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Romanization of Russian is the process of
transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

transliterating
the
Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European lang ...
from the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
into the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
. As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of
typing Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array of , and each one causes a different single character to be produced ...
rapidly using a
native Russian keyboard layout
native Russian keyboard layout
(
JCUKEN JCUKEN (''ЙЦУКЕН'', also known as ''YCUKEN'', ''YTsUKEN'' and ''JTSUKEN'') is the main Cyrillic keyboard layout for the Russian language in computers and typewriters. Earlier in Russia ''JIUKEN'' (''ЙІУКЕН'') layout was the main layout ...
). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their
keyboard layout A keyboard layout is any specific physical, visual or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer keyboard A computer keyboard is a peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an ...
, such as for English
QWERTY QWERTY () is a keyboard layout, keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six Computer keyboard keys#Key types, keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard ( ). The QWERTY design is based ...

QWERTY
keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.


Systematic transliterations of Cyrillic to Latin

There are a number of distinct and competing standards for the romanization of Russian Cyrillic, with none of them having received much popularity and in reality transliteration is often carried out without any uniform standards.


Scientific transliteration

Scientific transliteration, also known as the ''International Scholarly System'', is a system that has been used in
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
since the 19th century. It is based on the
Czech alphabet Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to ...
and formed the basis of the GOST and ISO systems.


GOST


OST 8483

OST 8483 was the first Soviet standard on romanization of Russian, introduced on 16 October 1935.


GOST 16876-71 (1973)

Developed by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography at the
USSR Council of Ministers The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( rus, Совет министров СССР, r=Sovet Ministrov SSSR, p=sɐˈvʲet mʲɪˈnʲistrəf ɛsɛsɛˈsɛr; sometimes abbreviated to ''Sovmin'' or referred to as the '' ...
, GOST 16876-71 has been in service since 1973. Replaced by GOST 7.79-2000.


ST SEV 1362 (1978)

This standard is an equivalent of GOST 16876-71 and was adopted as an official standard of the
COMECON#REDIRECT Comecon The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (, ; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, CEMA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Uni ...

COMECON
.


GOST 7.79-2000 (2002)

GOST 7.79-2000 ''System of Standards on Information, Librarianship, and Publishing–Rules for Transliteration of the Cyrillic Characters Using the Latin Alphabet'' is an adoption of ISO 9:1995. It is the official standard of both
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS).


GOST 52535.1-2006 (2006)

GOST 52535.1-2006 ''Identification cards. Machine readable travel documents. Part 1. Machine readable passports'' is an adoption of an
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...

ICAO
standard for travel documents. It was used in Russian passports for a short period during 2010–2013 (
see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by The Rascals, on the album ''See'' ** See (Tycho song), "See" (Tycho song), song by Tycho * T ...
). The standard was substituted in 2013 by GOST R ISO/
IECIEC may refer to: Businesses and organisations * International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organizati ...
7501-1-2013, which does not contain romanization, but directly refers to the
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...

ICAO
romanization (
see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by The Rascals, on the album ''See'' ** See (Tycho song), "See" (Tycho song), song by Tycho * T ...
).


Street and road signs

Names on street and road signs in the Soviet Union were romanized according to GOST 10807-78 (tables 17, 18), which was amended by newer Russian GOST R 52290-2004 (tables Г.4, Г.5), the romanizations in both the standards are practically identical.


ISO


ISO/R 9

ISO/R 9, established in 1954 and updated in 1968, was the adoption of the
scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). Thi ...
by the
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
(ISO). It covers Russian and seven other Slavic languages.


ISO 9

ISO 9:1995 is the current transliteration standard from ISO. It is based on its predecessor ISO/R 9:1968, which it deprecates; for Russian, the two are the same except in the treatment of five modern letters. ISO 9:1995 is the first language-independent, univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics) that faithfully represents the original and allows for reverse transliteration for Cyrillic text in any contemporary language.


United Nations romanization system

The
UNGEGN The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économiq ...
, a Working Group of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, in 1987 recommended a romanization system for geographical names, which was based on the 1983 version of
GOST 16876-71 GOST 16876-71 (russian: ГОСТ 16876-71) is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of l ...
. It may be found in some international cartographic products.


