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Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a
Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages. Goidelic languages historically f ...
(in the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
branch of the
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. Some European languages of t ...
language family) native to the
Gaels The Gaels (; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It i ...
of
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
. As a Goidelic language, Scottish Gaelic, as well as both
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
and
Manx Manx (; formerly sometimes spelled Manks) is an adjective (and derived noun) describing things or people related to the Isle of Man: * Manx people **Manx surnames * Isle of Man It may also refer to: Languages * Manx language, also known as Manx ...
, developed out of
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
. It became a distinct
spoken language A spoken language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyp ...
sometime in the 13th century in the
Middle Irish Middle Irish, sometimes called Middle Gaelic ( ga, An Mheán-Ghaeilge), is the Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Ins ...
period, although a
common Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone County Tyrone (; ) is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, ...
literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
was shared by Gaels in both
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
and Scotland down to the 16th century. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language place names. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over 3 years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001. The highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the
Outer Hebrides The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an Archipelago, island chain off th ...
. Nevertheless, there are revival efforts, and the number of speakers of the
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and ...

language
under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, a dialect known as
Canadian Gaelic Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in Canadian English as often simply Gaelic, is a collective term for the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken in Atlantic C ...
has been spoken in
eastern Canada Eastern Canada (also the Eastern provinces or the East) is generally considered to be the region of Canada east of Manitoba, consisting of the following provinces and territories of Canada, provinces: * Newfoundland and Labrador * New Brunswick ...

eastern Canada
since the 18th century. In the 2016 national census, nearly 4,000
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...
residents claimed knowledge of Scottish Gaelic, with a particular concentration in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an
indigenous language An indigenous language or autochthonous language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have ...
under the
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and internationa ...
, which the
UK Government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom , address = 10 Downing Street, London , leader_title = Prime Minister ...
has ratified, and the
Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 ( gd, Achd na Gàidhlig (Alba) 2005) is an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 2005, and is the first piece of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of ...
established a language-development body, .


Name

Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may also be referred to simply as "Gaelic", pronounced in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. However, "Gaelic" also refers to the
Irish language Irish ( in an Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Standard Irish), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Goidelic languages, Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European languages, Indo ...
(''
Gaeilge Irish (also called in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Standard Irish) is a Goidelic languages, Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is itself a part of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...
'') and the
Manx language Manx ( or , pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic or Manks, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of ...
(''
Gaelg Manx ( gv, Gaelg or , pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic languages, insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo ...
''). Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments following ...
-derived language which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, this language was known as ''Inglis'' ("English") by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called ''Scottis'' ("Scottish"). Beginning in the late 15th century, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as ''Erse'' ("Irish") and the Lowland vernacular as ''Scottis''. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word ''Erse'' in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used.


History


Origins

Based on medieval traditional accounts and the apparent evidence from linguistic geography, Gaelic has been commonly believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of on Scotland's west coast in present-day
Argyll Argyll (; archaically Argyle, in Scottish Gaelic language, modern Gaelic, ), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a Counties of Scotland, historic county and registration county of western Scotland. Argyll is of ancient origin, and corresponds to ...

Argyll
. An alternative view has recently been voiced by archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell, who has argued that the putative migration or takeover is not reflected in archaeological or placename data (as pointed out earlier by
Leslie Alcock Leslie Alcock (24 April 1925 – 6 June 2006) was Professor of Archaeology at the University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, ...
). Campbell has also questioned the age and reliability of the medieval historical sources speaking of a conquest. Instead, he has inferred that Argyll formed part of a common
Q-Celtic The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language In the tree model In historical linguistics Historica ...
-speaking area with Ireland, connected rather than divided by the sea, since the Iron Age. These arguments have been opposed by some scholars defending the early dating of the traditional accounts and arguing for other interpretations of the archaeological evidence. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to until the eighth century, when it began expanding into
Pictish Pictish is the extinct language An extinct language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer ...
areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. During the reign of (Constantine II, 900–943), outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of
Gaelicisation Gaelicisation, or Gaelicization, is the act or process of making something Gaels, Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the ''Gaels'', a sub-branch of celticisation. The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group, traditionally viewed as having spread fro ...
(which may have begun generations earlier) was clearly under way during the reigns of and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, and Pictish identity was forgotten. Bilingualism in Pictish and Gaelic, prior to the former's extinction, led to the presence of Pictish
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
in Gaelic and syntactic influence which could be considered to constitute a Pictish substrate. In 1018, after the conquest of the
Lothians Lothian (; sco, Lowden, Loudan, -en, -o(u)n; gd, Lodainn ) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills and the Moorfoot Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish ca ...
by the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
, Gaelic reached its social, cultural, political, and geographic zenith. Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century. For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called in Latin, and Gaelic was the . In
southern ScotlandSouth of Scotland can refer to: * South of Scotland (Scottish Parliament electoral region) * South of Scotland rugby union team * An area comprising the Scottish Marches (Scottish Borders/Dumfries and Galloway), Greater Edinburgh, Greater Glasgow & ...
, Gaelic was strong in
Galloway Galloway ( ; sco, Gallowa; la, Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the counties of Scotland, historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire. It is administered as part of the council areas of Scotland, counci ...

Galloway
, adjoining areas to the north and west,
West Lothian West Lothian ( sco, Wast Lowden; gd, Lodainn an Iar) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and was one of its shires of Scotland, historic counties. The county, which was known as Linlithgowshire, was bounded geographically by the River ...

West Lothian
, and parts of western
Midlothian Midlothian (; gd, Meadhan Lodainn) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an ar ...

