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The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) ''Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk'') consists of the
national academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to i ...
of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals. Headquartered in
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
, the Academy (RAS) is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organizationGeneral information about the Academy
(in Russian)
chartered by the
Government of Russia The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. ...
. It combines the members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a
monument to Yuri Gagarin Monument to Yuri Gagarin is a 42.5-meter high pedestal and statue of Yuri Gagarin, the first person to travel in space. It is located at Leninsky Avenue, Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt in Moscow. The pedestal is designed to be reminiscent of a rocket ex ...
in the square bearing his name. As of November 2017, the Academy included 1008 institutions and other units; in total about 125,000 people were employed of whom 47,000 were scientific researchers.


Membership

There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (
academician An academician is a full member of an artistic, literary, engineering, or scientific academy. In many countries, it is an honorific title used to denote a full member of an academy that has a strong influence on national scientific life. In syste ...
s), corresponding members, and foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation when elected. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered very prestigious.Academy membership
(in Russian)
In the years 2005–2012, the academy had approximately 500 full and 700 corresponding members. But in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the
Russian Academy of Medical SciencesThe USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (russian: Акаде́мия медици́нских нау́к СССР) was the highest scientific and medical organization founded in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Soc ...
became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased. The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in mid-November 2019. At the beginning of November 2021, the Academy had 1867 living Russian members (full: 820, corresponding: 1047) and 446 foreign members. Since 2015, the Academy also awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 603 scientists with this rank. RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; some professors became members already in 2016 or in 2019 and are henceforth titled "RAS professor, corresponding member of the RAS" (137 scientists) or even "RAS professor, academician of the RAS" (3 scientists). The Academy itself is an associate member institute of the
International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations The International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations ( mn, Нүүдлийн Соёл Иргэншлийг Судлах Олон Улсын Хүрээлэн) is a Mongolia-based research institute dedicated to the nomad studies. It wa ...
.


Present structure

The RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils, committees, and commissions, all organized for different purposes.


Territorial branches

;Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS) :The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with
Mikhail Lavrentyev Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrentyev (or Lavrentiev, russian: Михаи́л Алексе́евич Лавре́нтьев) (November 19, 1900 – October 15, 1980) was a Soviet mathematician and hydrodynamicist. Early years Lavrentiev was born in Ka ...
as founding chairman. Research centers are in
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk (, also ; rus, Новосиби́рск, p=nəvəsʲɪˈbʲirsk, a=ru-Новосибирск.ogg) is the largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia. It has a population of&n ...
(
Akademgorodok Coordinates: Akademgorodok ( rus, Акаде́мгородо́к, p=ɐkəˌdʲemɡərɐˈdok, "Academic Town" or "Academic City") is a part of the Sovetsky District of the city of Novosibirsk, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Рос ...
),
Tomsk Tomsk ( rus, Томск, p=tomsk) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd editio ...

Tomsk
,
Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk ( ; rus, Красноя́рск, a=Ru-Красноярск2.ogg, r=Krasnojársk, p=krəsnɐˈjarsk) is the largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is situated alo ...

Krasnoyarsk
,
Irkutsk Irkutsk ( ; rus, Иркутск, p=ɪrˈkutsk; Buryat language, Buryat and mn, Эрхүү, ''Erhüü'') is the largest city and administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. With a population of 617,473 as of the 2010 Census, Irkutsk is the ...

Irkutsk
,
Yakutsk Yakutsk ( rus, Якутск, p=jɪˈkutsk; sah, Дьокуускай, ''Cokuuskay'', ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constit ...
,
Ulan-Ude Ulan-Ude ( bua, Улаан-Үдэ, ''Ulaan-Üde'', ; rus, Улан-Удэ, p=ʊˈlan ʊˈdɛ; mn, Улаан-Үд, ''Ulaan-Üd'', ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (c ...

Ulan-Ude
,
Kemerovo Kemerovo ( rus, Ке́мерово, p=ˈkʲemʲɪrəvə) is an industrial city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social S ...

