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("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang =
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, capital = Regina , largest_city =
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
, largest_metro = Saskatoon metropolitan area , Premier =
Scott Moe Scott Moe (born July 31, 1973) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connec ...
, PremierParty =
Saskatchewan Party The Saskatchewan Party is a centre-right political party in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Since 2007, it has been the province's governing party; both the party and the province are currently led by Pr ...
, Viceroy =
Russell Mirasty Russell Mirasty (born 1956 or 1957) is the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. He was appointed by the Governor General of Canada, Julie Payette, on the Advice (constitutional), constitutional advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trud ...
, ViceroyType = Lieutenant governor , Legislature = Legislature of Saskatchewan , area_rank = 7th , area_total_km2 = 651900 , area_land_km2 = 591670 , area_water_km2 = 59366 , PercentWater = 9.1 , population_demonym = Saskatchewanian (official) , population_rank = 6th , population_total = 1098352 , population_ref = , population_as_of = 2016 , population_est = 1180867 , pop_est_as_of = Q4 2021 , pop_est_ref = , DensityRank = 9th , Density_km2 = 1.9 , GDP_year = 2015 , GDP_total = , GDP_rank = 5th , GDP_per_capita = , GDP_per_capita_rank = 4th , HDI_year = 2019 , HDI = 0.921Very high , HDI_rank = 8th , AdmittanceOrder = 10th, with
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
, AdmittanceDate = September 1, 1905 (split from
NWT
NWT
) , HouseSeats = 14 , SenateSeats = 6 , timezone1_location = year-round in most areas , timezone1 =
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...
, utc_offset1 = −06:00 , timezone1_DST = , utc_offset1_DST = , timezone2_location =
Lloydminster Lloydminster is a Canadian city which has the unusual geographic distinction of straddling the provincial border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city is incorporated by both provinces as a single city with a single municipal administratio ...
and nearby areas , timezone2 =
Mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...
, utc_offset2 = −07:00 , timezone2_DST = Mountain DST , utc_offset2_DST = −06:00 , PostalAbbreviation = SK , PostalCodePrefix = S , iso_code = CA-SK , website = https://www.saskatchewan.ca , flower =
Western red lily ''Lilium philadelphicum'', also known as the wood lily, Philadelphia lily, prairie lily, or western red lily, is a perennial species of lily native to North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere ...
, tree =
Paper birch ''Betula papyrifera'' (paper birch, also known as (American) white birch and canoe birch) is a short-lived species of birch A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means ...
, bird =
Sharp-tailed grouse The sharp-tailed grouse (''Tympanuchus phasianellus''), also known as the sharptail or fire grouse, is a medium-sized prairie grouse Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae. Grouse are frequently a ...
Saskatchewan ( ; ) is a
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
and
boreal Boreal, meaning "(far) northern" in Latin and Greek language, Greek, may refer to: Climatology and geography *Boreal (age), the first climatic phase of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of northern Europe, during the Holocene epoch *Boreal climate, a c ...
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, the middle of the three
prairie provinces The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a list of regions of Canada, region of ...
. It is bordered on the west by
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
, on the north by the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...

Northwest Territories
, on the east by
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
, to the northeast by
Nunavut Nunavut ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ; ) is the largest and northernmost provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the ''Nunavut Act'' and the ''Nunavut ...
, and on the south by the
U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all ...