Midlothian
. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north
Ayrshire Ayrshire ( gd, Siorrachd Inbhir Àir, ) is a historic county and registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. Wit ...

Ayrshire
,
Renfrewshire Renfrewshire () ( sco, Renfrewshire; gd, Siorrachd Rinn Friù) is one of the 32 . Located in the west , it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the of , the others being to the east and to the west. It also shar ...

Renfrewshire
, the
Clyde Valley The River Clyde ( gd, Abhainn Chluaidh, , sco, Clyde Watter, or ) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland. It is the eighth-longest river in the United Kingdom, and the second-longest in Scotland. It runs through the major c ...
and eastern
Dumfriesshire Dumfriesshire or the County of Dumfries (''Siorrachd Dhùn Phris'' in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic) is a Counties of Scotland, historic county, registration county and Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, lieutenancy area of southern Scotland. It borders K ...

Dumfriesshire
. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken.


Decline

Many historians mark the reign of King Malcolm Canmore (
Malcolm III Malcolm III ( gd, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093 (age 62)) was King of Scots The monarch of Scotland was the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially ...
) between 1058 and 1093 as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland. His wife
Margaret of Wessex
Margaret of Wessex
spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, and brought many English bishops, priests, and monastics to Scotland. When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn (
Donald III Donald III ( Medieval Gaelic: Domnall mac Donnchada; Modern Gaelic: ''Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh''), and nicknamed "Donald the Fair" or "Donald the White" (Medieval Gaelic:"Domnall Bán", anglicised as Donald Bane/Bain or Donalbane/Donalbain), (c. ...

Donald III
). Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the thoroughly Gaelic west of Scotland. He was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on
Iona Iona ( gd, Ì Chaluim Chille (IPA: iːˈxaɫ̪ɯimˈçiʎə, sometimes simply ''Ì''; sco, Iona) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is mainly known for Iona Abbey, though there a ...

Iona
, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of and the Kingdom of Alba. However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Edgar, Alexander I and David I (their successive reigns lasting 1097–1153),
Anglo-NormanAnglo-Norman may refer to: *Anglo-Normans The Anglo-Normans ( nrf, Anglo-Normaunds, ang, Engel-Norðmandisca) were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, F ...
names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French completely displaced Gaelic at court. The establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area, particularly under
David IDavid I may refer to: * David I, List of Caucasian Albanian Catholicoi, Caucasian Albanian Catholicos c. 399 * David I of Armenia, Catholicos of Armenia (728–741) * David I Kuropalates of Georgia (died 881) * David I Anhoghin, king of Lori (ruled ...

David I
, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland. Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent
Lordship of the Isles The Lord of the Isles ( gd, Triath nan Eilean or ) is a title of Scottish nobility with historical roots that go back beyond the Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during t ...
in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained thoroughly Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century. By the mid-14th century what eventually came to be called Scots (at that time termed Inglis) emerged as the official language of government and law. Scotland's emergent nationalism in the era following the conclusion of the
Wars of Scottish Independence The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War of Scottish Independence, First War (1296–1328) ...
was organized using Scots as well. For example, the nation's great patriotic literature including John Barbour's ''
The Brus 210px, ''A, fredome is a noble thing'', part of the most-cited passage from Barbour's ''Brus''. ''The Brus'', also known as ''The Bruce'', is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbo ...
'' (1375) and Blind Harry's '' The Wallace'' (before 1488) was written in Scots, not Gaelic. By the end of the 15th century, English/Scots speakers referred to Gaelic instead as 'Yrisch' or 'Erse', i.e. Irish and their own language as 'Scottis'.


Modern era

A steady shift away from Scottish Gaelic continued into and through the modern era. Some of this was driven by policy decisions by government or other organisations, some originated from social changes. In the last quarter of the 20th century, efforts began to encourage use of the language. The
Statutes of Iona The Statutes of Iona, passed in Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has ...
, enacted by
James VI James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...