Kemerovo
,
Tyumen Tyumen ( ; rus, Тюмень, p=tʲʉˈmʲenʲ, a=Ru-Tyumen.ogg) is the largest types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow. Tyumen was the first ...
and
Omsk Omsk (; rus, Омск, p=omsk) is the administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In ...
. As of end-2017, the Branch employed over 12,500 scientific researchers, 211 of whom were members of the Academy (109 full + 102 corresponding). ;Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (UB RAS) :The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg (; rus, Екатеринбург, p=jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk), alternatively romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system ...
, Perm,
Cheliabinsk Chelyabinsk ( rus, Челя́бинск, p=tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk, a=Ru-Chelyabinsk.ogg) is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. It is the List of cities and towns in Russia by p ...
,
Izhevsk Izhevsk (russian: Иже́вск, p=ɪˈʐɛfsk; udm, Иж, ''Iž'', or , ''Ižkar'') is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Const ...
,
Orenburg Orenburg (russian: Оренбург, p=ərʲɪnˈburk) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Ural River, southeast of Moscow. Orenburg is also very close to the Kazakhstan-Russia border, border with Kazakhstan. ...

Orenburg
,
Ufa is a city in Russia, the capital of the . UFA or Ufa may also refer to: Places *, a river in Russia; a tributary of the Belaya *, an airport in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia *, a town in of Ethiopia *Ufa Urban Okrug, a municipal for ...

Ufa
and
Syktyvkar Syktyvkar (, rus, Сыктывка́р, p=sɨktɨfˈkar; kv, Сыктывкар) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent ...
. As of 2016, 112 Ural scientists were members of the Academy (41 full + 71 corresponding). ;Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS) :The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in
Vladivostok Vladivostok ( rus, Владивосто́к, , a=Владивосток.ogg) is the largest city and the administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term f ...

Vladivostok
, the Amur Scientific Center in
Blagoveschensk Blagoveshchensk ( rus, Благове́щенск, p=bləgɐˈvʲeɕːɪnsk, meaning ''City of the Annunciation'') is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia. It is located at the confl ...
, the
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk ( rus, Хабaровск, a=Хабаровск.ogg, r=Khabarovsk, p=xɐˈbarəfsk) is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., ...

Khabarovsk
Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk ( rus, Ю́жно-Сахали́нск, a=Ru-Южно-Сахалинск.ogg, r=Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, p=ˈjuʐnə səxɐˈlʲinsk, literally "South Sakhalin City") is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''Th ...

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy ( rus, Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский, a=Петропавловск-Камчатский.ogg, r=Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, p=pʲɪtrɐˈpavləfsk kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj) is a types of inhabited localities i ...

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
, the North-Eastern Scientific Center in
Magadan Magadan ( rus, Магадан, p=məɡɐˈdan) is a Port of Magadan, port types of inhabited localities in Russia, town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and ser ...
, the Far East Regional Agriculture Center in
Ussuriysk Ussuriysk (russian: Уссури́йск) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ...
and several Medical institutions. As of 2017, there were 64 Academy members in the Branch (23 full + 41 corresponding).


Regional centers

* Kazan Scientific Center * Pushchino Scientific Center * Samara Scientific Center * Saratov Scientific Center * Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the RAS and the Government of the Republic Alania- Northern Ossetia * Dagestan Scientific Center * Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center * Karelian Research Centre of RAS * Kola Scientific Center * Nizhny Novgorod Center * Scientific Center of the RAS in Chernogolovka * St. Petersburg Scientific Center * Ufa Scientific Center * Southern Scientific Center * Troitsk Scientific Center


Institutions

The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including: *
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Gersh Itskovich Budker (Герш Ицкович Будкер), also named Andrey Mikhailovich Budker, (1 May 1918 – 4 July 1977) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist ...
*
Central Economic Mathematical Institute CEMIThe Central Economic Mathematical Institute (russian: Центральный экономико-математический институт (ЦЭМИ)) of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси ...
*
Dorodnitsyn Computing CentreDorodnitsyn Computing Centre (russian: Вычислительный центр им. А. А. Дородницына РАН) was established in 1955 and became a leading research institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Its a ...
* Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
Institute for Medical Science
(Russia)
Institute for African Studies
(Moscow)
Institute of Far Eastern Studies

Institute for Economic Strategies
(Moscow)

