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Scottish baronial or Scots baronial is an
architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style in the visual arts generally, and most styles in archite ...
of 19th century
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
which revived the forms and ornaments of historical architecture of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages and the
Early Modern Period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
. Reminiscent of
Scottish castles Scottish castles are buildings that combine fortifications and residence, built within the borders of modern Scotland. Castles arrived in Scotland with the introduction of feudalism in the twelfth century. Initially these were wooden motte-and-b ...
, buildings in the Scots baronial style are characterised by elaborate rooflines embellished with conical roofs, tourelles, and
battlements A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized ...
with
Machicolations A machicolation (french: mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones or other material, such as boiling water or boiling cooking oil, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensiv ...
, often with an asymmetric plan. Popular during the fashion for
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
and the
Picturesque Picturesque is an aesthetic ideal introduced into English cultural debate in 1782 by William Gilpin (clergyman), William Gilpin in ''Observations on the River Wye, and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty; made ...
, Scots baronial architecture was equivalent to the
Jacobethan Revival The Jacobethan or Jacobean Revival architectural style is the mixed national Renaissance revival style that was made popular in England from the late 1820s, which derived most of its inspiration and its repertory from the English Renaissance#Archit ...
of 19th-century
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, and likewise revived the Late Gothic appearance of the fortified domestic architecture of the elites in the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical com ...
and the
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
of the
Jacobean era The Jacobean Era was the period in English and Scotland, Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI and I, James VI of Scotland who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabetha ...
. Among
architects An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architects
of the Scots baronial style in the
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
were
William Burn William Burn (20 December 1789 – 15 February 1870) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family nativ ...
and
David Bryce David Bryce Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, FRSE FRIBA Royal Scottish Academy, RSA (3 April 1803 – 7 May 1876) was a Scotland, Scottish architect. Life Bryce was born at 5 South College Street in Edinburgh, the son of David Br ...
.
Romanticism in Scotland Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, which was partly a reaction against ...
coincided with a
Scottish national identity Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community of people formed on the ...
during the 19th century, and some of the most emblematic country residences of 19th-century
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
were built in this style, including
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
and
Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...

Walter Scott
's
AbbotsfordAbbotsford may refer to a place in: ;Australia * Abbotsford, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia * Abbotsford, Picton, a heritage-listed farm in south-western Sydney * Abbotsford, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia * Abbotsford S ...
, while in urban settings
Cockburn Street, Edinburgh Cockburn Street is a picturesque street in Edinburgh's Old Town, created as a serpentine link from the High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making ...

Cockburn Street, Edinburgh
was one street built wholly in baronial style. Baronial style buildings were typically of stone, whether
ashlar Ashlar () is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composit ...

ashlar
or
masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar Mortar may refer to: * Mortar (weapon), an indirect-fire infantry weapon * Mortar (masonry), a material used to fill the gaps betwe ...

masonry
. Following
Robert William Billings Robert William Billings (London 25 July 1812 – 14 November 1874 London) was a British architect and author. He trained as a topographical draughtsman, wrote and illustrated many books early in his career, before concentrating on his architec ...
's ''Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland'', architectural historians identified the stylistic features characteristic of the
baronial Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord or knigh ...
castles built from the latter 16th century as Scots baronial style, which as a revived idiom architects continued to employ up until 1930s. Scottish baronial was core influence on
Charles Rennie Mackintosh Charles Rennie Mackintosh (7 June 1868 – 10 December 1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, water colourist and artist. His artistic approach had much in common with European Symbolism (arts), Symbolism. His work, alongside that of his wi ...

Charles Rennie Mackintosh
s
Modern Style The Modern Style is a style of architecture, art, and design that first emerged in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom in the mid-1880s. It is the first Art Nouveau style worldwide, and it represents the evolution of Arts ...
architecture. The style was considered a British national idiom emblematic of Scotland, and was widely used for public buildings, country houses, residences and
follies ''Follies'' is a musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such ...
throughout the British Empire. The
Scottish National War Memorial The Scottish National War Memorial is located in Edinburgh Castle and commemorates Scottish service personnel and civilians, and those serving with Scottish regiments, who died in the two world wars and subsequent conflicts. Its chief architec ...
was the last significant monument of the baronial style, built 1920 in
Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh Castle is a historic castle in Edinburgh, Scotland Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdi ...