U.S.
states of
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
and
North Dakota North Dakota () is a U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to th ...
. Saskatchewan, along with Alberta make up the only
landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There are currently 44 landlocked countries and 5 list of states with limited recognition, partial ...
provinces of Canada. As of Q1 2020, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,181,987. Nearly 10% of Saskatchewan’s total area of is fresh water, which is composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes. The absence of nearby moderating bodies of water render severe winters throughout the province, as a result of Saskatchewan's
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds In meteorology Mete ...
. Southern areas have very warm or hot summers. In winter, temperatures below are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps. Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the province's largest city
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include
Prince Albert Prince Albert most commonly refers to: *Albert, Prince Consort german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , mother = Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenbu ...
,
Moose Jaw Moose Jaw is the fourth largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. Lying on the Moose Jaw River in the south-central part of the province, it is situated on the Trans-Canada Highway, west of Regina, Saskatchewan, Regina. Residents of Moose Jaw are k ...
,
Yorkton Yorkton is a city located in south-eastern Saskatchewan ("Strength from Many Peoples") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = Englis ...
,
Swift Current Swift Current is the fifth largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is situated along the Saskatchewan provincial highway 1, Trans Canada Highway west of Moose Jaw, and east of Medicine Hat, ...
,
North Battleford North Battleford is a city in west-central Saskatchewan ("From Many Peoples Strength") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = Englis ...
, Melfort, and the border city
Lloydminster Lloydminster is a Canadian city which has the unusual geographic distinction of straddling the provincial border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city is incorporated by both provinces as a single city with a single municipal administratio ...
(partially within Alberta).
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
is the primary language of the province, with 82.4% of Saskatchewanians speaking English as their
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
. Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups. Europeans first explored the area in 1690 and first settled in the area in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast
North-West Territories The Northwest Territories (abbr. NT or NWT) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, fir ...
, which had until then included most of the
Canadian Prairies The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geogra ...
. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The province's economy is based on
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
,
mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occu ...

mining
, and
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...
. The current
Lieutenant Governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lie ...
is
Russell Mirasty Russell Mirasty (born 1956 or 1957) is the Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. He was appointed by the Governor General of Canada, Julie Payette, on the Advice (constitutional), constitutional advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trud ...
. The current
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

premier
is
Scott Moe Scott Moe (born July 31, 1973) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connec ...
. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with
First Nations in Saskatchewan First Nations in Saskatchewan constitute many Indigenous peoples in Canada, Native Canadian band governments. First Nations ethnicities in Saskatchewan, the province include the Cree, Assiniboine, Saulteaux, Dene and Sioux, Dakota. Historically, t ...
. The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands; they have acquired about , now reserve lands. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Regina and
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
."Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River Story, Saskatchewan"
, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, accessed November 25, 2011


Etymology

Its name derived from the
Saskatchewan River The Saskatchewan River (Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America. In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry. The major pro ...

Saskatchewan River
. The river is known as ("swift flowing river") in the
Cree language Cree (ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐏ, Nēhiyawēwin) (also known as Cree–Montagnais language, Montagnais–Naskapi language, Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 Cree, people across Canada, from the Northw ...

Cree language
. Henday's spelling was ''Keiskatchewan'', with the modern rendering, ''Saskatchewan'', being officially adopted in 1882 when a portion of the present-day province was designated a provisional district of the North-West Territories.


Geography

Saskatchewan is the only province without a
natural border A natural border is a border between Sovereign state, states or their subdivisions which is concomitant with natural formations such as rivers or mountain ranges. The "doctrine of natural boundaries" developed in Western culture in the 18th century ...
. As its borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of
longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...

longitude
and
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
, the province is roughly a
quadrilateral A quadrilateral is a polygon in Euclidean geometry, Euclidean plane geometry with four Edge (geometry), edges (sides) and four Vertex (geometry), vertices (corners). Other names for quadrilateral include quadrangle (in analogy to triangle) and ...

quadrilateral
, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928). Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
, on the north by the
Northwest Territories The Northwest Territories (commonly abbreviated as NT or NWT; french: Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is a federal territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subd ...

Northwest Territories
, on the north-east by
Nunavut Nunavut ( iu, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ; ) is the largest and northernmost provinces and territories of Canada, territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the ''Nunavut Act'' and the ''Nunavut ...
, on the east by
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
, and on the south by the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state ...
s of
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
and
North Dakota North Dakota () is a U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to th ...
. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two
land-locked A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ...
provinces. The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the
Boreal Forest Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic languages, Mongolic and Turkic languages, Turkic languages), generally referred to in North America as a boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by pinophyta, conifero ...
in the north and the
Prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
s in the south. They are separated by an
aspen parkland Aspen parkland refers to a very large area of transitional biome between prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living ...
transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, and near to south of the
Saskatchewan River The Saskatchewan River (Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America. In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry. The major pro ...