(St Petersburg)
Institute of Archaeology
(Moscow)
Institute for Physics of Microstructures
* Institute for Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences * Institute for Spectroscopy * Institute for System Programming
Institute of Applied Physics
* Institute of Cell Biophysics * Institute of Biological Instrumentation * Institute of Biomedical Problems * Institute of Ecology and Evolution * Institute of Economy (RAS) * Institute of Human Brain (St.-Petersburg) * Institute of Gene Biology * Institute of Silicate Chemistry * Institute of High Current Electronics
Institute of Latin American Studies
(Moscow) * Institute of Linguistics * Institute of Oriental Studies (Moscow) * Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (St Petersburg) *
Institute of Philosophy
Institute of Philosophy
* Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology * Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics * Institute of Solid State Physics *
Institute of State and Law Headquarters in Moscow. The Institute of State and Law (ISL) of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) ''Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk'') cons ...
* Institute of the US and Canada (ISKRAN) *
Institute of World Economy and International Relations The Institute of World Economy and International Relations (russian: Институт мировой экономики и международных отношений), or IMEMO, is a leading independent research institute based in Moscow Mos ...
(IMEMO) *
Institute of World Literature (Moscow)
Institute of World Literature (Moscow)
*
Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute The Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (for short, Ioffe Institute, russian: Физико-технический институт им. А. Ф. Иоффе) is one of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Росс ...
*
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics The Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (russian: Институт прикладной математики им. М.В.Келдыша) is a research institute specializing in computational mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, ...
*
Komarov Botanical InstituteThe Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; russian: Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) ''Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk'') consists of the national academy of ...
* Komi Science Centre * Kutateladze Institute for Thermal Physics *
Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics The L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institution, located in the small town of Chernogolovka near Moscow (there is also a subdivision in Moscow). History The Landau Institute was fo ...

Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics
* Laser and Information Technology Institute *
Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer EngineeringSergey Lebedev (scientist), Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering (IPMCE) is a Russian Research institute, research institution. It used to be a Soviet Academy of Sciences organization in Soviet times. The institute specia ...
*
Lebedev Physical Institute The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI RAS or just LPI) (in russian: Физи́ческий институ́т имени П.Н.Ле́бедева Российской академии наук (ФИАН)), situated ...
* N.N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology * A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds * Northeast Science Station () * Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics * Paleontological Institute
Program Systems Institute
* * Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN) * Schmidt Institute of the Physics of the Earth * Space Research Institute * Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, which has an artificial climate station called "biotron" *
Shirshov Institute of OceanologyThe Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (IO) RAN, russian: Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт океанологии имени ...

Shirshov Institute of Oceanology
* Special Astrophysical Observatory * State Public Scientific & Technological Library *
Steklov Institute of Mathematics Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute (russian: Математический институт имени В.А.Стеклова) is a premier research institute based in Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москв ...
* St. Petersburg Department of Steklov Institute of Mathematics *
Sukachev Institute of Forest The Institute of Forest of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the first academic institution of a forest profile in Russia. It was founded in 1944 in Moscow by an outstanding native biologist academician Vladimir Nikolayevi ...

Sukachev Institute of Forest
* Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry * Vingoradov Russian Language Institute * Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences
N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry


Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI). Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions. Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS (they are subordinated to the Ministry of Education of Russian Federation), but a number of leading universities, such as
Moscow State University Moscow State University (MSU; russian: Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, ''MGU'') is a public university, public research university locate ...

Moscow State University
, St. Petersburg State University,
Novosibirsk State University Novosibirsk State University (NSU) is one of Russia's leading institutions of higher-education. It is located in Novosibirsk, a cultural and industrial center in Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сиб ...

Novosibirsk State University
, and the
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT; russian: Московский Физико-Технический институт, also known as PhysTech), is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of m ...
, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS (as well as of other research institutions); the MIPT faculty refers to this arrangement as the "Phystech System". From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the ''
Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences The ''Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences'' (russian: Доклады Академии Наук СССР, ''Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR'' (''DAN SSSR''), french: Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that ...
'' (Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR); after 1992, it became simply ''Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences'' (''Doklady Akademii Nauk''). The Academy is also increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path.


Awards

The Academy gives out a number of different prizes, medals and awards among which: *
Lomonosov Gold Medal The Lomonosov Gold Medal (russian: Большая золотая медаль имени М. В. Ломоносова ''Bol'shaya zolotaya medal' imeni M. V. Lomonosova''), named after Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ...

