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Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of
varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
of the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
spoken in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. The transregional, standardised variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE). Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class n Scotlandand the accepted norm in schools".
IETF language tag An IETF BCP 47 language tag is a standardized code or tag that is used to identify human languages in internet programming as used by computing standards such as HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An applica ...
for "Scottish Standard English" is en-scotland. In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
,
local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government ...
and the
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
and
legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
systems. Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar
linguistic continuum A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighboring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties ma ...
, with focused
broad Broad or Broads may refer to: People * A slang term for a woman. Is usually a derogatory term. * Broad (surname), a surname Places * Broad Peak, on the border between Pakistan and China, the 12th highest mountain on Earth * The Broads, a net ...
Scots at the other. Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.Stuart-Smith J. ''Scottish English: Phonology'' in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.48 Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances.Aitken A.J. ''Scottish Speech'' in Languages of Scotland, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Paper 4, Edinburgh:Chambers 1979. p.85 Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.


Background

Scottish English resulted from
language contact Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other. The study of language contact is called contact linguistics. When speakers of different languages interact closely, it is typical for th ...
between Scots and the
Standard English In an English-speaking country This article is intended to provide details and data regarding the geographical distribution of all English speakers, regardless of the legislative status of the countries where it's spoken. The English language is o ...
of England after the 17th century. The resulting shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for
mergers In corporate finance Corporate finance is the area of finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money a ...
by linguists unfamiliar with the history of Scottish English. Furthermore, the process was also influenced by interdialectal forms,
hypercorrection In sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural Norm (sociology), norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language ...
s and
spelling pronunciation A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relati ...
s. (See the section on
phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lan ...
below.)


History

Convention traces the influence of the English of England upon Scots to the 16th-century
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
and to the introduction of
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
. Printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years. Texts such as the
Geneva Bible The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminol ...

Geneva Bible
, printed in English, were widely distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine.
King James VI of Scotland James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth I MacAlpi ...

King James VI of Scotland
became King James I of England in 1603. Since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James moved his court to
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
in England. The poets of the court therefore moved south and "began adapting the language and style of their verse to the tastes of the English market".McClure (1994), p. 36 To this event McClure attributes "the sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language". The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that into English was used in worship in both countries. The
Acts of Union 1707 The Acts of Union ( gd, Achd an Aonaidh) were two Acts of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legisl ...
amalgamated the Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church, educational and legal structures remained separate. This leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms. There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have either no place in English English or have a different definition.


Phonology

The speech of the middle classes in Scotland tends to conform to the grammatical norms of the written standard, particularly in situations that are regarded as formal.
Highland English Highland English ( sco, Hieland Inglis) is the variety of Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutio ...
is slightly different from the variety spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, grammatically, and lexically influenced by a
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
substratum In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the m ...
. Similarly, the English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to follow the phonology and grammar of
DoricDoric may refer to: * Doric, of or relating to the Dorians of ancient Greece ** Doric Greek, the dialects of the Dorians * Doric order, a style of ancient Greek architecture * Doric mode, a synonym of Dorian mode * Doric dialect (Scotland) * Doric C ...
. Although pronunciation features vary among speakers (depending on region and social status), there are a number of phonological aspects characteristic of Scottish English: * Scottish English is mostly rhotic, meaning is typically pronounced in the
syllable coda A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of Phone (phonetics), speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often consi ...
, although some non-rhotic varieties are present in Edinburgh and
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...
. The phoneme may be a
postalveolar approximant The voiced alveolar approximant is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with ...
, as in Received Pronunciation or General American, but speakers have also traditionally used for the same phoneme a somewhat more common
alveolar tap Alveolus (pl. alveoli, adj. alveolar) is a general anatomical term for a concave cavity or pit. Alveolus may refer to: In anatomy and zoology in general * Pulmonary alveolus A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin ''alveolus'', "littl ...
or, now very rare, the
alveolar trill The voiced alveolar trill is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how ...
(hereafter, will be used to denote any rhotic consonant). **Although other dialects have merged non-intervocalic , , before ( fern–fir–fur merger), Scottish English makes a distinction between the vowels in ''fern'', ''fir'', and ''fur''. **Many varieties contrast and before so that ''hoarse'' and ''horse'' are pronounced differently. ** and are contrasted so that ''shore'' and ''sure'' are pronounced differently, as are ''pour'' and ''poor''. ** before is strong. An
epenthetic In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular language variety. At one t ...
vowel may occur between and so that ''girl'' and ''world'' are two-syllable words for some speakers. The same may occur between and , between and , and between and . *There is a distinction between and in word pairs such as ''witch'' and ''which''. *The phoneme is common in names and in SSE's many Gaelic and Scots borrowings, so much so that it is often taught to incomers, particularly for "ch" in loch. Some Scottish speakers use it in words of Greek origin as well, such as technical, patriarch, etc. (Wells 1982, 408). * is usually velarised (see
dark l The voiced alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many Speech, spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents Dental consonant, dental, Alveolar consonant, alveolar, and Postalv ...