Saskatchewan River
on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of
Lake Athabasca Lake Athabasca (; French: ''lac Athabasca''; from Cree language, Woods Cree: , "
here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies, a mapping company * Here WeGo (formerly Here Maps), a mobile app and map website by Here Television * Here TV Here TV is an America ...
there are plants one after another") is located in the northwest corner of Saskatchewan and the northeast corner of Alberta between 58th parallel north, 58° an ...

Lake Athabasca
. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over . The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (
Grasslands National Park Grasslands National Park is a Canadian national park located near the village of Val Marie, Saskatchewan ("Strength from Many Peoples") , image_map = Saskatchewan in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates ...

Grasslands National Park
), are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the
Wisconsin glaciation The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsin glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordil ...
. The province's highest point, at , is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta. The lowest point is the shore of
Lake Athabasca Lake Athabasca (; French: ''lac Athabasca''; from Cree language, Woods Cree: , "
here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies, a mapping company * Here WeGo (formerly Here Maps), a mobile app and map website by Here Television * Here TV Here TV is an America ...
there are plants one after another") is located in the northwest corner of Saskatchewan and the northeast corner of Alberta between 58th parallel north, 58° an ...

Lake Athabasca
, at . The province has 14 major
drainage basin A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowm ...

drainage basin
s made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
,
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
and the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
.


Climate

Saskatchewan receives more hours of
sunshine Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible spectrum, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is light scattering by particles, scattered and attenuation, filtered thr ...

sunshine
than any other Canadian province. The province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
( Köppen type ''Dfb'') in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
steppe climate (Köppen type ''BSk'') in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about
La Ronge La Ronge is a List of municipalities in Saskatchewan, northern town in the boreal forest of Canada, boreal forest of central Saskatchewan, Canada. Its location is approximately north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Prince Albert where Saskatchewa ...
northward – have a
subarctic climate The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool summers. It is found on large landmasses, often away from the moderating effects of an ocean, gen ...
(Köppen ''Dfc'') with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes above during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north. with high temperatures not breaking for weeks at a time. Warm
chinook winds Chinook winds, or simply 'Chinooks', are two types of prevailing warm, generally westerly winds in western North America: Coastal Chinooks and interior Chinooks. The coastal Chinooks are persistent seasonal, wet, southwesterly winds blowing in ...
often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August. Saskatchewan is one of the most
tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmos ...

tornado
-active parts of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012, 33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The
Regina Cyclone The Regina Cyclone, or Regina tornado of 1912, was a tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The ...
took place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4
Fujita scale The Fujita scale (F-Scale; ), or Fujita–Pearson scale (FPP scale), is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation. The official Fujita scale category is determ ...
tornado. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Saskatchewan was when the temperature rose to in
Midale Midale, Saskatchewan is located on Highway 39, midway between the cities of Weyburn Weyburn is the tenth-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. The city has a population of 10,870. It is on the Souris River southeast of the provincial capital ...
and
Yellow Grass Yellow Grass is a town in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Scott No. 98, approximately 25 km northwest of Weyburn, at the junction of provincial Saskatchewan Highway 39, Highway 39 and Saskatchewan Highw ...
. The coldest ever recorded in the province was in
Prince Albert Prince Albert most commonly refers to: *Albert, Prince Consort german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , mother = Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenbu ...
, which is north of Saskatoon.


Climate change

The effects of climate change in Saskatchewan are now being observed in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of
biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position ...

biomass
in Saskatchewan's
boreal forests Taiga (; rus, тайга́, p=tɐjˈɡa; relates to Mongolic and Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (d ...
(as with those of other Canadian prairie provinces) is linked by researchers to drought-related water stress, stemming from
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
, most likely caused by
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without ...
. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect agriculture, whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of
cultivars A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
, or crops, is less clear.
Resiliency Resilience, resilient, resiliency, or ''variation'', may refer to: Science Ecology * Ecological resilience, the capacity of an ecosystem to recover from perturbations ** Climate resilience, the ability of systems to recover from climate change ** ...
of
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s may decline with large changes in temperature. The provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce
carbon emissions Greenhouse gas emissions are emissions of greenhouse gases created from a range of human activities that cause climate change, as they have increased concentrations in the earth's atmosphere. These emissions mainly include carbon dioxide emissions ...

carbon emissions
, "The Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan", in June 2007.