Lomonosov Gold Medal
*
Landau Gold Medal The Landau Gold Medal (russian: Премия имени Л. Д. Ландау) is the highest award in theoretical physics awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences and its predecessor the Soviet Academy of Sciences. It was established in 1971 ...
*
Kurchatov Medal The Kurchatov Medal, or the Gold Medal in honour of Igor Kurchatov is an award given for outstanding achievements in nuclear physics and in the field of Nuclear power, nuclear energy. The USSR Academy of Sciences established this award on February 9 ...
*
Demidov Prize The Demidov Prize (russian: Демидовская премия) is a national scientific prize in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is ...
* Lobachevsky Prize * Kovalevskaya Prize *
Pushkin Prize The Pushkin Prize (russian: Пушкинская премия) was established in 1881 Events January–March * January 1–January 24, 24 – Siege of Geok Tepe: Russian troops under General Mikhail Skobelev defeat the Turkmen ...
* Lebedev Prize *
MarkovMarkov (Bulgarian language, Bulgarian, russian: Марков), Markova, and Markoff are common surnames used in Russia and Bulgaria. Notable people with the name include: Academics *Ivana Markova (born 1938), Czechoslovak-British emeritus professor ...
Prize * Bogolyubov Medal


History


In the Russian Empire

The Emperor
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
, inspired and advised by
Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, " ...
, founded the Academy in
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
; the Senate
decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, ...

decree
of February 8 (January 28 old style), 1724 implemented the establishment. It was opened by Peter's widow,
Catherine I Catherine I ( rus, Екатери́на I Алексе́евна Миха́йлова, Yekaterína I Alekséyevna Mikháylova; born , ; – ) was the second wife and Empress consort of Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Ве ...

Catherine I
, in 1725. Originally called ''The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences'' (russian: Петербургская Академия наук), the organization went under various names over the years, becoming ''The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts'' (Императорская Академия наук и художеств; 1747–1803), ''The Imperial Academy of Sciences'' (Императорская Академия Наук; 1803—1836), and finally, ''The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences'' (Императорская Санкт-Петербургская Академия Наук, from 1836 and until the end of the Russian Empire, empire in 1917). Peter the Great sought to improve the higher education in the Russian empire and advised by the German philosopher Christian Wolff (philosopher), Christian Wolff, invited several western scholars to the academy. Foreign scholars invited to work at the academy included the mathematicians Leonhard Euler (1707–1783), Anders Johan Lexell, Christian Goldbach, Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, Nicholas II Bernoulli, Nicholas Bernoulli (1695–1726) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782), botanist Johann Georg Gmelin, embryologists Caspar Friedrich Wolff, astronomer and geographer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, physicist :ru:Крафт, Георг Вольфганг, Georg Wolfgang Kraft, historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller and English Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne (1732–1811). Expeditions to explore remote parts of the country had Academy scientists as their leaders or most active participants. These included Vitus Bering's Second Kamchatka Peninsula, Kamchatka Expedition of 1733–1743, expeditions to observe the 1761 transit of Venus, 1769 transit of Venus from eight locations in Russian Empire, and the expeditions of Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811) to Siberia. A separate organization, called the Russian Academy (russian: Академия Российская), was created in 1783 to work on the study of the Russian language. Presided over by Princess Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, Yekaterina Dashkova (who at the same time was the Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences, i.e., the country's "main" academy), the Russian Academy was engaged in compiling the six-volume ''Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language'' (1789–1794). The Russian Academy was merged into the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1841.