Edinburgh Castle
after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
.


Revival and name

The Scottish baronial style is also called Scotch baronial, Scots baronial or just baronial style. The name was invented in the 19th century and may come from Robert William Billings's book ''Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland'', published in 1852. Before, the style does not seem to have had a name. The buildings produced by the Scottish baronial revival by far outnumber those of the original Scottish "baronial" castles of the Early Modern Period.


Predecessors

Scottish baronial style drew upon the buildings of the
Scottish Renaissance The Scottish Renaissance ( gd, Ath-bheòthachadh na h-Alba; sco, Scots Renaissance) was a mainly literary movement Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered ...
. The style of elite residences built by
barons in Scotland In Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of ...
developed under the influence of
French architecture French architecture consists of numerous architectural styles that either originated in France or elsewhere and were developed within the territories of France. History Gallo-Roman The architecture of Ancient Rome at first adopted the exter ...

French architecture
and the architecture of the
County of Flanders The County of Flanders ( nl, Graafschap Vlaanderen; vls, Groafschap Vloandern; french: Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays- ...
in the 16th century and was abandoned by about 1660. The style kept many of the features of the high-rising medieval Gothic castles and introduced Renaissance features. The high and relatively thin-walled medieval fortifications had been made obsolete by gunpowder weapons but were associated with chivalry and landed nobility. High roofs, towers and turrets were kept for status reasons. Renaissance elements were introduced. This concerned mainly the windows that became bigger, had straight lintels or round bows and typically lacked mullions. The style drew on tower houses and peel towers, retaining many of their external features. French Renaissance also kept the steep roofs of medieval castles as can be seen for example at
Azay-le-Rideau Azay-le-Rideau () is a commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typical ...

Azay-le-Rideau
(1518), and the original Scottish baronial style might have been influenced by French masons brought to Scotland to work on royal palaces. The style was quite limited in scope: a style for lesser Scottish landlords. The walls usually are rubble work and only quoins, window dressings and copings are in ashlar. Sculpted ornaments are sparsely used. In most cases the windows lack pediments. The style often uses
corbel In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archit ...

corbel
led
turret In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archit ...

turret
s sometimes called tourelles,
bartizan A bartizan (an alteration of ''bratticing''), also called a guerite, ''garita'', or ''échauguette'', or spelled bartisan, is an overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of late medieval and early-modern fortifications from the ...

bartizan
s or pepperpot turrets. The corbels supporting the turret typically are roll-moulded. Their roofs were conical. Gables are often crow-stepped. Round towers supporting square garret chambers corbelled out over the cylinder of their main bodies are particular the Scottish baronial style. They can be seen at ,
Monea Monea () is a small village and townland in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, about northwest of Enniskillen. In the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 Census it had a population of 114. Transport Ulsterbus route 59 provides several journeys a ...

Monea
, , Thirlestane, Auchans,
Balvenie The Balvenie distillery is a Speyside single malt Scotch whisky distillery in Dufftown, Scotland, owned by William Grant & Sons. History William Grant was born on 19 December 1839 in his father's house in Dufftown. At seven he began herding c ...

Balvenie
, and Fiddes. Such castles or tower houses are typically built on asymmetric plans. Often this is a Z-plan as at Claypotts Castle (1569–1588), or on an L-plan as at Colliston. Roof lines are uneven and irregular. The Scottish baronial style coexisted even in Scotland with
Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertain ...
architecture, which was preferred by the wealthier clients.
William Wallace Sir William Wallace ( gd, Uilleam Uallas, ; Anglo-Norman language, Norman French: ; 23 August 1305) was a Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence. Along with Andrew ...
's work at the North Range of
Linlithgow Palace The ruins of Linlithgow Palace are situated in the town of Linlithgow, West Lothian, Scotland, west of Edinburgh. The palace was one of the principal residences of the monarchs of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland in the 15th and 16th ce ...
(1618–1622) and at Heriot's Hospital (1628–1633) are examples of a contemporaneous Scottish Renaissance architecture. Wallace worked for the Countess of Home at on Edinburgh's
Canongate The Canongate is a street and associated district in central Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually ...
, an Anglo-Scottish client who employed the English master mason
Nicholas Stone Nicholas Stone (1586/87 – 24 August 1647) was an England, English sculpture, sculptor and architect. In 1619 he was appointed master-mason to James I of England, James I, and in 1626 to Charles I of England, Charles I. During his car ...
at her London house in Aldersgate. The baronial style as well as the Scottish Renaissance style finally gave way to the grander English forms associated with
Inigo Jones Inigo Jones (; 15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant Architecture of England, architect in England in the Early modern Europe, early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvius, Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry ...
in the later part of the seventeenth century.