History

Saskatchewan has been populated by various
indigenous peoples of North America The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peopl ...
, including members of the Sarcee,
Niitsitapi The Blackfoot Confederacy, ''Niitsitapi'' or ''Siksikaitsitapi'' (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or " Blackfoot-speaking real people"), is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Black ...
,
Atsina The Gros Ventre ( , ; meaning "big belly"), also known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin, Haaninin, Atsina, and White Clay, are a historically Algonquian languages, Algonquian-speaking Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe located in ...
, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine people, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota people, Lakota and Sioux. The first known European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's indigenous peoples. Fort La Jonquière and Fort de la Corne were first established in 1751 and 1753 by early French explorers and traders. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne. The southern part of the province was part of Louisiana (New Spain), Spanish Louisiana from 1762 until 1802.


19th century

In 1803, the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...

Alberta
and Saskatchewan. In 1818, the U.S. ceded the area to Britain. Most of what is now Saskatchewan was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay ( iu, text=ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ, translit=Kangiqsualuk ilua or iu, text=ᑕᓯᐅᔭᕐᔪᐊᖅ, translit=Tasiujarjuaq; french: baie d'Hudson), sometimes called Hudson's Bay (usually historically), is a large body of sal ...
, including the
Saskatchewan River The Saskatchewan River (Cree The Cree ( cr, Néhinaw, script=Latn, , etc.; french: link=no, Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America. In Canada, over 350,000 people are Cree or have Cree ancestry. The major pro ...

Saskatchewan River
, Churchill River (Hudson Bay), Churchill, Assiniboine River, Assiniboine, Souris River, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province. In 1870, Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba
. The Crown also entered into a series of Numbered Treaties, numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the
First Nations in Saskatchewan First Nations in Saskatchewan constitute many Indigenous peoples in Canada, Native Canadian band governments. First Nations ethnicities in Saskatchewan, the province include the Cree, Assiniboine, Saulteaux, Dene and Sioux, Dakota. Historically, t ...
and the federal government, in collaboration with provincial governments. In 1876, following their defeat of United States Army forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory in the United States, the Lakota people, Lakota Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood Mountain Reserve in 1914. The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Regional Park, Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan near the United States border. Many Métis (people), Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and
Prince Albert Prince Albert most commonly refers to: *Albert, Prince Consort german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , mother = Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenbu ...
district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.


European settlements

The national policy set by the federal government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Hudson's Bay Company and associated land companies encouraged immigration. The ''Dominion Lands Act'' of 1872 permitted settlers to acquire one-quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. In 1874, the North-West Mounted Police began providing police services. In 1876, the ''North-West Territories Act'' provided for appointment, by the Ottawa, of a Lieutenant Governor and a Council to assist him. Highly optimistic advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of prairie living. Potential immigrants read leaflets that described Canada as a favourable place to live and downplayed the need for agricultural expertise. Ads in ''The Nor'-West Farmer'' by the Commissioner of Immigration implied that western land was blessed with water, wood, gold, silver, iron, copper, and cheap coal for fuel, all of which were readily at hand. The reality was far harsher, especially for the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. However eastern money poured in and by 1913, long term mortgage loans to Saskatchewan farmers had reached $65 million. The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern Canada and Britain, who comprised about half of the population during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They played the leading role in establishing the basic institutions of plains society, economy and government.


