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The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the
Ukrainian language Ukrainian ( uk, украї́нська мо́ва, translit=ukrainska mova, label=native name, ), historically also called Ruthenian, is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Sla ...
using
Latin letters Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin letters
. Ukrainian is natively written in its own
Ukrainian alphabet The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demograph ...
, which is based on the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
.
Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or
pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...
for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian
keyboard layout A keyboard layout is any specific physical, visual or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer keyboard A computer keyboard is a peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an ...
. Methods of romanization include
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
, representing written text, and
transcription Transcription refers to the process of producing a copy of something piece by small piece, including: Genetics * Transcription (biology), the copying of DNA into RNA, the first step in gene expression ** Bacterial transcription, the generation ...
, representing the spoken word. In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native
Ukrainian Latin alphabet A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language Ukrainian ( uk, украї́нська мо́ва, translit=ukrainska mova, label=native name, ), historically also called Ruthenian, is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages consti ...
, usually based on those used by
West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group. They include Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Pol ...
, but none have caught on.


Romanization systems


Transliteration

Transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

Transliteration
is the letter-for-letter representation of text using another
writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communic ...
. Rudnyckyj classified transliteration systems into scientific transliteration, used in academic and especially linguistic works, and practical systems, used in administration, journalism, in the postal system, in schools, etc. Scientific transliteration, also called the scholarly system, is used internationally, with very little variation, while the various practical methods of transliteration are adapted to the orthographical conventions of other languages, like English, French, German, etc. Depending on the purpose of the transliteration it may be necessary to be able to reconstruct the original text, or it may be preferable to have a transliteration which sounds like the original language when read aloud.


Scientific transliteration

''
Scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). Thi ...
'', also called the ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly'' system, is most often seen in linguistic publications on Slavic languages. It is purely phonemic, meaning each character represents one meaningful unit of sound, and is based on the
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
Latin alphabet. Different variations are appropriate to represent the phonology of historical Old Ukrainian (mid 11th–14th centuries) and Middle Ukrainian (15th–18th centuries). A variation was codified in the 1898 Prussian Instructions for libraries, or ''Preußische Instruktionen'' (PI), and widely used in bibliographic cataloguing in Central Europe and Scandinavia. With further modifications it was published by the International Organization for Standardization as recommendation
ISO/R 9 The International Organization for Standardization, ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin alphabet, Latin characters of Cyrillic script, Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic ...
in 1954, revised in 1968, and again as an international standard in 1986 and 1995. Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
,
Latin-2 ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. I ...
,
Latin-4 ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It ...
, or
Latin-7 ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 13: Latin alphabet No. 7'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. ...
encoding. Other Slavic based romanizations occasionally seen are those based on the
Slovak alphabet The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his ''Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum'', used in the six-volume ''Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary'' (1825–1927) and used primarily ...

Slovak alphabet
or the
Polish alphabet Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...
, which include symbols for palatalized consonants.


Library of Congress system

The ''ALA-LC Romanization Tables'' were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885, and published in 1904 and 1908, including rules for romanizing Church Slavic, the pre-reform Russian alphabet, and Serbo-Croatian. Revised tables including Ukrainian were published in 1941, and remain in use virtually unchanged according to the latest 2011 release. This system is used to represent bibliographic information by US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975,Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables
/ref> and in North American publications. In addition to bibliographic cataloguing, simplified versions of the Library of Congress system are widely used for romanization in the text of academic and general publications. For notes or bibliographical references, some publications use a version without ligatures, which offers sufficient precision but simplifies the typesetting burden and easing readability. For specialist audiences or those familiar with Slavic languages, a version without ligatures and diacritical marks is sometimes used. For broader audiences, a "modified Library of Congress system" is employed for personal, organizational, and place names, omitting all ligatures and diacritics, ignoring the soft sign ь (ʹ), with initial Є- (''I͡E-''), Й- (''Ĭ-''), Ю- ( ''I͡U-''), and Я- (''I͡A-'') represented by ''Ye-'', ''Y-'', ''Yu-'', and ''Ya-'', surnames' terminal -ий (''-yĭ'') and -ій (''-iĭ'') endings simplified to ''-y'', and sometimes with common first names anglicized, for example, Олександр (''Oleksandr'') written as ''Alexander''. Similar principles were systematically described for Russian by J. Thomas Shaw in 1969, and since widely adopted. Their application for Ukrainian and multilingual text were described in the 1984 English translation of Kubiiovych's ''
Encyclopedia of Ukraine The ''Encyclopedia of Ukraine'' ( uk, Енциклопедія українознавства, translit=Entsyklopediia ukrainoznavstva) is a fundamental work of Ukrainian Studies created under the auspices of the Shevchenko Scientific Society ...