James VI
in 1609, was one piece of legislation that addressed, among other things, the Gaelic language. It compelled the heirs of clan chiefs to be educated in lowland, Protestant, English-speaking schools. James VI took several such measures to impose his rule on the Highland and Island region. In 1616 the
Privy Council A privy council is a body that advises the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: ...
proclaimed that schools teaching in English should be established. Gaelic was seen, at this time, as one of the causes of the instability of the region. It was also associated with Catholicism. The Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) was founded in 1709. They met in 1716, immediately after the failed Jacobite rebellion of 1715, to consider the reform and civilisation of the Highlands, which they sought to achieve by teaching English and the Protestant religion. Initially their teaching was entirely in English, but soon the impracticality of educating Gaelic-speaking children in this way gave rise to a modest concession: in 1723 teachers were allowed to translate English words in the Bible into Gaelic to aid comprehension, but there was no further permitted use. Other less prominent schools worked in the Highlands at the same time, also teaching in English. This process of anglicisation paused when evangelical preachers arrived in the Highlands, convinced that people should be able to read religious texts in their own language. The first well-known translation of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
into Scottish Gaelic was made in 1767 when Dr James Stuart of Killin and Dugald Buchanan of Rannoch produced a translation of the New Testament. In 1798 4 tracts in Gaelic were published by the Society for Propagating the Gospel at Home. 5,000 copies of each were printed. Other publications followed, with a full Gaelic Bible in 1801. The influential and effective Gaelic Schools Society was founded in 1811. Their purpose was to teach Gaels to read the Bible in their own language. In the first quarter of the 19th century, the SSPCK (despite their anti-Gaelic attitude in prior years) and the British and Foreign Bible Society distributed 60,000 Gaelic Bibles and 80,000 New Testaments. It is estimated that this overall schooling and publishing effort gave some 300,000 people in the Highlands some basic literacy. Very few European languages have made the transition to a modern literary language without an early modern translation of the Bible; the lack of a well-known translation may have contributed to the decline of Scottish Gaelic. Counterintuitively, access to schooling in Gaelic increased knowledge of English. In 1829 the Gaelic Schools Society reported that parents were unconcerned about their children learning Gaelic, but were anxious to have them taught English. The SSPCK also found Highlanders to have significant prejudice against Gaelic. T. M. Devine attributes this to an association between English and the prosperity of employment: the Highland economy relied greatly on seasonal migrant workers travelling outside the . In 1863, an observer sympathetic to Gaelic stated that "knowledge of English is indispensable to any poor islander who wishes to learn a trade or to earn his bread beyond the limits of his native Isle". Generally, rather than Gaelic speakers, it was Celtic societies in the cities and professors of Celtic from universities who sought to preserve the language. The Education (Scotland) Act 1872 provided universal education in Scotland, but completely ignored Gaelic in its plans. The mechanism for supporting Gaelic through the Education Codes issued by the Scottish Education Department were steadily used to overcome this omission, with many concessions in place by 1918. However, the members of Highland school boards tended to have anti-Gaelic attitudes and served as an obstacle to Gaelic education in the late 19th and early 20th century. The
Linguistic Survey of ScotlandThe Linguistic Survey of Scotland was a long-term project at the University of Edinburgh , latin_name = Universitas Academica Edinburgensis , image_name = University of Edinburgh ceremonial roundel.svg , image_size = 150px , established = , ...
surveyed both the dialect of the Scottish Gaelic language, and also mixed use of English and Gaelic across the Highlands and Islands.


Defunct dialects

Dialects of Lowland Gaelic have been defunct since the 18th century. Gaelic in the Eastern and Southern Scottish Highlands, although alive until the mid-20th century, is now largely defunct. Although modern Scottish Gaelic is dominated by the dialects of the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Skye, there remain some speakers of the Inner Hebridean dialects of Tiree and Islay, and even a few native speakers from Western Highland areas including
Wester Ross Wester Ross () is an area of the Northwest Highlands The Northwest Highlands are located in the northern third of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingd ...
, northwest
Sutherland Sutherland ( gd, Cataibh) is a historic county, registration county A registration county was, in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it ...

Sutherland
,
Lochaber Lochaber ( ; gd, Loch Abar) is a name applied to areas of the Scottish Highlands The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the ') is a historic region of . Culturally, the Highlands and the diverged from ...
and
Argyll Argyll (; archaically Argyle, in Scottish Gaelic language, modern Gaelic, ), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a Counties of Scotland, historic county and registration county of western Scotland. Argyll is of ancient origin, and corresponds to ...

Argyll
. Dialects on both sides of the
Straits of Moyle The North Channel or Irish Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-Eur ...
(the North Channel) linking Scottish Gaelic with Irish are now extinct, though native speakers were still to be found on the
Mull of Kintyre The Mull of Kintyre is the southwesternmost tip of the Kintyre, Kintyre Peninsula (formerly ''Cantyre'') in southwest Scotland. From here, the County Antrim, Antrim coast of Northern Ireland is visible on a calm and clear day, and a historic l ...

Mull of Kintyre
, on Rathlin and in North East Ireland as late as the mid-20th century. Records of their speech show that Irish and Scottish Gaelic existed in a dialect chain with no clear language boundary. Some features of moribund dialects have been preserved in Nova Scotia, including the pronunciation of the broad or velarised l () as , as in the
Lochaber Lochaber ( ; gd, Loch Abar) is a name applied to areas of the Scottish Highlands The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the ') is a historic region of . Culturally, the Highlands and the diverged from ...
dialect.


Status

The Endangered Languages Project lists Gaelic's status as "threatened", with "20,000 to 30,000 active users". UNESCO classifies Gaelic as "definitely endangered".


Number of speakers

The 1755–2001 figures are census data quoted by MacAulay. The 2011 Gaelic speakers figures come from table KS206SC of the 2011 Census. The 2011 total population figure comes from table KS101SC. Note that the numbers of Gaelic speakers relate to the numbers aged 3 and over, and the percentages are calculated using those and the number of the total population aged 3 and over.


Distribution in Scotland

The
2011 UK Census A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011. It was the first UK census which could be completed online via the Internet The Internet ...
showed a total of 57,375 Gaelic speakers in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
(1.1% of population over three years old), of whom only 32,400 could also read and write the language. Compared with the 2001 Census, there has been a diminution of about 1300 people. This is the smallest drop between censuses since the Gaelic-language question was first asked in 1881. The Scottish government's language minister and took this as evidence that Gaelic's long decline has slowed. The main stronghold of the language continues to be the
Outer Hebrides The Outer Hebrides () or Western Isles ( gd, Na h-Eileanan Siar or ; sco, Waster Isles), sometimes known as ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle/Long Island ( gd, An t-Eilean Fada, links=no), is an island chain off the west coast ...

Outer Hebrides
(), where the overall proportion of speakers is 52.2%. Important pockets of the language also exist in the
Highlands Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) refers to ranges of hills, typically up to . Highland (or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains. Highland ...
(5.4%) and in
Argyll and Bute Argyll and Bute ( sco, Argyll an Buit; gd, Earra-Ghàidheal agus Bòd, ) is one of 32 unitary authority A unitary authority is a local authority Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a pa ...