Library of Congress (ALA-LC)

American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
and
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
(ALA-LC) romanization tables for Slavic alphabets are used in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
n libraries and in the British Library since 1975. The formal, unambiguous version of the system for bibliographic cataloguing requires some diacritics, two-letter tie characters, and prime marks. The standard is also often adapted as a "simplified" or "modified Library of Congress system" for use in text for a non-specialized audience, omitting the special characters and diacritics, simplifying endings, and modifying iotated initials.


British Standard

''British Standard 2979:1958'' is the main system of the Oxford University Press, and a variation was used by the British Library to catalogue publications acquired up to 1975—the Library of Congress system (ALA-LC) is used for newer acquisitions).


BGN/PCGN

The BGN/PCGN system is relatively intuitive for Anglophones to read and pronounce. In many publications, a simplified form of the system is used to render English versions of Russian names, typically converting ''ë'' to ''yo'', simplifying ''-iy'' and ''-yy'' endings to ''-y'', and omitting apostrophes for ''ъ'' and ''ь''. It can be rendered using only the basic letters and punctuation found on English-language keyboards: no diacritics or unusual letters are required, although the
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separati ...

interpunct
character (·) may be used to avoid ambiguity. This particular standard is part of the BGN/PCGN romanization system which was developed by the
United States Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government ch ...
and by the
Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) is an independent inter-departmental body in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed ...
. The portion of the system pertaining to the
Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European lang ...
was adopted by BGN in 1944 and by PCGN in 1947.


Transliteration of names on Russian passports

In
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sove ...
international
passport A passport is an official travel document A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international entity pursuant to international agreements to enable individuals to clear border control measures. Travel documents ...

passport
s, transliteration was based on French rules but without diacritics and so all names were transliterated in a French-style system. In 1997, with the introduction of new
Russian passport The Russian passport (officially in russian: Заграничный паспорт гражданина Российской Федерации 'Transborder passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation') is a booklet issued by the Ministry o ...

Russian passport
s, a diacritic-free English-oriented system was established by the
Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MVD, russian: Министерство внутренних дел (МВД), ''Ministerstvo vnutrennikh del'') is the interior ministry of Russia. The MVD is responsible for law enfor ...
, but the system was also abandoned in 2010. In 2006, GOST 52535.1-2006 was adopted, which defines technical requirements and standards for Russian international passports and introduces its own system of transliteration. In 2010, the Federal Migratory Service of Russia approved Order No. 26, stating that all personal names in the passports issued after 2010 must be transliterated using GOST 52535.1-2006. Because of some differences between the new system and the old one, citizens who wanted to retain the old version of a name's transliteration, especially one that had been in the old pre-2010 passport, could apply to the local migratory office before they acquired a new passport. The standard was abandoned in 2013. In 2013, Order No. 320 of the Federal Migratory Service of Russia came into force. It states that all personal names in the passports must be transliterated by using the
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized and funding agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international s ...
system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, structure and purp ...
, which is published in Doc 9303 "''Machine Readable Travel Documents, Part 3''". The system differs from the GOST 52535.1-2006 system in two things: ц is transliterated into ''ts'' (as in pre-2010 systems), ъ is transliterated into ''ie'' (a novelty).