20th century

Gender roles were sharply defined. Men were primarily responsible for breaking the land; planting and harvesting; building the house; buying, operating and repairing machinery; and handling finances. At first, there were many single men on the prairie, or husbands whose wives were still back east, but they had a hard time. They realized the need for a wife. In 1901, there were 19,200 families, but this surged to 150,300 families only 15 years later. Wives played a central role in settlement of the prairie region. Their labour, skills, and ability to adapt to the harsh environment proved decisive in meeting the challenges. They prepared bannock, beans and bacon, mended clothes, raised children, cleaned, tended the garden, helped at harvest time and nursed everyone back to health. While prevailing patriarchal attitudes, legislation, and economic principles obscured women's contributions, the flexibility exhibited by farm women in performing productive and nonproductive labour was critical to the survival of family farms, and thus to the success of the wheat economy. On September 1, 1905, Saskatchewan became a province, with inauguration day held on September 4. Its political leaders at the time proclaimed its destiny was to become Canada's most powerful province. Saskatchewan embarked on an ambitious province-building program based on its Anglo-Canadian culture and wheat production for the export market. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 in 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from Ukraine, U.S., Germany and Scandinavia. Efforts were made to assimilate the newcomers to British Canadian culture and values. In the 1905 provincial elections, Liberals won 16 of 25 seats in Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan government bought out Bell Telephone Company in 1909, with the government owning the long-distance lines and left local service to small companies organized at the municipal level. Premier Walter Scott preferred government assistance to outright ownership because he thought enterprises worked better if citizens had a stake in running them; he set up the Saskatchewan Cooperative Elevator Company in 1911. Despite pressure from farm groups for direct government involvement in the grain handling business, the Scott government opted to loan money to a farmer-owned elevator company. Saskatchewan in 1909 provided bond guarantees to railway companies for the construction of branch lines, alleviating the concerns of farmers who had trouble getting their wheat to market by wagon. The Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close ties with the governing Liberal party. In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established with three goals: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of prosperous agrarian society. The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920, then plunged down. Wheat output was increased by new strains, such as the "Marquis wheat" strain which matured 8 days sooner and yielded 7 more bushels per acre (0.72 m3/ha) than the previous standard, "Red Fife". The national output of wheat soared from in 1896, to in 1901, reaching by 1921. Urban reform movements in Regina were based on support from business and professional groups. City planning, reform of local government, and municipal ownership of utilities were more widely supported by these two groups, often through such organizations as the Board of Trade. Church-related and other altruistic organizations generally supported social welfare and housing reforms; these groups were generally less successful in getting their own reforms enacted. The province responded to the First World War in 1914 with patriotic enthusiasm and enjoyed the resultant economic boom for farms and cities alike. Emotional and intellectual support for the war emerged from the politics of Canadian national identity, the rural myth, and social gospel progressivism The Church of England was especially supportive. However, there was strong hostility toward German-Canadian farmers. Recent Ukrainian immigrants were enemy aliens because of their citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A small fraction were Ukrainian Canadian internment, taken to internment camps. Most of the internees were unskilled unemployed labourers who were imprisoned "because they were destitute, not because they were disloyal". The price of wheat tripled and acreage seeded doubled. The wartime spirit of sacrifice intensified social reform movements that had predated the war and now came to fruition. Saskatchewan gave women the right to vote in 1916 and at the end of 1916 passed a referendum to prohibit the sale of alcohol. In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan in Canada, Ku Klux Klan, imported from the United States and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. Gardiner, James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition, plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.


Post–Second World War

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Texas, Houston, Denver, Colorado, Denver, Louisville, Kentucky, Louisville and Toronto. The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in 1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presiding over the official ceremonies. In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen Elizabeth II, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's centennial. Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to the taking of indigenous lands by various governments. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.
"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the Agreement, the First Nations received money to buy land on the open market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve land and many First Nations continue to invest their settlement dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such settlements has enabled First Nations to invest in businesses and other economic infrastructure.
In June 2021, a graveyard containing the remains of 751 unidentified people was found at the former Marieval Indian Residential School, Marieval Indian residential school, part of the Canadian Indian residential school system, the most found in Canada to date.


Demographics

According to the Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German people, German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish people, Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish people, Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian people, Ukrainian (13.5%), French people, French (Fransaskois) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian people, Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish people, Polish (5.8%).


Economy

Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
, with wheat being the precious symbol on the province's flag. Increasing diversification has resulted in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting only making up 8.9% of the province's GDP in 2018. Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's grain. In 2017, the production of rapeseed, canola surpassed the production of wheat, which is Saskatchewan's most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province. The total net income from farming was $3.3 billion in 2017, which was $0.9 billion less than the income in 2016. Other grains such as flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced in the province. Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of mustard seed. Beef cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded by Alberta. In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry. Mining is a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium. Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the Petroleum industry, oil industry is larger. Among Canadian provinces, only Alberta exceeds Saskatchewan in overall oil production. Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas. A list of the companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (defunct in December 2017), Federated Co-operatives, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and SSAB, IPSCO. Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance, Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier Aerospace, Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near
Moose Jaw Moose Jaw is the fourth largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. Lying on the Moose Jaw River in the south-central part of the province, it is situated on the Trans-Canada Highway, west of Regina, Saskatchewan, Regina. Residents of Moose Jaw are k ...
. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the Politics of Canada, federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.