Argyll and Bute
(4.0%) and
Inverness Inverness (; from the gd, Inbhir Nis , meaning "Mouth of the River Ness The River Ness (Scottish Gaelic: ''Abhainn Nis'') is a river about long, which flows from the northern end of Loch Ness in Scotland, through Loch Dochfour, north-east ...

Inverness
(4.9%). The locality with the largest absolute number is
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
with 5,878 such persons, who make up over 10% of all of Scotland's Gaelic speakers. left, Cumbernauld Gaelic Choir in 2021 Gaelic continues to decline in its traditional heartland. Between 2001 and 2011, the absolute number of Gaelic speakers fell sharply in the Western Isles (−1,745), Argyll & Bute (−694), and Highland (−634). The drop in
Stornoway Stornoway (; gd, Steòrnabhagh; sco, Stornowa) is the main town of the Western Isles and the capital of Lewis and Harris in Scotland. The town's population is around 6,953, making it by far the largest town in the Outer Hebrides, as well a ...

Stornoway
, the largest parish in the Western Isles by population, was especially acute, from 57.5% of the population in 1991 to 43.4% in 2011. The only parish outside the Western Isles over 40% Gaelic-speaking is Kilmuir in Northern
Skye The Isle of Skye, or simply Skye (; gd, An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or ; sco, Isle o Skye), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic: ''Na h-Eileanan a-staigh'', "the i ...

Skye
at 46%. The islands in the
Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhen ...

Inner Hebrides
with significant percentages of Gaelic speakers are
Tiree Tiree ( gd, Tiriodh, ) is the most westerly island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll ...
(38.3%),
Raasay Raasay ( gd, Ratharsair) or the Isle of Raasay is an island between the Isle of Skye and the mainland of Scotland. It is separated from Skye by the Sound of Raasay and from Applecross by the Inner Sound, Scotland, Inner Sound. It is most f ...

Raasay
(30.4%),
Skye The Isle of Skye, or simply Skye (; gd, An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or ; sco, Isle o Skye), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic: ''Na h-Eileanan a-staigh'', "the i ...

Skye
(29.4%), Lismore (26.9%),
Colonsay Colonsay ( gd, Colbhasa; sco, Colonsay) is an island in the Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic: ''Na h-Eileanan a-staigh'', "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east o ...
(20.2%), and
Islay Islay ( ; gd, Ìle, sco, Ila) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides The Inner Hebrides (; Scottish Gaelic: ''Na h-Eileanan a-staigh'', "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the sout ...

Islay
(19.0%). As a result of continued decline in the traditional Gaelic heartlands, today no
civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, gove ...
in Scotland has a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 65% (the highest value is in
Barvas Barvas (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family) ...
,
Lewis Lewis may refer to: Names * Lewis (given name) Lewis () is a masculine English given name, English-language given name. It was coined as an anglicisation of given names in other languages. "Lewis" has been used to anglicise the Irish language, Ir ...
, with 64.1%). In addition, no civil parish on mainland Scotland has a proportion of Gaelic speakers greater than 20% (the highest value is in
Ardnamurchan Ardnamurchan (, gd, Àird nam Murchan: headland of the great seas) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from ...

Ardnamurchan
,
Highland Highlands or uplands are any mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is large ...
, with 19.3%). Out of a total of 871 civil parishes in Scotland, the proportion of Gaelic speakers exceeds 50% in 7 parishes, exceeds 25% in 14 parishes, and exceeds 10% in 35 parishes. Decline in traditional areas has recently been balanced by growth in the
Scottish Lowlands The Lowlands ( sco, Lallans or ; gd, a' Ghalldachd, , place of the foreigners, ) is a cultural and historical region of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Sc ...
. Between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, the number of Gaelic speakers rose in nineteen of the country's 32 council areas. The largest absolute gains were in
Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administr ...
(+526), North Lanarkshire (+305), City of Aberdeen, Aberdeen City (+216), and East Ayrshire (+208). The largest relative gains were in Aberdeenshire (+0.19%), East Ayrshire (+0.18%), Moray (+0.16%), and Orkney Islands, Orkney (+0.13%). In 2018, the census of pupils in Scotland showed 520 students in publicly funded schools had Gaelic as the main language at home, an increase of 5% from 497 in 2014. During the same period, Gaelic medium education in Scotland has grown, with 4,343 pupils (6.3 per 1000) being educated in a Gaelic-immersion environment in 2018, up from 3,583 pupils (5.3 per 1000) in 2014. Data collected in 2007–08 indicated that even among pupils enrolled in Gaelic medium schools, 81% of primary students and 74% of secondary students report using English more often than Gaelic when speaking with their mothers at home. The effect on this of the #Education, significant increase in pupils in Gaelic medium education since that time is unknown.