Transliteration table


Table notes

: 0 Unicode recommends encoding the primes used for the soft and hard signs as modifier prime and double prime, ʹ and ʺ, which may be entered with and , and the apostrophes for the same as the
modifier letter apostrophe The modifier letter apostrophe is a letter in Unicode encoding, used primarily for various glottal consonant, glottal sounds. Encoding The letter apostrophe is encoded at . In Unicode code charts it looks identical to the , but this is not true ...
s, ʼ and ˮ. ; Scholarly : 1 Some archaic letters are transcribed in different ways. ; GOST 16876-71 and GOST 7.79-2000 : 2 ''jj'' is accepted if reverse transliteration is needed : 3 It is recommended to use ''c'' before ''i, e, y, j'', but ''cz'' in all other cases. : 4 In GOST 7.79-2000 Cyrillic ''і'' in
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
and
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
is always transliterated as Latin ''i'' as well as in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian texts where it is usually used before vowels. In the rare case that it falls before a consonant (for example, in the word міръ), it is transliterated with an apostrophe ''i. ; Street and road signs : 5 е = ''ye'' initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь. : 6 ё :: = ''ye'' after consonants except ч, ш, щ, ж (''ch, sh, shch, zh''); :: = ''e'' after ч, ш, щ, ж (''ch, sh, shch, zh''); :: = ''yo'' initially, after vowels, and after ъ and ь. ; ALA-LC : 7 Before the 2012 revision of the table, ъ was not romanized at the end of a word. Since that date, it is always romanized. ; British Standard : 8 Diacritics may be omitted when back-transliteration is not required. : 9 тс is romanized ''t-s'' to distinguish it from ц = ''ts''. : 10 ъ is not romanized at the end of a word. : 11 The British Library uses ы = ''ui'', ый = ''uy''. ; BGN/PCGN : 12 The
digraphs Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography) A digraph or digram (from the el, δίς ', "double" and ', "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a m ...
''ye'' and ''yë'' are used to indicate
iotation In Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-S ...
at the beginning of a word, after vowels, and after й, ъ or ь. : 13 An optional
middle dot An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separati ...
(·) may be used to signify: ::* non-digraphs (тс = ''t·s'', шч = ''sh·ch''); ::* ''y·'' = й before а, у, ы, э (йа = ''y·a'', йу = ''y·u'', йы = ''y·y'', йэ = ''y·e''); ::* ''y·'' = ы before а, у, ы, э (ыа = ''y·a'', ыу = ''y·u'', ыы = ''y·y'', ыэ = ''y·e''); ::* ''·y'' = ы after vowels; ::* ''·e'' = э after consonants except й. ; Passport (1997) : 14 ''ye'' after ь. : 15 ий is either ''iy'' or ''y'', and ый is either ''y'' or ''yy''.


Latin script

In a second sense, the romanization or Latinization of Russian may also indicate the introduction of a dedicated
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
for writing the Russian language. Such an alphabet would not necessarily bind closely to the traditional Cyrillic orthography. The transition from Cyrillic to Latin has been proposed several times throughout history (especially during the Soviet era), but was never conducted on a large scale, except for graphemic (such as the Volapuk) and phonemic (such as
translit Informal or ''ad hoc'' Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic, romanizations of Cyrillic have been in use since the early days of electronic communications, starting from early e-mail and bulletin board systems.ad hoc transcriptions. The most serious possibility of adoption of a Latin alphabet for the Russian language was discussed in 1929–30 during the campaign of latinisation of the languages of the USSR, when a special commission was created to propose a latinisation system for Russian."О латинизации русского алфавита"
/ref>


See also

*
Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). Thi ...
*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' ...
*
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specif ...
*
Romanization of Macedonian The romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
*
Romanization of Serbian The romanization of Serbian or latinization of Serbian is the representation of Serbian language using Latin letters. Serbian is written in two alphabets, the Serbian Cyrillic, a variation of Cyrillic alphabet, and Gaj's Latin, or ''latinica'', ...
*
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Rom ...
* Russian Chat Alphabet *
Faux Cyrillic Faux Cyrillic, pseudo-Cyrillic, pseudo-Russian or faux Russian typography is the use of Cyrillic script, Cyrillic letters in Latin alphabet, Latin text, usually to evoke the Soviet Union or Russia, though it may be used in other contexts as well. ...
* Template:ru-IPA for the
Wiktionary Wiktionary is a multilingual, web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Ara ...

Wiktionary
template to automatically generate pronunciation for Russian words


Notes


References


American Library Association & Library of Congress Romanization

Russian
(2012)
Church Slavonic
(2011) *British Academy
Transliteration of Slavonic: Report of the Committee for the Transliteration into English of Words Belonging to Russian and Other Slavonic Languages.
Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. VIII (2017). 20 pp. *Gerych, G
Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets.
Ottawa University, April 1965. 126 pp. * * * * * * * *


External links

* *

into various European languages, Morse, Braille, Georgian and Arabic {{Romanization
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
Russian language Russian-language computing de: Kyrillisches Alphabet#Russisch