dark l
) except in borrowings like "glen" (from Scottish Gaelic "gleann"), which had an unvelarised l in their original form. In areas where
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
was spoken until relatively recently (such as
Dumfries and Galloway Dumfries and Galloway ( sco, Dumfries an Gallowa; gd, Dùn Phrìs is Gall-Ghaidhealaibh) is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland For Local government in Scotland, local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas design ...

Dumfries and Galloway
) and in areas where it is still spoken (such as the
West Highlands The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the Gaels') is a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Scottish Lowlands, Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, ...
), velarisation of may be absent in many words in which it is present in other areas, but remains in borrowings that had velarised in Gaelic, such as "loch" (Gaelic "loch") and "clan" (Gaelic "clann"). *, and are not aspirated in more traditional varieties, but are weakly aspirated currently. *The past ending ''-ed'' may be realised with where other accents use , chiefly after unstressed vowels: ''ended'' , ''carried'' *
Vowel length In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
is generally regarded as non-phonemic, although a distinctive part of Scottish English is the Scots vowel length rule (Scobbie et al. 1999). Certain vowels (such as , , and ) are generally long but are shortened before nasals and voiced
plosives In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical ...
. However, this does not occur across morpheme boundaries so that ''need'' contrasts with ''kneed'', ''crude'' with ''crewed'' and ''side'' with ''sighed''. *Scottish English has no , instead transferring Scots . Phonetically, this vowel may be pronounced or even . Thus ''pull'' and ''pool'' are homophones. * ''Cot'' and ''caught'' are not differentiated in most Central Scottish varieties, as they are in some other varieties.Wells, pp. 399 ff. *In most varieties, there is no - distinction; therefore, ''bath'', ''trap'', and ''palm'' have the same vowel. *The ''happY'' vowel is most commonly (as in ''face''), but may also be (as in ''kit'') or (as in ''fleece''). * is often used in plural nouns where southern English has (baths, youths, etc.); ''with'' and ''booth'' are pronounced with . (See
Pronunciation of English thPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect ("correct pronunciation") or simply the way a particular in ...
.) *In colloquial speech, the may be an allophone of after a vowel, as in . These same speakers may "drop the g" in the suffix ''-ing'' and debuccalise to in certain contexts. * may be more open for certain speakers in some regions, so that it sounds more like (although and do not merge). Other speakers may pronounce it as , just as in many other accents, or with a schwa-like () quality. Others may pronounce it almost as in certain environments, particularly after and . {, class="wikitable" , + Scottish English vowels ! colspan="3", Pure vowels , - ! Lexical set !! Scottish English !! Examples , - , , , , , bid, pit , - , , , , , bead, peat , - , , , , , bed, pet , - , , , , , bay, hey, fate , - , , , rowspan=2 , , , bad, pat , - , , , balm, father, pa , - , , , rowspan=2 , , , bod, pot, cot , - , , , bawd, paw, caught , - , , ,
, , road, stone, toe , - , , , rowspan=2 , , , good, foot, put , - , , , booed, food , - , , , , , bud, putt , - ! colspan="3" ,
Diphthong A diphthong ( ; , ), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of spe ...
s , - , , , , , buy, ride, write , - , , ,
, , how, pout , - , , , , , boy, hoy , - ! colspan="3" , Vowels followed by , - , , , , , bar, mar , - , , , , , beer, mere , - , , , , , bear, mare, Mary , - , , , , , born, for , - , , , , , boar, four, more , - , , , , , boor, moor , - , , , {{IPA, {{small, 3-way distinction:
{{IPA, r}, {{IPA, ̝r}, {{IPA, r} , , bird, herd, furry , - ! colspan="3" ,
Reduced vowels In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic ''quality'' of vowels as a result of changes in stress (linguistics), stress, sonority hierarchy, sonority, vowel length, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the ...
, - , {{sc2, COMMA , , {{IPA, } , , Rosa's, cuppa , - , {{sc2, LETTER , , {{IPA, r} , , runner, mercer