Usage


Official


Scotland


=Scottish Parliament

= Gaelic has long suffered from its lack of use in educational and administrative contexts and was long suppressed. The UK government has ratified the
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and internationa ...
in respect of Gaelic. Gaelic, along with Irish and Welsh, is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture. It has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as Welsh language, Welsh. With the advent of history of Scottish devolution, devolution, however, Scottish matters have begun to receive greater attention, and it achieved a degree of official recognition when the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament on 21 April 2005. The key provisions of the Act are: * Establishing the Gaelic development body, (BnG), on a statutory basis with a view to securing the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland commanding equal respect to the English language and to promote the use and understanding of Gaelic. * Requiring BnG to prepare a National Gaelic Language Plan every five years for approval by Scottish Ministers. * Requiring BnG to produce guidance on Gaelic medium education in Scotland, Gaelic medium education and Gaelic as a subject for education authorities. * Requiring public bodies in Scotland, both Scottish public bodies and cross-border public bodies insofar as they carry out devolved functions, to develop Gaelic language plans in relation to the services they offer, if requested to do so by BnG. Following a consultation period, in which the government received many submissions, the majority of which asked that the bill be strengthened, a revised bill was published; the main alteration was that the guidance of the is now statutory (rather than advisory). In the committee stages in the Scottish Parliament, there was much debate over whether Gaelic should be given 'equal validity' with English. Due to executive concerns about resourcing implications if this wording was used, the Education Committee settled on the concept of 'equal respect'. It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is. The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum, on 21 April 2005. Under the provisions of the Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland. Some commentators, such as (2006) argue that the Gaelic Act falls so far short of the status accorded to Welsh that one would be foolish or naïve to believe that any substantial change will occur in the fortunes of the language as a result of 's efforts. On 10 December 2008, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Scottish Human Rights Commission had the UDHR translated into Gaelic for the first time. However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers, following an appeal in the court case of ''Taylor v Haughney'' (1982), involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court of Justiciary, High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.


=Qualifications in the language

= The Scottish Qualifications Authority offer two streams of Gaelic examination across all levels of the syllabus: Gaelic for learners (equivalent to the modern foreign languages syllabus) and Gaelic for native speakers (equivalent to the English syllabus). performs assessment of spoken Gaelic, resulting in the issue of a Bronze Card, Silver Card or Gold Card. Syllabus details are available on An Comunn's website. These are not widely recognised as qualifications, but are required for those taking part in certain competitions at the annual .


=European Union

= In October 2009, a new agreement allowed Scottish Gaelic to be formally used between Scottish Government ministers and European Union officials. The deal was signed by Britain's representative to the EU, Sir Kim Darroch, and the Scottish government. This did not give Scottish Gaelic languages of the European Union, official status in the EU but gave it the right to be a means of formal communications in the EU's institutions. The Government of Scotland, Scottish government had to pay for the translation from Gaelic to other Languages of Europe, European languages. The deal was received positively in Scotland; Secretary of State for Scotland Jim Murphy said the move was a strong sign of the UK government's support for Gaelic. He said; "Allowing Gaelic speakers to communicate with European institutions in their mother tongue is a progressive step forward and one which should be welcomed". Culture Minister Michael Russell (Scottish politician), Mike Russell said; "this is a significant step forward for the recognition of Gaelic both at home and abroad and I look forward to addressing the council in Gaelic very soon. Seeing Gaelic spoken in such a forum raises the profile of the language as we drive forward our commitment to creating a new generation of Gaelic speakers in Scotland."


=Signage

= Bilingual road signs, street names, business and advertisement signage (in both Gaelic and English) are gradually being introduced throughout Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and Islands, including Argyll. In many cases, this has simply meant re-adopting the traditional spelling of a name (such as or rather than the anglicised forms ''Ratagan'' or ''Lochailort'' respectively). Bilingual railway station signs are now more frequent than they used to be. Practically all the stations in the Highland area use both English and Gaelic, and the spread of bilingual station signs is becoming ever more frequent in the Lowlands of Scotland, including areas where Gaelic has not been spoken for a long time. This has been welcomed by many supporters of the language as a means of raising its profile as well as securing its future as a 'living language' (i.e. allowing people to use it to navigate from A to B in place of English) and creating a sense of place. However, in some places, such as Caithness, the Highland Council's intention to introduce bilingual signage has incited controversy. The Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in 2004 that they intended to correct them and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps. Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba ("Place names in Scotland") is the national advisory partnership for Gaelic place names in Scotland.


Canada

In the nineteenth century, Canadian Gaelic was the third-most widely spoken European language in British North America and Gaelic-speaking immigrant communities could be found throughout what is modern-day Canada. Gaelic poets in Canada produced a significant literary tradition. The number of Gaelic-speaking individuals and communities declined sharply, however, after the First World War.


= Nova Scotia

= At the start of the 21st century, it was estimated that no more than 500 people in Nova Scotia still spoke Scottish Gaelic as a first language. In the 2011 census, 300 people claimed to have Gaelic as their first language (a figure that may include Irish Gaelic). In the same 2011 census, 1,275 people claimed to speak Gaelic, a figure that not only included all Gaelic languages but also those people who are not first language speakers, of whom 300 claim to have Gaelic as their "mother tongue." The Nova Scotia government maintains the Office of Gaelic Affairs (), which is dedicated to the development of Scottish Gaelic language, culture and tourism in Nova Scotia, and which estimates about 2,000 total Gaelic speakers to be in the province. As in Scotland, areas of North-Eastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton have bilingual street signs. Nova Scotia also has (The Gaelic Council of Nova Scotia), a non-profit society dedicated to the maintenance and promotion of the Gaelic language and culture in Maritime Canada. In 2018, the Nova Scotia government launched a new Gaelic vehicle license plate to raise awareness of the language and help fund Gaelic language and culture initiatives. In September 2021, the first Gaelic-medium primary school outside of Scotland, named , opened in Mabou, Nova Scotia.


= Outside Nova Scotia

= Maxville Public School in Maxville, Ontario, Maxville, Glengarry County, Ontario, Glengarry, Ontario, offers Scottish Gaelic lessons weekly. In Prince Edward Island, the Colonel Gray High School now offers both an introductory and an advanced course in Gaelic; both language and history are taught in these classes. This is the first recorded time that Gaelic has ever been taught as an official course on Prince Edward Island. The province of British Columbia is host to the (The Gaelic Society of Vancouver), the Vancouver Gaelic Choir, the Victoria Gaelic Choir, as well as the annual Gaelic festival ''Vancouver''. The city of Vancouver's Scottish Cultural Centre also holds seasonal Scottish Gaelic evening classes.