Encyclopedia of Ukraine
'' and in the 1997 translation of Hrushevskyi's ''
History of Ukraine-Rus History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...
'', and other sources have referred to these, for example, historian
Serhii Plokhy Serhii Plokhy, or Plokhii ( uk, Сергій Миколайович Плохій, russian: Серге́й Никола́евич Пло́хий; born 23 May 1957) is the Mykhailo Hrushevsky professor of Ukrainian history at Harvard University, whe ...
in several works. However, the details of usage vary, for example, the authors of the ''Historical Dictionary of Ukraine'' render the soft sign ь with an ''i'', "thus Khvyliovy, not Khvylovy, as in the ''Encyclopedia of Ukraine''". Requires Unicode for connecting diacritics, but only plain ASCII characters for a simplified version.


British Standard

''British Standard 2979:1958 "Transliteration of Cyrillic and Greek Characters"'', from BSI, is used by the Oxford University Press.''Oxford Style Manual'' (2003), "Slavonic Languages", s 11.41.2, p 350. Oxford University Press. A variation is used by the British Museum and British Library, but since 1975 their new acquisitions have been catalogued using Library of Congress transliteration. In addition to the "British" system, the standard also includes tables for the "International" system for Cyrillic, corresponding to ISO/R 9:1968 (and ISO's recommendation reciprocally has an alternate system corresponding to BSI's). It also includes tables for romanization of Greek.


BGN/PCGN

''
BGN/PCGN romanization BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
'' is a series of standards approved by the
United States Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government ch ...
and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. Pronunciation is intuitive for English-speakers. For Ukrainian, the former BGN/PCGN system was adopted in 1965, but superseded there by the Ukrainian National System in 2019. A modified version is also mentioned in the Oxford Style Manual. Requires only ASCII characters if optional separators are not used.


GOST (1971, 1983)/Derzhstandart (1995)

The Soviet Union's
GOST GOST (russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (met ...
,
COMECON#REDIRECT Comecon The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (, ; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, CEMA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Uni ...

COMECON
's SEV, and Ukraine's Derzhstandart are government standards bodies of the former Eurasian communist countries. They published a series of romanization systems for Ukrainian, which were replaced by ISO 9:1995. For details, see
GOST 16876-71 GOST 16876-71 (russian: ГОСТ 16876-71) is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of l ...
.


ISO 9

ISO 9 The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
is a series of systems from the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
. The ISO published editions of its "international system" for romanization of Cyrillic as recommendations (ISO/R 9) in 1954 and 1968, and standards (ISO 9) in 1986 and 1995. This was originally derived from scientific transliteration in 1954, and is meant to be usable by readers of most European languages. The 1968 edition also included an alternative system identical to the British Standard. The 1995 edition supports most national Cyrillic alphabets in a single transliteration table. It is a pure transliteration system, with each Cyrillic character represented by exactly one unique Latin character, making it reliably reversible, but sacrificing readability and adaptation to individual languages. It considers only
grapheme In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...

grapheme
s and disregards
phonemic In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Mid ...
differences. So, for example, г ( Ukrainian He or Russian Ge) is always represented by the transliteration ''g''; ґ ( Ukrainian letter Ge) is represented by ''g̀''. Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, and a few characters are rarely present in computer fonts, for example g-grave: g̀.