Scottish baronial

European architecture of the 19th century was dominated by revivals of various historic styles. This current took off in the middle of the 18th century with the
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
in Britain. The Gothic Revival in architecture has been seen as an expression of romanticism and according to Alvin Jackson, the Scots baronial style was "a reading of the gothic". Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland.
Inveraray Castle Inveraray Castle (pronounced or ; Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealac ...

Inveraray Castle
, built starting from 1746 with design input from William Adam, incorporates turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some external features of the Scots baronial style. William Adam's son's,
Robert The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it ...
and
James James is a common English language surname and given name: *James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name James James or James City may also refer to: People * King James (disambiguati ...
continued their father's approach, with houses such as
Mellerstain Mellerstain House is a stately home An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a ...
and in Berwickshire and Seton House in East Lothian, but most clearly at
Culzean Castle Culzean Castle ( , see Yogh#Scots, yogh; sco, Cullain) is a castle overlooking the Firth of Clyde, near Maybole, Carrick, Scotland, Carrick, in South Ayrshire, on the west coast of Scotland. It is the former home of the Marquess of Ailsa, the chi ...

Culzean Castle
, Ayrshire, remodelled by Robert from 1777. Large windows of plate glass are not uncommon. Bay windows often have their individual roofs adorned by pinnacles and crenulations.
Porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a building it commands, and forms ...

Porch
es,
portico A portico is a porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a bu ...

portico
s and s, are often given the castle treatment. An imitation
portcullis A portcullis (from Old French ''porte coleice'', "sliding gate") is a heavy vertically-closing gate Candi bentar, a typical Indonesian gate that is often found on the islands of Java">Indonesia.html" ;"title="Candi bentar, a typical Indones ...

portcullis
on the larger houses would occasionally be suspended above a front door, flanked by heraldic beasts and other medieval architectural motifs. Important for the adoption of the style in the early nineteenth century was
Abbotsford House Abbotsford is a historic country house An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) ...

Abbotsford House
, the residence of the novelist and poet
Sir Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...
. Rebuilt for him from 1816, it became a model for the Scottish baronial Revival style. Common features borrowed from 16th- and 17th-century houses included battlemented gateways,
crow-stepped gable A stepped gable, crow-stepped gable, or corbie step is a stairstep type of design at the top of the triangular gable-end of a building. The top of the parapet, parapet wall projects above the roofline and the top of the brick or stone wall is stac ...
s, spiral stairs, pointed
turrets In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Archit ...

turrets
and
machicolation A machicolation (french: mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbel In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Pla ...
s.L. Hull, ''Britain's Medieval Castles'' (London: Greenwood, 2006), , p. 154. Orchardton Castle near Auchencairn, Scotland is a superb example dating from the 1880s. Important for the dissemination of the style was Robert Billings' (1813–1874) four-volume work ''Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland'' (1848–52).T. M. Devine
"In Bed with an Elephant: Almost Three Hundred Years of the Anglo-Scottish Union"
''Scottish Affairs'', 57, Autumn 2006, , p. 11.
It was applied to many relatively modest dwellings by architects such as
William Burn William Burn (20 December 1789 – 15 February 1870) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family nativ ...
(1789–1870),
David Bryce David Bryce Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, FRSE FRIBA Royal Scottish Academy, RSA (3 April 1803 – 7 May 1876) was a Scotland, Scottish architect. Life Bryce was born at 5 South College Street in Edinburgh, the son of David Br ...
(1803–76),
Edward Blore Edward Blore (13 September 1787 – 4 September 1879) was a 19th-century English landscape and architectural artist, architect and antiquary. Early career He was born in Derby, the son of the antiquarian writer Thomas Blore. Blore's backg ...
(1787–1879), Edward Calvert (c. 1847–1914) and
Robert Stodart Lorimer Sir Robert Stodart Lorimer, KBE KBE may refer to: * Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, a grade within the British order of chivalry. * Knowledge-based economy, an economic construct in which economic benefi ...
(1864–1929) and in urban contexts, including the building of
Cockburn Street Cockburn Street is a picturesque street in Edinburgh's Old Town, created as a serpentine link from the High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making ...