Media

The BBC Scotland, BBC operates a Gaelic-language radio station as well as a television channel, . Launched on 19 September 2008, BBC Alba is widely available in the UK (on Freeview (UK), Freeview, Freesat, Sky UK, Sky and Virgin Media). It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites.BBC Reception advice
– BBC Online
The channel is being operated in partnership between BBC Scotland and – an organisation funded by the Scottish Government, which works to promote the Gaelic language in broadcasting.About BBC Alba
, from BBC Online
The ITV franchise in central Scotland, Scottish Television, STV Central, produces a number of Scottish Gaelic programmes for both BBC Alba and its own main channel. Until BBC Alba was broadcast on Freeview, viewers were able to receive the channel , which broadcast for an hour every evening. Upon BBC Alba's launch on Freeview, it took the channel number that was previously assigned to TeleG. There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the ITV (TV network), independent commercial channels, usually subtitled in English. The ITV (TV network), ITV franchise in the north of Scotland, Grampian Television, STV North (formerly ''Grampian Television'') produces some non-news programming in Scottish Gaelic.


Education


Scotland

The Education (Scotland) Act 1872, which completely ignored Gaelic and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language. People still living in 2001 could recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. Even later, when these attitudes had changed, little provision was made for Gaelic medium education in Scottish schools. As late as 1958, even in Highland schools, only 20% of primary students were taught Gaelic as a subject, and only 5% were taught other subjects through the Gaelic language. Gaelic-medium playgroups for young children began to appear in Scotland during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Parent enthusiasm may have been a factor in the "establishment of the first Gaelic medium primary school units in Glasgow and Inverness in 1985". The first modern solely Gaelic-medium secondary school, ("Glasgow Gaelic School"), was opened at Woodside in
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
in 2006 (61 partially Gaelic-medium primary schools and approximately a dozen Gaelic-medium secondary schools also exist). According to , a total of 2,092 primary pupils were enrolled in Gaelic-medium primary education in 2008–09, as opposed to 24 in 1985. The Columba Initiative, also known as (formerly ), is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish. In November 2019, the language-learning app Duolingo opened a Software testing, beta course in Gaelic. Starting from summer 2020, children starting school in the Outer Hebrides, Western Isles will be enrolled in GME (Gaelic-medium education) unless parents request differently. Children will be taught Scottish Gaelic from P1 to P4 and then English will be introduced to give them a bilingual education.


Canada

In May 2004, the Nova Scotia government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province. Several public schools in Northeastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton offer Gaelic classes as part of the high-school curriculum. Maxville Public School in Maxville, Ontario, Maxville, Glengarry County, Ontario, Glengarry, Ontario, offers Scottish Gaelic lessons weekly. In Prince Edward Island, the Colonel Gray High School offer an introductory and an advanced course in Scottish Gaelic.


Higher and further education

A number of Scottish and some Irish universities offer full-time degrees including a Gaelic language element, usually graduating as Celtic Studies. In
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
, Canada, St. Francis Xavier University, the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts and Cape Breton University (formerly known as the "University College of Cape Breton") offer Celtic Studies degrees and/or Gaelic language programs. The government's Office of Gaelic Affairs offers lunch-time lessons to public servants in Halifax. In Russia the Moscow State University offers Gaelic language, history and culture courses. The University of the Highlands and Islands offers a range of Gaelic language, history and culture courses at the National Certificate, Higher National Diploma, Bachelor of Arts (ordinary), Bachelor of Arts (Honours) and Master of Science levels. It offers opportunities for postgraduate research through the medium of Gaelic. Residential courses at on the Isle of Skye offer adults the chance to become fluent in Gaelic in one year. Many continue to complete degrees, or to follow up as distance learners. A number of other colleges offer a one-year certificate course, which is also available online (pending accreditation). Lews Castle College's Benbecula campus offers an independent 1-year course in Gaelic and Traditional Music (FE, SQF level 5/6).


Church

In the Western Isles, the isles of
Lewis Lewis may refer to: Names * Lewis (given name) Lewis () is a masculine English given name, English-language given name. It was coined as an anglicisation of given names in other languages. "Lewis" has been used to anglicise the Irish language, Ir ...
, Harris, Outer Hebrides, Harris and North Uist have a Presbyterianism, Presbyterian majority (largely Church of Scotland – in Gaelic, Free Church of Scotland (post 1900), Free Church of Scotland and Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland). The isles of South Uist and Barra have a Catholic Church, Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles. Notable city congregations with regular services in Gaelic are St Columba Church of Scotland, Glasgow, St Columba's Church, Glasgow and Greyfriars Kirk, Edinburgh, Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, Edinburgh. —a shorter Gaelic version of the English-language Book of Common Order—was published in 1996 by the Church of Scotland. The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for the decline of Gaelic. The Church of Scotland is supportive today, but has a shortage of Gaelic-speaking ministers. The Free Church also recently announced plans to abolish Gaelic-language communion services, citing both a lack of ministers and a desire to have their congregations united at communion time.


Literature

From the sixth century to the present day, Scottish Gaelic has been used as the language of literature. Two prominent writers of the twentieth century are Anne Frater and Sorley Maclean.


