. A Russian scholar, Maria Koroleva, distinguishes between 'the Russian Scots' (properly assimilated) and 'Scots in Russia', who remained thoroughly Scottish. There are several societies in contemporary Russia to unite the Scots. The Russian census lists does not distinguish Scots from other British people, so it is hard to establish reliable figures for the number of Scots living and working in modern Russia.


Poland

From as far back as the mid-16th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland. A "Scotch Pedlar's Pack in Poland" became a proverbial expression. It usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen kerchiefs (head coverings). Itinerants also sold tin utensils and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by Stephen Báthory, King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576, a district in Kraków was assigned to Scottish immigrants. Records from 1592 mention Scots settlers granted citizenship of Kraków, and give their employment as trader or merchant. Fees for citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder, or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding. By the 17th century, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots lived in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.Eric Richards (2004). "
Britannia's children: emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
'". Continuum International Publishing Group. p.53.
Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen. Scots could be found in Polish towns on the banks of the Vistula as far south as Kraków. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656, a number of Scottish Highlands, Scottish highlanders seeking opportunities abroad, emigrated to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to enlist in the Swedish Army under Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Charles X Gustav in his Deluge (history)#Swedish invasion, war against it. James Murray (admiral), James Murray created the Polish navy and participated in the Battle of Oliwa. A series of four Polish novels include him as ''Captain Mora'' or ''Flying Scotsman''. The writer Jerzy Bogdan Rychliński was supported by navy historian Jerzy Pertek. The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scottish settlers in Poland gave generously. Many royal grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 18th century, at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. Charles Edward Stuart, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was half Polish, since he was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart, James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", and Maria Clementina Sobieska, Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of John III Sobieski, Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. In 1691, the City of Warsaw elected the Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer (Alexander Chalmers) as its mayor. Novelist Henryk Sienkiewicz created a fictional character, Hassling-Ketling of Elgin, played by Jan Nowicki in the film Colonel Wolodyjowski (film), Colonel Wolodyjowski.


Italy

By 1592, the Scottish community in Rome was big enough to merit the building of Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi (St Andrew of the Scots). It was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who fled their country because of religious persecution. In 1615, Pope Paul V gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. The church and facilities became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, set up residence in Rome in 1717, but were abandoned during the French occupation of Rome in the late 18th century. In 1820, although religious activity was resumed, it was no longer led by the Jesuits. Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti (architect), Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated into a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The St. Andrew's Day, Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November. Gurro in Italy is said to be populated by the descendants of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia who arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards that forced many, if not all, to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day, the town of Gurro is still proud of its Scottish links. Many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames. The town also has a Scottish museum.


Culture


Language

Historically, Scottish people have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by forebears of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people are English, Scots Language, Scots (various dialects) and Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina. The Norn language was spoken in the
Northern Isles The Northern Isles ( sco, Northren Isles; gd, Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; non, Norðreyjar; nrn, Nordøjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland. They are part of Scotland, as the Hebr ...
into the early modern period – the current Shetland dialect, Shetland and Orcadian dialect, Orcadian dialects are heavily influenced by it to this day. There is still debate whether Scots is a dialect or a language in its own right, as there is no clear line to define the two. Scots is usually regarded as a midway between the two, as it is highly mutually intelligible with English, particularly the dialects spoken in the North of England as well as those spoken in Scotland, but is treated as a language in some laws.


Scottish English

After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James I of England, James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes. With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots language. Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form. While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day. Today most Scottish people speak Scottish English, which has some distinctive vocabulary and may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.


Scots

Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans or
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
, is a language of Germanic peoples, Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After the Wars of Scottish Independence, wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers evolved in a different direction from that of Modern English language in England, English. Since 1424, this language, known to its speakers as ''Inglis'', was used by the Scottish Parliament in its statutes. By the middle of the 15th century, the language's name had changed from ''Inglis'' to ''Scottis''. The Scottish reformation, reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant Presbyterian religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the Bible, they used the Geneva Edition. From that point on, God spoke English, not Scots. Scots continued to be used in official legal and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in Scotland. Scots is used by about 30,000 Ulster Scots people, Ulster Scots and is known in official circles as Ulster Scots language, Ullans. In 1993, Ulster Scots was recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the Scots language by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.


Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic languages, Celtic language with similarities to Irish. Scottish Gaelic comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a g ...

Gaels
of Dál Riata and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by the Pictish people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (''lingua Scottica'', ''Scottis'') became the ''de facto'' language of the whole Kingdom of Alba. Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread from
Galloway Galloway ( ; sco, Gallowa; la, Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the counties of Scotland, historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. It is administered as part of the council areas of Scotland, counci ...

Galloway
into Dumfriesshire. It is unclear if the Gaelic of 12th-century Clydesdale (district), Clydesdale and Selkirkshire came from Galloway or other parts of Scotland. The predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by the end of the Middle Ages, Scotland was divided into two linguistic zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland clearances actively discouraged the use of Gaelic, and caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall. Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to countries such as Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, some Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
. A report in 2005 by the Registrar General for Scotland based on the 2001 UK Census showed about 92,400 people or 1.9% of the population can speak Gaelic, while the number of people able to read and write it rose by 7.5% and 10% respectively. Outwith Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the
Canadian Gaelic Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in Canadian English as often simply Gaelic, is a collective term for the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken in Atlantic ...
community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. Gaelic language is recognised as a minority language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some schools and is prominently seen in use on Gaelic road signs in Scotland, dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland.