Ukrainian National transliteration

This is the official system of Ukraine, also employed by the United Nations and many countries' foreign services. It is currently widely used to represent Ukrainian geographic names, which were almost exclusively romanized from Russian before Ukraine's independence in 1991, and for personal names in passports. It is based on
English orthography English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Like the orthography of most world languages, English orthography has a broad ...
, and requires only
ASCII ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding Character encoding is the process of assigning numbers to graphical Graphics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, ...
characters with no diacritics. Its first version was codified in Decision No. 9 of the Ukrainian Committee on Issues of Legal Terminology on April 19, 1996, stating that the system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names in English in legislative and official acts. A new official system was introduced for transliteration of Ukrainian personal names in
Ukrainian passport The Ukrainian passport is a document issued for nationals of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to ...

Ukrainian passport
s in 2007. An updated 2010 version became the system is used for transliterating all proper names and was approved as Resolution 55 of the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ( uk, Кабінет Міністрів України, translit=Kabinet Ministriv Ukrainy; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine ( uk, Уряд України, ''Uryad Ukrayin ...

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
, January 27, 2010.Resolution no. 55
of the
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ( uk, Кабінет Міністрів України, translit=Kabinet Ministriv Ukrainy; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine ( uk, Уряд України, ''Uryad Ukrayin ...

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
, January 27, 2010
This modified earlier laws and brought together a unified system for official documents, publication of cartographic works, signs and indicators of inhabited localities, streets, stops, subway stations, etc. It has been adopted internationally. The 27th session of the UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names (
UNGEGN The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économiq ...
) held in New York 30 July and 10 August 2012 after a report by the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine (now known as Derzhheokadastr: Ukraine State Service of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre) experts approved the Ukrainian system of romanization. The BGN/PCGN jointly adopted the system in 2020. Official geographic names are romanized directly from the original Ukrainian and not translated. For example, ''Kyivska oblast'' not ''
Kyiv Oblast Kyiv Oblast (also known as Kiev Oblast) ( uk, Ки́ївська о́бласть, translit=Kyivska oblast; also referred to as Kyivshchyna – uk, Ки́ївщина) is an Administrative divisions of Ukraine, oblast (province) in central Ukra ...
'', ''Pivnichnokrymskyi kanal'' not ''
North Crimean Canal The North Crimean Canal (russian: Северо-Крымский канал, uk, Північно-Кримський канал, translit=Pivnichno-Krymskyi kanal; in the Soviet Union: North Crimean Canal of the Lenin's Komsomol of Ukraine) is a ...

North Crimean Canal
''.


Romanization for other languages than English

Romanization intended for readers of other languages than English is usually transcribed phonetically into the familiar orthography. For example, ''y'', ''kh'', ''ch'', ''sh'', ''shch'' for anglophones may be transcribed ''j'', ''ch'', ''tsch'', ''sch'', ''schtsch'' for German readers (for letters й, х, ч, ш, щ), or it may be rendered in Latin letters according to the normal orthography of another Slavic language, such as Polish or Croatian (such as the established system of scientific transliteration, described above).


Ad hoc romanization

Users of public-access computers or mobile text messaging services sometimes improvise informal romanization due to limitations in keyboard or character set. These may include both sound-alike and look-alike letter substitutions. Example: ''YKPAIHCbKA ABTOPKA'' for "УКРАЇНСЬКА АВТОРКА". See also
Volapuk encoding Informal or ''ad hoc'' romanizations of Cyrillic have been in use since the early days of electronic communication Telecommunication is the transmission of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it an ...
. This system uses the available character set.


Ukrainian telegraph code

For telegraph transmission. Each separate Ukrainian letter had a 1:1 equivalence to a Latin letter. Latin Q, W, V, and X are equivalent to Ukrainian Я (or sometimes Щ), В, Ж, Ь. Other letters are transcribed phonetically. This equivalency is used in building the
KOI8-U KOI8-U (RFC 2319) is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover Ukrainian, which uses a Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian h ...
table.