Names


Personal names

Gaelic has its own version of European-wide names which also have English forms, for example: (John), (Alexander), (William), (Catherine), (Robert), (Christina), (Ann), (Mary), (James), (Patrick) and (Thomas). Not all traditional Gaelic names have direct equivalents in English: , which is normally rendered as ''Euphemia'' (Effie) or ''Henrietta'' (Etta) (formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet), or, , which is "matched" with ''Dorothy'', simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling. Many of these traditional Gaelic-only names are now regarded as old-fashioned, and hence are rarely or never used. Some names have come into Gaelic from Old Norse; for example, ( < ), (< ), or (< ), (< ), (). These are conventionally rendered in English as ''Sorley'' (or, historically, ''Somerled''), ''Norman'', ''Ronald'' or ''Ranald'', ''Torquil'' and ''Iver'' (or ''Evander''). Some Scottish names are Anglicized forms of Gaelic names: → (Angus), → (Donald), for instance. , and the recently established (pronounced ) come from the Gaelic for, respectively, James, and Mary, but derive from the form of the names as they appear in the vocative case: (James) (nom.) → (voc.) and (Mary) (nom.) → (voc.).


Surnames

The most common class of Gaelic surnames are those beginning with (Gaelic for "son"), such as  /  (MacLean). The female form is (Gaelic for "daughter"), so Catherine MacPhee is properly called in Gaelic, (strictly, is a contraction of the Gaelic phrase , meaning "daughter of the son", thus really means "daughter of MacDonald" rather than "daughter of Donald"). The "of" part actually comes from the genitive form of the patronymic that follows the prefix; in the case of , ("of Donald") is the genitive form of ("Donald"). Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: (Bain (surname), Bain – white), (Roy – red), (Dow, Duff (surname), Duff – black), (Dunn (surname), Dunn – brown), (Bowie (surname), Bowie – yellow) although in Gaelic these occur as part of a fuller form such as 'son of the servant of', i.e. .


Phonology

Most varieties of Gaelic show either 8 or 9 vowel qualities () in their inventory of vowel phonemes, which can be either long or short. There are also two reduced vowels () which only occur short. Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive nasalized vowel, nasality are rare. There are about nine diphthongs and a few triphthongs. Most consonants have both palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of liquid consonant, liquids, nasal stop, nasals and trill consonant, trills (i.e. 3 contrasting "l" sounds, 3 contrasting "n" sounds and 3 contrasting "r" sounds). The historically voiced stops have lost their voicing, so the phonemic contrast today is between unaspirated and aspirated . In many dialects, these stops may however gain voicing through secondary articulation through a preceding nasal, for examples "door" but "the door" as or . In some fixed phrases, these changes are shown permanently, as the link with the base words has been lost, as in "now", from "this time/period". In medial and final position, the aspirated stops are preaspiration, preaspirated rather than aspirated.


Grammar

Scottish Gaelic is an Indo-European languages, Indo-European language with an fusional language, inflecting morphology (linguistics), morphology, verb–subject–object, verb–subject–object word order and grammatical gender, two grammatical genders.


Noun inflection

Gaelic nouns inflect for four cases (nominative/accusative, vocative, genitive and dative) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). They are also normally classed as either masculine or feminine. A small number of words that used to belong to the neuter class show some degree of gender confusion. For example, in some dialects "the sea" behaves as a masculine noun in the nominative case, but as a feminine noun in the genitive (). Nouns are marked for case in a number of ways, most commonly involving various combinations of lenition, palatalization (phonetics), palatalisation and suffixation.


Verb inflection

There are 12 irregular verbs. Most other verbs follow a fully predictable paradigm, although polysyllabic verbs ending in Lateral consonant, laterals can deviate from this paradigm as they show Syncope (phonetics), syncopation. There are: * Three Grammatical person, persons: 1st, 2nd and 3rd * Two Grammatical number, numbers: singular and plural * Two Voice (grammar), voices: traditionally called active and passive, but actually personal and impersonal * Three non-composed combined TAM forms expressing grammatical tense, tense, grammatical aspect, aspect and grammatical mood, mood, i.e. non-past (future-habitual), conditional (future of the past), and past (preterite); several composed TAM forms, such as pluperfect, future perfect, present perfect, present continuous, past continuous, conditional perfect, etc. Two verbs, , used to attribute a notionally temporary state, action, or quality to the subject, and (a defective verb that has only two forms), used to show a notional permanent identity or quality, have non-composed present and non-past tense forms: () [perfective present], / [imperfective non-past] and all other especeted verb forms, though the verb adjective ("past participle") is lacking; () , past and conditional. * Four moods: independent (used in affirmative main clause verbs), relative (used in verbs in affirmative relative clauses), dependent (used in subordinate clauses, anti-affirmative relative clauses, and anti-affirmative main clauses), and subjunctive.


Word order

Word order is strictly verb–subject–object, including questions, negative questions and negatives. Only a restricted set of preverb particles may occur before the verb.


Lexicon

The majority of the vocabulary of Scottish Gaelic is native
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
. There are a large number of borrowings from Latin (, from ), Norse ( from , from ), French language, French ( from ) and Scots (, ). There are also many Brythonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but it is not always possible to disentangle P and Q Celtic words. However, some common words such as = Welsh , Cumbric are clearly of P-Celtic origin. In common with other Indo-European languages, the neologisms coined for modern concepts are typically based on Greek language, Greek or Latin, although often coming through English; ''television'', for instance, becomes and ''computer'' becomes . Some speakers use an English word even if there is a Gaelic equivalent, applying the rules of Gaelic grammar. With verbs, for instance, they will simply add the verbal suffix (, or, in
Lewis Lewis may refer to: Names * Lewis (given name) Lewis () is a masculine English given name, English-language given name. It was coined as an anglicisation of given names in other languages. "Lewis" has been used to anglicise the Irish language, Ir ...
, , as in, " watch (Lewis, "watch ") telly" (I am watching the television), instead of "". This phenomenon was described over 170 years ago, by the minister who compiled the account covering the parish of
Stornoway Stornoway (; gd, Steòrnabhagh; sco, Stornowa) is the main town of the Western Isles and the capital of Lewis and Harris in Scotland. The town's population is around 6,953, making it by far the largest town in the Outer Hebrides, as well a ...