Education

Publicly funded elementary and secondary schools in the province are administered by List of Saskatchewan school divisions, twenty-seven school divisions. Public elementary and secondary schools either operate as secular education, secular or as a separate schools. Nearly all school divisions, except one operate as an English
first language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) ...
school board. The Division scolaire francophone No. 310 is the only school division that operates French first language schools. In addition to elementary and secondary schools, the province is also home to several post-secondary institutions. The first education on the prairies took place within the family groups of the First Nations and early fur trade, fur trading settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land – later known as the Territorial evolution of Canada, North West Territories. The first 76 North-West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed Block Settlement, ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their homeland. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings. The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education. Textbooks, normal schools for educating teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art One-room school, school house architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room schoolhouse districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system of education in the late 1940s. Following World War II, the transition from many one-room schoolhouses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land. School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.


Healthcare

Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health (Saskatchewan), Ministry of Health is responsible for policy direction, sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for regional health authorities and provincial health services. Saskatchewan's health system is widely and inaccurately characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single payer health care, single-payer system). Saskatchewan's health system has faced criticism due to a lack of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith, the director for maternal services in the Saskatoon Health Region declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are turned away.French, Janet. (June 15, 2013
Half of women who want midwife turned away
Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233 clients in the 2012–13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or future care. The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives. As a continuing problem in the Saskatchewan health care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.


Government and politics

Saskatchewan has the same form of government as the other Canadian provinces with a Lieutenant-Governor (Canada), lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Monarchy in Saskatchewan, Queen in Right of Saskatchewan),
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other g ...

premier
, and a unicameral legislature. During the 20th century, Saskatchewan was one of Canada's more left-wing provinces, reflecting the slant of its many rural citizens which distrusted the distant capital government and which favored a strong local government to attend to their issues. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialism, socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare (Canada), Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party (Canada), New Democratic Party. In the 21st century, Saskatchewan began to drift to the right-wing, generally attributed to the Petroleum industry in Canada#Saskatchewan, province's economy shifting toward oil and gas production. In the 2015 Canadian federal election, 2015 federal election, the Conservative Party of Canada won ten of the province's fourteen seats, followed by the New Democratic Party with three and the Liberal Party of Canada with one; in the 2019 Canadian federal election, 2019 election, the Conservatives won in all of Saskatchewan's 14 seats, sweeping their competition. Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the social democracy, social-democratic Saskatchewan New Democratic Party and the centre-right
Saskatchewan Party The Saskatchewan Party is a centre-right political party in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Since 2007, it has been the province's governing party; both the party and the province are currently led by Pr ...
, with the latter holding the majority in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan since 2007 Saskatchewan general election, 2007. The current Premier of Saskatchewan is
Scott Moe Scott Moe (born July 31, 1973) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connec ...
, who took over the leadership of the Saskatchewan Party in 2018 Saskatchewan Party leadership election, 2018 following the resignation of Brad Wall. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Green Party of Saskatchewan, Liberal Party of Saskatchewan, and the Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly (federal Conservatives and Liberals generally favour the Saskatchewan Party in provincial elections). No Prime Minister of Canada has been born in Saskatchewan, but two (William Lyon Mackenzie King and John Diefenbaker) represented the province in the House of Commons of Canada during their tenures as head of government.