In the Soviet Union

Shortly after the October Revolution, in December 1917, Sergey Oldenburg, Sergey Fedorovich Oldenburg, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party, met with Vladimir Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy. They agreed that the expertise of the Academy would be applied to addressing questions of state construction, while in return the Soviet government would give the Academy financial and political support. The most important activities of the Academy in the 1920s included an investigation of the large Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, of the minerals in the Kola Peninsula, and participation in the GOELRO plan targeted electrification of the whole country. In these years, many research institutions were established, and the number of scientists became four times larger than in 1917. In 1925 the Soviet government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the "highest all-Union scientific institution" and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. In 1934, the Academy headquarters moved from Saint Petersburg, Leningrad to the capital,
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
. The Stalin years were marked by a rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union for which a great deal of research, mainly in the technical fields, was done. However, on the other hand, in these very times, many scientists underwent Ideological repression in the Soviet Union#Ideological repression in science, repressions for ideological reasons. In the years of the World War II, Second World War, the Soviet Academy of Sciences made a big contribution to a development of modern weapons – tanks (new series of T-34), airplanes, degaussing the ships (for protection against the naval mines) etc. – and therefore to victory of the USSR over Nazi Germany. During and after the war, the Academy was involved in the Soviet atomic bomb project; due to its success and other achievements in military techniques, the USSR became one of the superpowers in the Cold War era. At the end of the 1940s, the Academy consisted of eight divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); three committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific literature, and for museums and archives), a laboratory for scientific photography and cinematography and Academy of Science Press departments external to the divisions. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR helped to establish national Academies of Sciences in all Soviet republics (with the exception of the Russian SFSR), in many cases delegating prominent scientists to live and work in other republics. In the case of the Ukraine, its academy was formed by the local Ukrainian scientists and prior to occupation of the Ukrainian People's Republic by Bolsheviks. These academies were: Among the most important achievements of the Academy of the second half of the 20th century, there is, first of all, the Soviet space program. In 1957 the Sputnik 1, first satellite was launched, in 1961 Yury Gagarin became the first person in space, and in 1971 the first Salyut 1, space station Salyut 1 began its operation. Substantial discoveries were also made in the nuclear branch and in other fields of physics. Furthermore, the Academy participated in opening new universities or new study programs in the already existed universities, whose best absolvents started their career at the research institutes of the Academy. Generally, the Soviet period was the most fruitful in the history of the Russian (Soviet, at these times) Academy of Sciences and is now recalled with nostalgia by many Russian scientists.


Post-Soviet period

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, collapse of the Soviet Union, by decree of the President of Russia of December 2, 1991, the academy again became the ''Russian Academy of Sciences'', inheriting all facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of the Russian Federation. The Economic history of the Russian Federation, crisis of the 1990s in the post-Soviet Russia and a consequent drastic reduction of the state support for science have forced many scientists to leave Russia for Europe, Israel or the United States. Some excellent university graduates who could have become promising researchers also switched to other activities, predominately in commerce. The Russian Academy practically lost a generation of people born from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s; this age category is now underrepresented in all research institutes. In the 2000s, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, the government announced a Medvedev modernisation programme, modernization campaign. Nevertheless, according to the Russian Academy of Sciences, total R&D spending in 2013 still hovered about 40% below the pre-crisis 1990 levels. Furthermore, a lack of competition, decayed infrastructure and continuing, though slightly reduced, brain drain play their part.


2013—2018 reforms

On June 28, 2013, the Russian Government unexpectedly announced a draft law presuming a dissolution of the RAS and creation of a new "public-governmental" organization with the same name. The buildings and other property of the Academy were supposed to be taken under control of a government-established Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations (FASO Russia). The declared idea was to enable scientists to concentrate exclusively on research activities without worrying about housing-maintenance services or administrative things. The reform was allegedly authored by Mikhail Kovalchuk, brother of Yury Kovalchuk, known as Vladimir Putin's personal banker. The draft law, which, in its initial form, would have fundamentally changed the system of science organization in Russia, provoked conflicts with the academic circles and strong refutation by many prominent individuals. A large group of the RAS members signalized their intention not to join the new academy if the reform is run as planned in the draft. The world's leading scientists (including Pierre Deligne, Michael Atiyah, David Mumford, Mumford, and others) have written open letters which referred to the planned reform of the RAS as "shocking" and even "criminal". In this situation, the draft was softened in some details, e.g. there remained no words about “dissolution” in the text, — and approved on September 27, 2013. Since 2013 the academy institutions were managed by the FASO, which was the key item of the reforms. This agency was empowered to “evaluate”, relying on its own criteria, an efficiency of the institutions and rearrange ineffective ones (this point is felt dangerous by many scientists). Furthermore, according to the law, the two other Russian national academies — Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, for Agriculture and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, for Medicine — were fused to the RAS as its new specialized scientific divisions. During the years 2014—2017 there occurred no large-scale protest actions, but, in general, a scientific community has not supported the launched reforms and a management style of the FASO. Sometimes the reorganizations were interpreted as nothing else than a redistribution of real estate. In 2017, when the new presidium of the Academy was being elected, the candidates for presidency critically estimated the situation in the Russian science. However the elected RAS president Alexander Sergeev (physicist), Alexander Sergeev tries to establish working relationships with the state authorities at various levels. De facto, the reform has already been implemented — and at the General Meeting of the RAS in March 2018, Sergeev said that the Academy enters now the post-reform period. One of the next steps will be fixation of the legal status of the RAS, with a correction of the law-2013 so that to somewhat expand the powers of the Academy (the corresponding draft was submitted by Vladimir Putin to the State Duma and finally approved in July 2018). In May 2018, it was decided to liquidate the FASO as an independent governmental agency but to make it henceforth part of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The latter is created by splitting the Ministry of Education and Science (Russia), Ministry of Education and Science.