Transcription

Transcription Transcription refers to the process of producing a copy of something piece by small piece, including: Genetics * Transcription (biology), the copying of DNA into RNA, the first step in gene expression ** Bacterial transcription, the generation ...
is the representation of the spoken word.
Phonological Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the I ...
, or phonemic, transcription represents the
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s, or meaningful sounds of a language, and is useful to describe the general pronunciation of a word.
Phonetic Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) an ...
transcription represents every single sound, or
phone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...
, and can be used to compare different dialects of a language. Both methods can use the same sets of symbols, but linguists usually denote phonemic transcriptions by enclosing them in slashes / ... /, while phonetic transcriptions are enclosed in square brackets ... ; IPA The
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest s ...
precisely represents pronunciation. Requires a special Unicode font.


Conventional romanization of proper names

In many contexts, it is common to use a modified system of transliteration that strives to be read and pronounced naturally by
anglophones Speakers of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wo ...

anglophones
. Such transcriptions are also used for the surnames of people of Ukrainian ancestry in English-speaking countries (personal names have often been translated to equivalent or similar English names, e.g., "Alexander" for ''Oleksandr'', "Terry" for ''Taras''). Typically such a modified transliteration is based on the
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
, or Library of Congress (in North America), or, less commonly, the British Standard system. Such a simplified system usually omits
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
s and ligatures (tie-bars) from, e.g., ''i͡e'', ''ï'' or ''ĭ'', often simplifies ''-yĭ'' and ''-iĭ'' word endings to "-y", omits romanizing the Ukrainian
soft sign The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics ''Ь'', ''ь'') also known as the front yer, front jer, or er malak (lit. "small er") is a letter of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia an ...
(''ь'') and apostrophe (''''), and may substitute ''ya, ye, yu, yo'' for ''ia, ie, iu, io'' at the beginnings of words. It may also simplify doubled letters. Unlike in the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
where an apostrophe is punctuation, in the
Ukrainian language Ukrainian ( uk, украї́нська мо́ва, translit=ukrainska mova, label=native name, ), historically also called Ruthenian, is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Sla ...
it is a letter. Therefore sometimes Rus' is translated with an apostrophe, even when the apostrophe is dropped for most other names and words. Conventional transliterations can reflect the history of a person or place. Many well-known spellings are based on transcriptions into another Latin alphabet, such as the German or Polish. Others are transcribed from equivalent names in other languages, for example Ukrainian ''Pavlo'' ("Paul") may be called by the Russian equivalent ''Pavel'', Ukrainian ''
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
'' by the Russian equivalent ''Kiev''. The employment of romanization systems can become complex. For example, the English translation of Kubijovyč's ''Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia'' uses a modified Library of Congress (ALA-LC) system as outlined above for Ukrainian and Russian names—with the exceptions for endings or doubled consonants applying variously to personal and geographic names. For technical reasons, maps in the Encyclopedia follow different conventions. Names of persons are anglicized in the encyclopedia's text, but also presented in their original form in the index. Various geographic names are presented in their anglicized, Russian, or both Ukrainian and Polish forms, and appear in several forms in the index. Scientific transliteration is used in linguistics articles. The Encyclopedia's explanation of its transliteration and naming convention occupies 2-1/2 pages.