Scotticisms

{{more citations needed section, date=December 2011 {{Main, Scotticism Scotticisms are idioms or expressions that are characteristic of Scots, especially when used in English. They are more likely to occur in spoken than written language. The use of Scottish English, as well as of Scots and of Gaelic in Scotland, were documented over the 20th century by the
Linguistic Survey of ScotlandThe Linguistic Survey of Scotland was a long-term project at the University of Edinburgh , latin_name = Universitas Academica Edinburgensis , image_name = University of Edinburgh ceremonial roundel.svg , image_size = 150px , established = , ...
at the
University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh ( sco, University o Edinburgh, gd, Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann; abbreviated as ''Edin.'' in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply ...
. Examples include: * {{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, What a dreich day! meaning "What a dull, miserable, overcast day" (of weather) * {{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, Greeting is the equivalent of the English
crying Crying or weeping is the dropping of tears Tears are a clear liquid secreted by the lacrimal glands (tear gland) found in the eyes of all Mammal, land mammals (except for goats and rabbits). Their functions include lubricating the eyes (basa ...

crying
({{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, He's greeting because his mother has died). * ''I'm feeling quite drouthy'' meaning "I'm feeling quite thirsty" * ''That's a right (''or ''real) scunner!'' meaning "That's extremely off-putting" * ''The picture still looks squint'' meaning "The picture still looks askew/awry" * ''You'd better just caw canny'' meaning "You'd better just go easy/Don't overdo it" * ''His face is tripping him'' meaning "He's looking fed up" * ''Just play the daft laddie'' meaning "Act ingenuously/feign ignorance" * ''You're looking a bit peely-wally'' meaning "You're looking a bit off-colour" * ''That's outwith my remit'' meaning "It's not part of my job to do that" * ''It depends on what the high heid yins think'' meaning "It depends on what the heads of the organisation/management think" * ''I'll come round (at) the back of eight'' meaning "I'll come round just after eight o'clock" * ''We're all Jock Tamson's bairns'', stock phrase meaning "None of us is better than anyone else" (i.e. socially superior) * ''I kent his faither'', stock phrase meaning "he started off as humbly as the rest of us before achieving success" * ''You're standing there like a stookie'' meaning "you stand there as if incapable of stirring yourself" (like a plaster statue, a stucco figure) * ''He's a right sweetie-wife'' meaning "He likes a good gossip" * ''I didn't mean to cause a stooshie'' meaning "I didn't mean to cause a major fuss/commotion" * ''I'm swithering whether to go'' meaning "I'm in two minds/uncertain as to whether to go" * ''Ach, away ye go!'' stock phrase meaning "Oh, I don't believe you" Scotticisms are generally divided into two types: covert Scotticisms, which generally go unnoticed as being particularly Scottish by those using them, and overt Scotticisms, usually used for stylistic effect, with those using them aware of their Scottish nature.


Lexical

Scottish English has inherited a number of lexical items from Scots, which are less common in other forms of standard English.{{citation needed, date=December 2008 General items are {{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, wee, the Scots word for small (also common in
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of alg ...
and
New Zealand English New Zealand English (NZE) is the dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a ...
, probably under Scottish influence); {{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, wean or {{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, bairn for child (the latter from Common Germanic, cf modern
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
,
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the ...
,
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
,
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
,
Faroese Faroese ( ) or Faroish ( ) may refer to anything pertaining to the Faroe Islands, e.g.: *the Faroese language * the Faroese people {{Disambiguation Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
{{lang, gmq, barn, West Frisian ''bern'' and also used in Northern English dialects); ''
bonnie Bonnie is a Scottish given name for either girls or boys, and is sometimes used as a descriptive reference. It comes from the Scots language Scots (endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related ...

bonnie
'' for pretty, attractive, (or good looking, handsome, as in the case of
Bonnie Prince Charlie Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (20 December 1720 – 30 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed The O ...

Bonnie Prince Charlie
); ''braw'' for fine; ''muckle'' for big; ''spail or skelf'' for splinter (cf.
spall Spall are fragments of a material that are broken off a larger solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance t ...

spall
); ''snib'' for bolt; ''pinkie'' for little finger; ''janitor'' for school caretaker (these last two are also standard in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
); ''outwith'', meaning 'outside of'; ''cowp'' for tip or spill; ''fankle'' for a tangled mess; ''kirk'' for 'church' (from the same root in Old English but with parallels in other Germanic languages, e.g. Old Norse {{lang, non, kirkja, Dutch {{lang, nl, kerk). Examples of culturally specific items are ''
Hogmanay ''Hogmanay'' (; ) is the Scots word for the last day of the old year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's calendar era, year count ...
'', '''', ''
haggis Haggis is a high-level reference programming language A programming language is a formal language In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical st ...