Cockburn Street
in Edinburgh (from the 1850s) as well as the National
Wallace Monument The National Wallace Monument (generally known as the Wallace Monument) is a 67 metre tower on the shoulder of the Abbey Craig The Abbey Craig is the hill upon which the Wallace Monument The National Wallace Monument (generally known as the Walla ...
at Stirling (1859–1869).M. Glendinning, R. MacInnes and A. MacKechnie, ''A History of Scottish Architecture: From the Renaissance to the Present Day'', (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002), , pp. 276–85. Dall House (1855) and
Helen's Tower Helen's Tower is a 19th-century folly and lookout tower near Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland. It was built by the Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, 5th Baron of Dufferin and Claneboye and named for his ...
(1848) have square-corbelled-on-round towers or turrets. The rebuilding of
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
as a baronial palace and its adoption as a royal retreat from 1855 to 1858 by Queen Victoria confirmed the popularity of the style. This architectural style was often employed for public buildings, such as
Aberdeen Grammar School Aberdeen Grammar School is a state school, state secondary school in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of thirteen secondary schools run by the Aberdeen City Council educational department. It is the oldest school in the city and one of the oldest g ...

Aberdeen Grammar School
(about 1860). However, it was by no means confined to Scotland and is a fusion of the
Gothic revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
castle architecture first employed by
Horace Walpole Horatio Walpole (), 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), better known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whigs (British political party), Whig politician. He had Strawbe ...

Horace Walpole
for and the ancient Scottish defensive
tower house A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages, especially in mountainous or limited access areas, in order to command and defend strateg ...
s. In the 19th century it became fashionable for private houses to be built with small turrets. Such buildings were dubbed "in Scottish baronial style". In fact the architecture often had little in common with tower houses, which retained their defensive functions and were deficient with respect to 19th-century ideas of comfort. The revival often adapted the style to the needs and technical abilities of a later time. In Ireland, a young English architect of the York School of Architecture,
George Fowler Jones George Fowler Jones (25 January 1818 – 1 March 1905) was an architect and early amateur photographer who was born in Scotland but based for most of his working life in York. Biography and work Jones was born in Inverness in 1818. He studied ...
, designed
Castle Oliver Castle Oliver (also ''Clonodfoy'') is a Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorati ...

Castle Oliver
, a 110-room mansion of about , built in a pink sandstone similar to
Belfast Castle Belfast Castle is on the slopes of Cavehill Country Park in Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United ...

Belfast Castle
. Castle Oliver had all the classic features of the style, including battlements,
porte-cochère A porte-cochère (; , late 17th century, literally 'coach gateway'; plural: porte-cochères, portes-cochères) is a doorway to a building or courtyard A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building A buildin ...

porte-cochère
,
crow-stepped gable A stepped gable, crow-stepped gable, or corbie step is a stairstep type of design at the top of the triangular gable-end of a building. The top of the parapet, parapet wall projects above the roofline and the top of the brick or stone wall is stac ...
s, numerous turrets,
arrow slit An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of ...
s, spiral stone staircases, and conical roofs. This form of architecture was popular in the dominions of the British Empire. In New Zealand it was advocated by the architect Robert Lawson, who designed frequently in this style, most notably at
Larnach Castle Image:Castle Larnach Interior.jpg, Inside the ballroom Larnach Castle (also referred to as "Larnach's Castle") is a mock castle on the ridge of the Otago Peninsula within the limits of the city of Dunedin, New Zealand, close to the small settlem ...

Larnach Castle
in Dunedin. Other examples in New Zealand include works by
Francis Petre Francis William Petre (27 August 1847 – 10 December 1918), sometimes known as Frank Petre, was a New Zealand-born architect based in Dunedin Dunedin ( ; mi, Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand ...

Francis Petre
. In Canada,
Craigdarroch Castle Craigdarroch Castle in Victoria, British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, is a historic, Victorian-era Scottish Baronial architecture, Scottish Baronial mansion. It was designated a National Historic Sites of Canada, National Histo ...

Craigdarroch Castle
, British Columbia, was built for
Robert Dunsmuir Robert Dunsmuir (August 31, 1825April 12, 1889) was a Scottish people, Scottish-Canadians, Canadian coal mine developer, owner and operator, railway developer, industrialist and politician in British Columbia. He was recognized as a Persons of Na ...