Tables of romanization systems


See also

*
Belarusian alphabet The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic. It has existed in its modern form since 1918 and has 32 letters. See also Belarusian Latin alphabet and Belarusian Arabic alphabet. ...
*
Cyrillic alphabets Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic ...
*
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
*
Faux Cyrillic Faux Cyrillic, pseudo-Cyrillic, pseudo-Russian or faux Russian typography is the use of Cyrillic script, Cyrillic letters in Latin alphabet, Latin text, usually to evoke the Soviet Union or Russia, though it may be used in other contexts as well. ...
*
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
*
Macedonian alphabet The orthography of Macedonian language, Macedonian includes an alphabet consisting of 31 letters. ( mk, Македонска азбука, '), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and ...
*
Montenegrin alphabet The Montenegrin alphabet is the collective name given to "''Abeceda''" (#Latin alphabet, Montenegrin Latin alphabet) and "''Азбука''" (#Cyrillic alphabet, Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet), the writing systems used to Writing, write the Monteneg ...
*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' ...
*
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specif ...
*
Romanization of Greek Romanization of Greek is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or ...
*
Romanization of Macedonian The romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
*
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
* Scientific romanization of Cyrillic *
Ukrainian alphabet The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demograph ...
*
Ukrainian Latin alphabet A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language Ukrainian ( uk, украї́нська мо́ва, translit=ukrainska mova, label=native name, ), historically also called Ruthenian, is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages consti ...
*
Russian alphabet The Russian alphabet ( rus, ру́сский алфави́т, russkiy alfavit, ˈruskʲɪj ɐlfɐˈvʲit or, more traditionally, rus, ру́сская а́збука, russkaya azbuka, ˈruskəjə ˈazbʊkə) was derived from Cyrillic script fo ...

Russian alphabet
*
Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). Thi ...
*
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a used for various languages across and is used as the national script in various , , , , and -speaking countries in , , the , , ...


Notes


References

*Clara Beetle ed. (1949),
A.L.A. Cataloging Rules for Author and Title Entries
', Chicago: American Library Association, p 246. *''British Standard 2979 : 1958'', London: British Standards Institution. * Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. (1996). ''The World's Writing Systems'', pp. 700, 702, Oxford University Press. . *G. Gerych (1965),
Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets
', masters thesis, Ottawa: University of Ottawa. *Maryniak, K. (2008), 'Короткий огляд систем транслітерації з української на англійську мову' (Brief Overview of Transliteration Systems from Ukrainian to English), ''Західньоканадський збірник — Collected Papers on Ukrainian Life in Western Canada'', Part Five, Edmonton–Ostroh: Shevchenko Scientific Society in Canada, pp. 478–84. * Rudnyc'kyj, Jaroslav B. (1948). ''Чужомовні транслітерації українських назв: Iнтернаціональна, англійська, французька, німецька, еспанська й португальська'' (Foreign transliterations of Ukrainian names: The international, English, French, German, Spanish and Portuguese), Augsburg: Iнститут родо- й знаменознавства. *
U.S. Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior The United States secretary of the interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The secreta ...
, Foreign Names Committee Staff (1994). ''Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions'', p. 105.


External links


English Transliteration
by the State Migration Service of Ukraine
Standard Ukrainian Transliteration
— multistandard bidirectional online transliteration (BGN/PCGN, scholarly, national, ISO 9, ALA-LC, etc.) (in Ukrainian)
Ukrainian Transliteration
online Ukrainian transliteration
Ukrainian Translit
online Ukrainian transliteration service (non-standard system)

online transliterator (non-standard system)

history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets
Lingua::Translit
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level High-level and low-level, as technical terms, are used to classify, describe and point to specific Objective (goal), goals of a systematic operation; and are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as, for ...
module covering a variety of writing systems. Transliteration according to several standards (e.g.
ISO 9 The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
and DIN 1460).


Transliteration systems


Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts
A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pedersen. PDF reference charts for many languages' transliteration systems
Ukrainian PDF

Latin transliteration
transliteration systems used for national Ukrainian domain names (in Ukrainian)
Decision No. 858
affecting transliteration of names passports (2007) (Ukrainian)
Working Group on Romanization Systems
under the United Nations Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names
Ukrainian PDF


Scanned text of the 1997 edition of the ''ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for Non-Roman Scripts''
Ukrainian PDF

BGN/PCGN 1965 Romanization System for Ukrainian
at geonames.nga.mil

based on both International Linguistic and ALA-LC systems
Ukrainian language in the International Phonetic Alphabet
(PDF, in Ukrainian) {{DEFAULTSORT:Romanization Of Ukrainian
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
Ukrainian orthography