Presidents

The following persons occupied the position of the Academy's President (or, sometimes, Director): * Laurentius Blumentrost, 1725–1733 * Hermann Karl von Keyserling 1733–1734 * Johann Albrecht Korf, 1734–1740 * ), 1740–1741 * (Post vacant, April 1741 – October 1746) * Count Kirill Razumovsky, 1746–1766 (nominally, till 1798) * Count Vladimir Grigorievich Orlov, Vladimir Orlov, 1766–1774 (Director) * , 1771–1773 (Occasional Substitute of Vladimir Grigorievich Orlov, Orlov ) * , 1775–1782 (Director) * Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova, Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, 1783–1796 (Director; sent into ''de facto'' retirement in 1794. Simultaneously served as the President of the Russian Academy) * , 1794–1796 (acting Director), 1796–1798 (Director). Simultaneously served as the President of the Russian Academy * Ludwig Heinrich von Nicolay, 1798–1803 * Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev, Nikolay Novosiltsev, 1803–1810 * (Post vacant, April 1810 – Jan 1818) * Count Sergey Uvarov, 1818–1855 * Dmitry Bludov, 1855–1864 * Fyodor Petrovich Litke, Fyodor Litke, 1864–1882 * Count Dmitry Tolstoy, 1882–1889 * Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia, 1889–1915 * (Post vacant, June 1915 – May 1917) * Alexander Karpinsky, 1917–1936 * Vladimir Leontyevich Komarov, Vladimir Komarov, 1936–1945 * Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Sergey Vavilov, 1945–1951 * Alexander Nesmeyanov, 1951–1961 * Mstislav Keldysh, 1961–1975 * Anatoly Alexandrov (physicist), Anatoly Alexandrov, 1975–1986 * Gury Marchuk, 1986–1991 * Yury Osipov, 1991–2013 * Vladimir Fortov, 2013–2017 * Valery Kozlov, 2017 (acting) * Alexander Sergeev (physicist), Alexander Sergeev, since September 2017 The last presidential elections in the Academy (and also elections of the presidium) were organized on September 25—28, 2017. Initially the event was planned for March 2017, but unexpectedly all candidates retracted their nominations, and the elections were postponed.


Nobel Prize laureates affiliated with the Academy

* Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, medicine, 1904 * Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, medicine, 1908 * Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin, literature, 1933 * Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, chemistry, 1956 * Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, physics, 1958 * Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, physics, 1958 * Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, physics, 1958 * Lev Davidovich Landau, physics, 1962 * Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov, physics, 1964 * Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, physics, 1964 * Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, literature, 1965 * Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, literature, 1970 * Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, economics, 1975 * Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, peace, 1975 * Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, physics, 1978 * Zhores Ivanovich Alferov, physics, 2000 * Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov, physics, 2003 * Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, physics, 2003 * Andre Geim, physics, 2010


See also

*Academy of Sciences Glacier *Academy of Sciences Range *Akademgorodok (Krasnoyarsk), Akademgorodok in Krasnoyarsk *Akademgorodok, Akademgorodok in Novosibirsk *Akademgorodok (Tomsk), Akademgorodok in Tomsk *Lev Davidovich Belkind has released a number of books on the unique contribution of Russian scientists and engineers to the technological progress. *Neuro-linguistic programming *Constitutional economics *Energy Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences *Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences *List of Russian explorers *List of Russian inventors *List of Russian scientists *MARS-500 *Nauka (publisher), Nauka, RAS publishing division * Open access in Russia *Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory *Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records *VINITI Database RAS *Named prizes and medals of the Russian Academy of Sciences *Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences


References


Sources


External links


Official website

Satellite photo of the RAS Old Building
{{Authority control Russian Academy of Sciences, 1724 establishments in the Russian Empire Scientific organizations established in 1724 Members of the International Council for Science Members of the International Science Council