Robert Dunsmuir
, a Scottish coal baron, in 1890. In Toronto, E. J. Lennox designed
Casa Loma Casa Loma (Spanish for "Hill House") is a Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement ga ...

Casa Loma
in the
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
style for Sir
Henry Pellatt Major-General Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent co ...

Henry Pellatt
, a prominent Canadian financier and industrialist. The mansion has battlements and towers, along with modern plumbing and other conveniences. Another Canadian example is the
Banff Springs Hotel The Fairmont Banff Springs, formerly and commonly known as the Banff Springs Hotel, is a historic hotel located in Banff, Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coor ...

Banff Springs Hotel
in the Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. The style can also be seen outside the empire at Vorontsov Palace near the city of Yalta, Crimea. File:Dunrobin_Castle_-Sutherland_-Scotland-26May2008_(2).jpg,
Dunrobin Castle Dunrobin Castle (mostly 1835-45 — present) is a stately home in Sutherland, in the Highland (council area), Highland area of Scotland, and the family seat of the Earl of Sutherland and the Clan Sutherland. It is located north of Golspie, and ...

Dunrobin Castle
is largely the work of
Sir Charles Barry Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was a British architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The ...
and similar to the ornate conical turrets, foundations and windows of contemporary restorations such as
Josselin Castle Josselin Castle (french: Château de Josselin, br, Kastell Josilin, la, Castellum Joscelini) is a medieval castle A castle is a type of fortification, fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or roy ...
in Brittany. File:Victorian Scottish baronial-style tenement turrets, St. Mary's Street, Edinburgh.jpg, Scots-Baronial-style turrets on Victorian tenements in Edinburgh File:Kirna entrance.jpg, Scots baronial turret above entrance to
The Kirna The Kirna, known locally as Kirna House (previously also as Grangehill), is a Category A List of listed buildings in Innerleithen, Scottish Borders, listed villa in Walkerburn, Peeblesshire, Scotland. It is one of four villas in Walkerburn desig ...

The Kirna
, an 1867 Ballantyne property in
Walkerburn Walkerburn ( gd, Allt an Fhùcadair) is a small village in the Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco, the Mairches, 'the Marches'; gd, Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, ...

Walkerburn
, Scottish Borders. File:Balmoral Castle.jpg, alt=Balmoral Castle. The Royal Standard of Scotland flies over it., Balmoral Castle shows the final Victorian embodiment of the style. A principal keep reminiscent of Craigievar is the middle of the castle, while a large turreted country house is attached. File:Balmoral Castle - Project Gutenberg 13103.jpg,
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
, River Dee, Aberdeenshire, Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire. File:Thornhill_Mayne_Memorial,_Alfred_Park,_Allahabad.jpg, Allahabad Public Library, in Prayagraj, India


Decline

The popularity of the baronial style peaked towards the end of the nineteenth century, and the building of large houses declined in importance in the twentieth century. The baronial style continued to influence the construction of some estate houses, including Skibo Castle, which was rebuilt from 1899 to 1903 for industrialist Andrew Carnegie by Ross and Macbeth.D. Mays, "Housing: 4 Country seat, c. 1600–Present", in M. Lynch, ed., ''Oxford Companion to Scottish History'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), , pp. 326–8. Isolated examples included the houses designed by Basil Spence, Broughton Place, Scottish Borders , Broughton Place (1936) and Gribloch (1937–1939), which combined modern and baronial elements. The 20th-century Scottish baronial castles have the reputation of Folly, architectural follies. Among most patrons and architects the style became disfavoured along with the Gothic revival style during the early years of the 20th century.


See also

*List of Gothic Revival architecture **List of Gothic Revival architects *Prospect 100 best modern Scottish buildings


Notes


External links


Freewebs.com
The Scottish baronial: an introduction and illustrations of five notable examples.
Craigends.org.uk
a detailed study of "David Bryce's lost masterpiece", demolished in 1971.
Castle-oliver.com
photographs and history of a recently restored Scottish baronial masterpiece. {{Gothic Scottish baronial architecture, Scottish architecture Gothic Revival architecture, Scottish baronial Revival architectural styles, Scottish baronial 16th-century architecture in the United Kingdom 17th-century architecture in the United Kingdom 16th century in Scotland 17th century in Scotland