haggis
'', ''
bothy A bothy is a basic shelter, usually left unlocked and available for anyone to use free of charge. It was also a term for basic accommodation, usually for gardeners or other workers on an estate. Bothies are found in remote mountainous areas of Sco ...
'', ''
scone A scone ( or ) is a baked good, usually made of either wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most wi ...

scone
'' (also used elsewhere in the British Isles), ''
oatcake An oatcake is a type of flatbread A flatbread is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorl ...

oatcake
'' (now widespread in the UK), '' tablet'', ''rone'' (roof gutter), ''
teuchter ''Teuchter'' ʲu:xtərref name=CSD> is a Lowland Scots word originally used to describe a Scottish Highlander, in particular a Gaelic-speaking Highlander. Like most such cultural epithets, it can be seen as offensive, but is often seen as amusin ...
'', '' ned'', ''numpty'' (witless person; now more common in the rest of the UK) and ''landward'' (rural); ''It's your shot'' for "It's your turn"; and the once notorious but now obsolete ''
tawse The tawse, sometimes formerly spelled taws (the plural of Scots language, Scots taw, a thong of a whip) is an implement used for corporal punishment. It was used for School corporal punishment, educational discipline, primarily in Scotland, but ...

tawse
''. The diminutive ending "-ie" is added to nouns to indicate smallness, as in ''laddie'' and ''lassie'' for a young boy and young girl. Other examples are ''peirie'' (child's wooden spinning top) and ''sweetie'' (piece of
confectionery Confectionery is the Art (skill), art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, however, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlappi ...
). The ending can be added to many words instinctively, e.g. ''bairn'' (see above) can become ''bairnie'', a small shop can become a ''wee shoppie''. These diminutives are particularly common among the older generations and when talking to children. The use of "How?" meaning "Why?" is distinctive of Scottish, Northern English and Northern Irish English. "Why not?" is often rendered as "How no?". There is a range of (often anglicised) legal and administrative vocabulary inherited from Scots, e.g. ''depute'' {{IPA, /ˈdɛpjut/ for ''deputy'', ''
proven Proven is a rural village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features ...
'' {{IPA, /ˈproːvən/ for ''proved'' (standard in American English), ''interdict'' for '"injunction", and ''
sheriff-substitute In the Courts of Scotland, a sheriff-substitute was the historical name for the Judge, judges who sit in the local Sheriff court, sheriff courts under the direction of the Sheriff principal, sheriffs principal; from 1971 the sheriffs substitute were ...
'' for "acting sheriff". In Scottish education a ''short leet'' is a list of selected job applicants, and a ''remit'' is a detailed job description. ''
Provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...

Provost
'' is used for "mayor" and ''
procurator fiscal A procurator fiscal (pl. ''procurators fiscal''), sometimes called PF or fiscal, is a public prosecutor A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system The adversarial system ...
'' for "public prosecutor". Often, lexical differences between Scottish English and Southern Standard English are simply differences in the distribution of shared lexis, such as ''stay'' for "live" (as in: ''where do you stay?'').


Grammatical

{{unreferenced section, date=June 2012 The progressive verb forms are used rather more frequently than in other varieties of standard English, for example with some
stative verb According to some linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic anal ...
s ({{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, I'm wanting a drink). The future progressive frequently implies an assumption ({{lang, italic=yes, en-scotland, You'll be coming from Glasgow?). In some areas perfect aspect of a verb is indicated using "be" as auxiliary with the preposition "after" and the present participle: for example "He is after going" instead of "He has gone" (this construction is borrowed from
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
). The definite article tends to be used more frequently in phrases such as ''I've got the cold/the flu'', ''he's at the school'', ''I'm away to the kirk''. Speakers often use prepositions differently. The compound preposition ''off of'' is often used (''Take that off of the table''). Scots commonly say ''I was waiting on you'' (meaning "waiting for you"), which means something quite different in Standard English. In colloquial speech ''shall'' and ''ought'' are scarce, ''must'' is marginal for obligation and ''may'' is rare. Here are other syntactical structures: * ''What age are you?'' for "How old are you?" * ''My hair is needing washed'' or ''My hair needs washed'' for "My hair needs washing" or "My hair needs to be washed".{{cite web, url=https://www.scots-online.org/grammar/sse.php, title=Scottish Standard English, work=scots-online.org * ''I'm just after telling you'' for "I've just told you". * '' Amn't I invited?'' for ''Am I not invited?'' Note that in Scottish English, the first person declarative ''I amn't invited'' and interrogative ''Amn't I invited?'' are both possible.