Administrative divisions

Below the provincial level of government, Saskatchewan is divided into urban and rural municipalities. The Government of Saskatchewan's Ministry of Municipal Relations recognizes three general types of municipalities and seven sub-types – urban municipalities (City, cities, towns, villages and resort villages), Rural municipality, rural municipalities and northern municipalities (northern towns, northern villages and northern hamlets). The vast majority of the land mass of Northern Saskatchewan is within the unorganized Northern Saskatchewan Administration District. Cities are formed under the provincial authority of ''The Cities Act'', which was enacted in 2002. Towns, villages, resort villages and rural municipalities are formed under the authority of ''The Municipalities Act'', enacted in 2005. The three sub-types of northern municipalities are formed under the authority of ''The Northern Municipalities Act'', enacted in 2010. As provincial laws, these three acts were passed by the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan with royal assent granted by the
Lieutenant Governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lie ...
. In 2016, Saskatchewan's 774 municipality, municipalities covered of the province's land mass and were home to of its population. These 774 municipalities are local government "creatures of provincial jurisdiction" with natural persons power. One of the key purposes of Saskatchewan's municipalities are "to provide services, facilities and other things that, in the opinion of council, are necessary or desirable for all or a part of the municipality". Other purposes are to: "provide good government"; "develop and maintain a safe and viable community"; "foster economic, social and environmental well-being" and "provide wise stewardship of public assets."


Transportation

Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with Government of Saskatchewan, local and canada, federal government funds. The Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80% of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of highways. The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure (Saskatchewan), Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over of highways and Dual carriageway, divided highways. There are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt concrete pavements comprise almost , granular pavement almost , non structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to and finally gravel highways make up over through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately of travel. Saskatchewan has over of roads and highways, the highest length of road surface of any Canadian province. The major highways in Saskatchewan are the Saskatchewan Highway 1, Trans Canada expressway, Saskatchewan Highway 16, Yellowhead Highway northern Trans Canada route, Saskatchewan Highway 11, Louis Riel Trail, Saskatchewan Highway 2, CanAm Highway, Saskatchewan Highway 13, Red Coat Trail, Saskatchewan Highway 55, Northern Woods and Water route, and Saskatchewan Highway 9, Saskota travel route. The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) between 1881 and 1885. After the great east–west transcontinental railway was built, north–south connector branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail line track as the CPR and Canadian National Railway, Canadian National Railway (CNR) fell into competition to provide rail service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications for abandonment of branch lines. Today the only two passenger rail services in the province are ''The Canadian'' and Winnipeg–Churchill train, both operated by Via Rail. ''The Canadian'' is a transcontinental service linking Toronto with Vancouver. The main Saskatchewan waterways are the North Saskatchewan River or South Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. There are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways. The Saskatoon/John G. Diefenbaker International Airport, Saskatoon Airport was initially established as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II. It was renamed the John G. Diefenbaker Airport in 1993. ''Roland J. Groome Airfield'' is the official designation for the Regina International Airport as of 2005; the airport was established in 1930. Airlines offering service to Saskatchewan are Air Canada, WestJet Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Transwest Air, Sunwing Airlines, Norcanair Airlines, La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd, Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways, Venture Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and Northern Dene Airways Ltd. The Government of Canada agreed to contribute $20 million for two new interchanges in
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
. One of them being at the Saskatchewan Highway 219, Highway 219/Lorne Avenue intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CNR's intermodal freight terminal thereby increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of Canada will contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Saskatchewan Highway 1, Highway 1, the TransCanada Highway and Saskatchewan Highway 11, Highway 11, Louis Riel Trail. This also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade.


Culture

Saskatchewan is home to a List of museums in Saskatchewan, number of museums. The Royal Saskatchewan Museum serves as the Provincial museums of Canada, provincial museum of the province. Other museums include Diefenbaker House, The Evolution of Education Museum, Evolution of Education Museum, Museum of Antiquities (Saskatoon), Museum of Antiquities, the RCMP Heritage Centre, Rotary Museum of Police and Corrections, Saskatchewan Science Centre, Saskatchewan Western Development Museum, and the T.rex Discovery Centre.


Art

The province is home to several art galleries, including MacKenzie Art Gallery, and Remai Modern. The province is also home to several performing arts centres including the Conexus Arts Centre in Regina, and TCU Place in Saskatoon. PAVED Arts, a new media art, new media artist-run space, is also located in Saskatoon.


Music

The province is presently home to several concert orchestras, the Regina Symphony Orchestra, the Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra, and the Saskatoon Youth Orchestra. The Regina Symphony Orchestra is at the Conexus Arts Centre, while the Saskatoon performs at TCU Place.