Stornoway
in the ''New Statistical Account of Scotland'', and examples can be found dating to the eighteenth century. However, as Gaelic medium education grows in popularity, a newer generation of literate Gaels is becoming more familiar with modern Gaelic vocabulary.


Loanwords into other languages

Scottish Gaelic has also influenced the Scots language and English (language), English, particularly Scottish Standard English. Loanwords include: whisky, slogan, brogue, jilt, clan, trousers, gob, as well as familiar elements of Scottish geography like ben (), glen () and .
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
has also influenced Lowland Scots and English in Scotland, but it is not always easy to distinguish its influence from that of Scottish Gaelic.


Writing system


Alphabet

The modern Scottish Gaelic alphabet has 18 letter (alphabet), letters: : A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U. The letter , now mostly used to indicate lenition (historically sometimes inaccurately called ''aspiration'') of a consonant, was in general not used in the oldest orthography, as lenition was instead indicated with a dot (diacritic), dot over the lenited consonant. The letters of the alphabet were traditionally named after trees, but this custom has fallen out of use. Long vowels are marked with a grave accent (), indicated through digraph (orthography), digraphs (e.g. is ) or conditioned by certain consonant environments (e.g. a preceding a non-intervocalic is ). Traditional spelling systems also use the acute accent on the letters , and to denote a change in vowel quality rather than length, but the reformed spellings have replaced these with the grave. Certain 18th century sources used only an acute accent along the lines of Irish, such as in the writings of Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair (1741–51) and the earliest editions (1768–90) of Duncan Ban MacIntyre.


Orthography

The 1767 New Testament set the standard for Scottish Gaelic. The 1981 Scottish Examination Board recommendations for Scottish Gaelic, the Gaelic Orthographic Conventions, were adopted by most publishers and agencies, although they remain controversial among some academics, most notably Ronald Black.The Board of Celtic Studies Scotland (1998) ''Computer-Assisted Learning for Gaelic: Towards a Common Teaching Core''. The orthographic conventions were revised by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) in 2005: The quality of consonants (palatalised or non-palatalised) is indicated in writing by the vowels surrounding them. So-called "slender" consonants are palatalization (phonetics), palatalised while "broad" consonants are neutral or velarization, velarised. The vowels and are classified as slender, and , , and as broad. The spelling rule known as ("slender to slender and broad to broad") requires that a word-medial consonant or consonant group followed by a written or be also preceded by an or and similarly, if followed by , or , to be also preceded by an , , or . This rule sometimes leads to the insertion of an orthographic vowel that does not influence the pronunciation of the vowel. For example, plurals in Gaelic are often formed with the suffix , for example, (shoe) / (shoes). But because of the spelling rule, the suffix is spelled (but pronounced the same, ) after a slender consonant, as in ((a) people) / (peoples) where the written is purely a graphic vowel inserted to conform with the spelling rule because an precedes the . Lexical stress, Unstressed vowels omitted in speech can be omitted in informal writing. For example: : ("I hope.") > Gaelic orthographic rules are mostly regular; however, English sound-to-letter correspondences cannot be applied to written Gaelic. Scots English orthography, orthographic rules have also been used at various times in Gaelic writing. Notable examples of Gaelic verse composed in this manner are the Book of the Dean of Lismore and the Fernaig manuscript, manuscript.


Common words and phrases with Irish and Manx equivalents

Note: Items in brackets denote archaic,dialectal or regional variant forms


References


Notes


Citations


Resources

* Gillies, H. Cameron. (1896). ''Elements of Gaelic Grammar''. Vancouver: Global Language Press (reprint 2006), (hardcover), (paperback) * Gillies, William. (1993). "Scottish Gaelic", in Ball, Martin J. and Fife, James (eds). ''The Celtic Languages (Routledge Language Family Descriptions)''. London: Routledge. (paperback), p. 145–227 * Lamb, William. (2001).
Scottish Gaelic
'. Munich: Lincom Europa, * . (2007). '' – A Gaelic Thesaurus''. Lulu Enterprises, N. Carolina * McLeod, Wilson (ed.). (2006). ''Revitalising Gaelic in Scotland: Policy, Planning and Public Discourse''. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, * Robertson, Charles M. (1906–07). "s:Scottish Gaelic Dialects, Scottish Gaelic Dialects", ''The Celtic Review'', vol 3 pp. 97–113, 223–39, 319–32.


External links

* – Scottish Gaelic language, music and news
"Gaelic in Medieval Scotland: Advent and Expansion"
by Thomas Owen Clancy, Sir John Rhys Memorial Lecture, 4 March 2009
''Gaelic Resource Database''
– founded by Comhairle nan Eilean Siar
Scottish Gaelic Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words
(from Wiktionary'
Swadesh-list appendix
* – Dwelly's Gaelic dictionary online * – 's links to pages in and about Scottish Gaelic
DASG
– The Digital Archive of Scottish Gaelic
An Comunn's website

Nova Scotia Office of Gaelic Affairs
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