See also

{{Div col * Bungi creole of the Canadian Metis people of Scottish/British descent * Dialect * Glasgow patter * Hiberno-English *
Highland English Highland English ( sco, Hieland Inglis) is the variety of Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutio ...
* Languages of the United Kingdom * Regional accents of English * Scottish Gaelic language * Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech * Ulster English {{Div col end


References

{{Reflist, 30em


Bibliography

{{Refbegin *{{cite book, author=Abercrombie, D., year=1979, chapter=The accents of Standard English in Scotland., editor1=A. J. Aitken , editor2=T. McArthur , title=Languages of Scotland, pages=65–84, location=Edinburgh , publisher=Chambers * Aitken, A. J. (1979) "Scottish speech: a historical view with special reference to the Standard English of Scotland" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 85-118. Updated in next. *{{cite book , author=Corbett, John, J. Derrick McClure, and Jane Stuart-Smith (eds.) , title=Edinburgh Student Companion to Scots , location=Edinburgh , publisher=Edinburgh University Press , year=2003 , isbn=0-7486-1596-2 *{{cite book , author=Foulkes, Paul; & Docherty, Gerard. J. (Eds.) , year=1999 , title=Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles , location=London , publisher=Arnold , isbn=0-340-70608-2 *{{cite book , author=Hughes, A., Trudgill, P. & Watt, D. (Eds.) , year=2005, title=English Accents and Dialects (4th Ed.) , location=London , publisher=Arnold , isbn=0-340-88718-4 *{{cite book, author=Macafee, C., year=2004, chapter=Scots and Scottish English., editor1=Hikey R. , title=Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects, location=Cambridge , publisher=CUP *McClure, J. Derrick (1994) "English in Scotland", in {{cite book, title=The Cambridge History of the English Language, volume v , first=Robert , last=Burchfield , year=1994 , publisher=Cambridge University Press , location=Cambridge, UK , isbn=0-521-26478-2 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ewbvbwAACAAJ *{{Cite journal , last1=Scobbie , first1=James M. , last2=Gordeeva , first2=Olga B. , last3=Matthews , first3=Benjamin , year=2006 , title=Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview , place=Edinburgh , publisher=QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers *{{cite book, author=Scobbie, James M., Nigel Hewlett, and Alice Turk, year=1999, chapter=Standard English in Edinburgh and Glasgow: The Scottish Vowel Length Rule revealed., editor1=Paul Foulkes , editor2=Gerard J. Docherty , title=Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles, pages=230–245, location=London , publisher=Arnold *{{cite book, author=Scobbie, James M., Olga B. Gordeeva, and Benjamin Matthews, year=2007, chapter=Scottish English Speech Acquisition., editor1=Sharynne McLeod , title=The International Guide to Speech Acquisition., pages=221–240, location=Clifton Park, New York , publisher=Thomson Delmar Learning *{{cite book , author=Wells, John C. , title=Accents of English , location=Cambridge , publisher=Cambridge University Press , year=1982 , isbn=0-521-22919-7 , id=(vol. 1). (vol. 2)., (vol. 3) , author-link=John C. Wells {{Refend


Further reading

{{Refbegin * {{Cite web , last=Jilka , first=Matthias , title=Scottish Standard English and Scots , place=Stuttgart , publisher=Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart , url=http://ifla.uni-stuttgart.de/institut/mitarbeiter/jilka/teaching/dialectology/d8_Scotland.pdf , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140421081915/http://ifla.uni-stuttgart.de/institut/mitarbeiter/jilka/teaching/dialectology/d8_Scotland.pdf , archive-date=21 April 2014 {{Refend


External links


Listen to BBC Radio Scotland Live (many presenters, such as Robbie Shepherd, have a noticeable Scottish accent)
and compare side by side with other English accents from Scotland and around the World.
BBC Voices
- Listen to a lot of the voice recordings from many parts of the UK
Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech
- Multimedia text corpus, corpus of Scots and Scottish English
Sounds Familiar?
{spaced ndashListen to examples of Scottish English and other regional accents and dialects of the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar' website
Recent pronunciation changes in Scottish English
(audio, starting at 7:10) {{Scotland topics, state=collapsed {{English dialects by continent, state=collapsed {{English official language clickable map, state=collapsed {{Authority control Scottish English, Standard English Dialects of English