Literature

A leading writer from Saskatchewan is W. O. Mitchell (1914–1998), born in Weyburn. His best-loved novel is ''Who Has Seen the Wind (novel), Who Has Seen the Wind'' (1947), which portrays life on the
Canadian Prairies The Canadian Prairies (usually referred to as simply the Prairies in Canada) is a region in Western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geogra ...
and sold almost a million copies in Canada.CBC Radio Canada
Book Profile: Who Has Seen the Wind
CBC Books, cbc.ca. Retrieved on: 2012-12-26
As a broadcaster, he is known for his radio series Jake and the Kid, which aired on CBC Radio between 1950 and 1956 and was also about life on the Prairies.


Sports

The Saskatchewan Roughriders are the province's professional Canadian football team (playing in the Canadian Football League) and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation". The province's other major sports franchise is the Saskatchewan Rush of the National Lacrosse League. In their first year of competition, 2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League Championship. Ice hockey, Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 National Hockey League, NHL players have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country. Notable NHL figures born in Saskatchewan include Keith Allen (ice hockey), Keith Allen, Gordie Howe, Bryan Trottier, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies, Fern Flaman, Bert Olmstead, Harry Watson (ice hockey b. 1923), Harry Watson, Elmer Lach, Max Bentley, Sid Abel, Doug Bentley, Eddie Shore, Clint Smith, Bryan Hextall, Johnny Bower, Emile Francis, Glenn Hall, Chuck Rayner, Brad McCrimmon, Patrick Marleau, Dave Manson, Theoren Fleury, Theo Fleury, Terry Harper, Wade Redden, Brian Propp, Scott Hartnell, Ryan Getzlaf, and Chris Kunitz. Saskatchewan does not have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but five teams in the junior ice hockey, junior Western Hockey League are located in the province: the Moose Jaw Warriors, Prince Albert Raiders, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades and Swift Current Broncos. In 2015, Budweiser honoured Saskatchewan for their abundance of hockey players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in ice for Saskatchewan's capital city of Regina. The company then filmed this frozen monument for a national television commercial, thanking the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout hockey's history. Budweiser also gifted the "hockey player" province a trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan's provincial tree—which bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting atop the trophy was a golden Budweiser Red Light, synched to every current Saskatchewan player in the pros. This trophy can currently be seen at Victoria Bar in Regina. Historically, Saskatchewan has been one of the strongest curling provinces. Teams from Saskatchewan have finished in the top three places at 38 Tim Hortons Brier, briers and Saskatchewan has more Scotties Tournament of Hearts, women's championships than any other province with 11. Notable curlers from Saskatchewan include Sandra Schmirler, Ernie Richardson (curler), Ernie Richardson, and Vera Pezer. In a 2019 The Sports Network, TSN poll, experts ranked Schmirler's Saskatchewan team, which won a gold medal at the Curling at the 1998 Winter Olympics, 1998 Olympics, as the greatest women's team in Canada's history.


Symbols

The flag of Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22, 1969. The flag features the Coat of arms of Saskatchewan, provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Lilium philadelphicum, Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville, Saskatchewan, Hodgeville. In 2005, Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 online and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch. Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the licence plate, and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies". The provincial flower of Saskatchewan is the western red lily.


Centennial celebrations

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation Quarter (Canadian coin), 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visited Regina,
Saskatoon Saskatoon () is the largest city in the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Hig ...

Saskatoon
, and Lumsden, Saskatchewan, Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.


See also

* Outline of Saskatchewan * Index of Saskatchewan-related articles


Notes


References


Further reading


''Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan''
* Archer, John H. ''Saskatchewan: A History.'' Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1980. 422 pp. * Bennett, John W. and Kohl, Seena B.
Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890–1915
'' University of Nebraska Press, 1995. 311 pp. * Waiser, Bill. ''Saskatchewan: A New History'' (2006) * Bocking, D. H., ed. ''Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan History.'' Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1979. 299 pp. * LaPointe, Richard and Tessier, Lucille. ''The Francophones of Saskatchewan: A History.'' Regina: University of Regina, Campion Coll., 1988. 329 pp. * Lipset, Seymour M.
Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political Sociology
'' University of California Press, 1950. * Martin, Robin ''Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920–1940'', University of Toronto Press, 1992. * *


External links


Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
*
SaskTourism

Saskatchewan History Online
{{Authority control Saskatchewan, 1905 establishments in Canada Provinces of Canada States and territories established in 1905 Canadian Prairies