Religion

The modern people of Scotland remain a mix of different religions and no religion. Christianity is the largest faith in Scotland. In the United Kingdom Census 2011, 2011 census, 53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christians, Christian. The Protestant and Catholic divisions still remain in the society. About 14.4 percent of the population identify themselves as Catholic, according to the Scottish Household Survey for 2014. In Scotland the main Protestant body is the Church of Scotland which is Presbyterian. The high kirk for Presbyterians is St Giles' Cathedral. In the United States, people of Scottish and Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant, especially in the US South, with many belonging to the Baptist or Methodist churches, or various Presbyterian denominations. According to the Social Scottish Attitudes research, 52% of Scottish people identified as having no religion in 2016. As a result, Scotland has thus become a secular and majority non-religious country, unique to the other UK countries.


Literature


Folklore


Science and engineering


Music


Sport

The modern games of curling and golf originated in Scotland. Both sports are governed by bodies headquartered in Scotland, the World Curling Federation and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews respectively. Scots helped to popularise and spread the sport of association football; the first official international match was played in Glasgow between Scotland national football team, Scotland and England national football team, England in England v Scotland (1872), 1872.


Cuisine


Clans


Anglicisation

Many Scottish surnames have become anglicised over the centuries. This reflected the gradual spread of English, initially in the form of
Early Scots Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History ...
, from around the 13th century onwards, through Scotland beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also reflected some deliberate political attempts to promote the English language in the outlying regions of Scotland, including following the Union of the Crowns under King James VI and I, James VI of Scotland and I of England in 1603, and then the Acts of Union of 1707 and the subsequent defeat of rebellions. However, many Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Scottish Gaelic language, Gaelic albeit written according to English orthography, orthographic practice (as with Irish surnames). Thus ''MacAoidh'' in Gaelic is ''Mackay'' in English, and ''MacGill-Eain'' in Gaelic is ''MacLean'' and so on. ''Mac'' (sometimes ''Mc'') is common as, effectively, it means "son of". ''MacDonald'', ''MacDougal'', ''MacAulay'', ''Gilmore'', ''Gilmour'', ''MacKinley'', ''Macintosh'', ''MacKenzie'', ''MacNeill'', ''MacPherson'', ''MacLear'', ''MacAra'', ''Bruce'', ''Campbell'', ''Fraser'', ''Oliver'', ''Craig'', ''Lauder'', ''Menzies'', ''Stewart'', ''Galloway'' and ''Duncan'' are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like ''Wallace'' and ''Morton'', stemming from parts of Scotland which were settled by peoples other than the Scoti, (Gaelic) Scots. The most common surnames in Scotland are ''Smith'' and ''Brown'', which each come from more than one origin: e.g. Smith might be a translation of Mac a' Ghobhainn (thence also e.g. MacGowan), and Brown can refer to the colour, or be akin to MacBrayne. Anglicisation is not restricted to language. In his ''Socialism: critical and constructive'', published in 1921, future British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald wrote: "The Anglification of Scotland has been proceeding apace to the damage of its education, its music, its literature, its genius, and the generation that is growing up under this influence is uprooted from its past, and, being deprived of the inspiration of its nationality, is also deprived of its communal sense."


Etymology

Originally the Romans used Scotia to refer to Ireland. Bede, The Venerable Bede (c. 672 or 673 – 27 May, 735) uses the word ''Scottorum'' for the nation from Ireland who settled part of the Pictish lands: "''Scottorum nationem in Pictorum parte recipit''." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people, also known as the
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a g ...

Gaels
, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western edge of Scotland. It is of note that Bede used the word ''natio'' (nation) for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the Picts, with the word ''gens'' (race). In the 10th-century ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'', the word ''Scot'' is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of the Gaels". The word ''Scottorum'' was again used by an Irish king in 1005: ''Imperator Scottorum'' was the title given to Brian Boru, Brian Bóruma by his notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh. This style was subsequently copied by the Scottish kings. ''Basileus Scottorum'' appears on the great seal of Edgar of Scotland, King Edgar (1074–1107). and Alexander I of Scotland, Alexander I (c. 1078–1124) used the words ''King, Rex Scottorum'' on his great seal, as did many of his successors up to and including James VI of Scotland, James VI. In modern times the words ''Scot'' and ''Scottish'' are applied mainly to inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are largely forgotten. The language known as ''Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots'', spoken in parts of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th- and 18th-century immigration to Ireland from Scotland. In the English language, the word ''
Scotch Scotch most commonly refers to: * Scotch (adjective), a largely obsolescent adjective meaning "of or from Scotland" **Scotch, old-fashioned name for the indigenous languages of the Scottish people: ***Scots language ("Broad Scotch") *** Scottish Ga ...
'' is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as ''Scotch whisky''. However, when referring to people, the preferred term is ''Scots''. Many Scottish people find the term ''Scotch'' to be offensive when applied to people.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
Scotch usage note

usage note.
The Oxford Dictionary describes ''Scotch'' as an old-fashioned term for "Scottish".


See also

*Thomas Napier Thomson#The biographies and their sources in Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (2nd edition) from Volume 9, Eminent 19th century Scotsmen *List of Scots *Scottish Gaelic personal naming system, Scottish names *Scottish national identity *:Scottish people by ethnic or national origin


Notes


References


Sources

*Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. ''Invaders of Scotland'' HMSO. (?1991) *David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.), ''Scotland: A History.'' Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005.


Further reading

* Spence, Rhoda, ed. ''The Scottish Companion: a Bedside Book of Delights''. Edinburgh: R. Paterson, 1955. vi, 138 p. ''N.B''.: Primarily concerns Scottish customs, character, and folkways.


External links


Biographies of Famous Scots
at Scottish-people.info, part of th
Gazetteer for Scotland
project
Discover your Scottish family history
at the official government resource for Scottish Genealogy
Scottish Emigration Database
of the University of Aberdeen {{DEFAULTSORT:Scottish people Scottish people, Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom Ethnic groups in Scotland Scottish society