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Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian ( fa, لاتین‌نویسی فارسی, Lātinnevisiye fārsi, ) is the representation of the
Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europ ...
(
Farsi Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category ...

Farsi
,
Dari Dari (, , ), or Dari Persian (, ), is a political term used for the various dialects of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gr ...
and Tajik) with the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.


Romanization paradigms

Because the
Perso-Arabic script The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Perso-Arabic script
is an
abjad An abjad () is a type of writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to th ...

abjad
writing system (with a
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
-heavy inventory of letters), many distinct words in standard Persian can have identical spellings, with widely varying pronunciations that differ in their (unwritten)
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
sounds. Thus a romanization paradigm can follow either transliteration (which mirrors spelling and
orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
) or transcription (which mirrors pronunciation and
phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of lan ...

phonology
). The Latin script plays in Iran the role of a second script. For the proof of this assertion it is sufficient to take a look at the city and street signs or the Internet addresses in all countries. On the other hand, experience has shown that efforts to teach millions of Iranian young people abroad in reading and writing Persian mostly prove to be unsuccessful, due to the lack of daily contact with the Persian script. It seems that a way out of this dilemma has been found; and that is the use of the Latin script parallel to the Persian script.


Transliteration

Transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

Transliteration
(in the strict sense) attempts to be a complete representation of the original writing, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. Transliterations of Persian are used to represent individual Persian words or short quotations, in scholarly texts in English or other languages that do not use the Arabic alphabet. A transliteration will still have separate representations for different consonants of the
Persian alphabet The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) or Perso-Arabic script, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari, Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in ...

Persian alphabet
that are pronounced identically in Persian. Therefore, transliterations of Persian are often based on transliterations of Arabic. The representation of the vowels of the Perso-Arabic alphabet is also complex, and transliterations are based on the written form. Transliterations commonly used in the English-speaking world include
BGN/PCGN romanization BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
and
ALA-LC Romanization ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a leg ...
. Non-academic English-language quotation of Persian words usually uses a simplification of one of the strict transliteration schemes (typically omitting
diacritical mark A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
s) and/or unsystematic choices of spellings meant to guide English speakers using English spelling rules towards an approximation of the Persian sounds.


Transcription

Transcriptions of Persian attempt to straightforwardly represent
Persian phonology The Persian language has between six and eight vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant ...
in the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
, without requiring a close or reversible correspondence with the Perso-Arabic script, and also without requiring a close correspondence to English phonetic values of Roman letters.


Main romanization schemes

* DMG (1969), a strict scientific system by the German Oriental Society ( Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft). It corresponds to Deutsches Institut für Normung standard
DIN 31635 DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieva ...
. * ALA-LC (1997), the
ALA-LC romanization ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a leg ...
. * BGN/PCGN (1958), the
BGN/PCGN romanization BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
. * EI (1960), the system used in early editions of ''
Encyclopædia Iranica ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...
''. * EI (2012), its contemporary modification. * UN (1967), the Iranian national system (1966), that was approved by the
UNGEGN The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil économique et social ...
in 1967. * UN (2012), its contemporary modification.


Comparison table

Notes:


Pre-Islamic period

In the pre-Islamic period Old and Middle Persian employed various scripts including
Old Persian cuneiform Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic cuneiform script Cuneiform is a logo- syllabic script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age The Bronze Age ...

Old Persian cuneiform
, Pahlavi and Avestan scripts. For each period there are established transcriptions and transliterations by prominent linguists. Notes: A sample romanization (a poem by Hafez): # * *


Other romanization schemes


Baháʼí Persian romanization

Baháʼís use a system standardized by
Shoghi Effendi Shoghí Effendí (; 1 March 1897 – 4 November 1957) was the grandson and successor of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, appointed to the role of Guardian of the Baháʼí Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957. Shoghi Effendi created a series of teaching ...
, which he initiated in a general letter on March 12, 1923. The Baháʼí transliteration scheme was based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
in September 1894. Shoghi Effendi changed some details of the Congress's system, most notably in the use of
digraphs Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography) A digraph or digram (from the el, δίς ', "double" and ', "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a m ...
in certain cases (e.g. ''s͟h'' instead of ''š''), and in incorporating the solar letters when writing the definite article ''al-'' (Arabic: ال) according to pronunciation (e.g. ''ar-Rahim'', ''as-Saddiq'', instead of ''al-Rahim'', ''al-Saddiq''). A detailed introduction to the Baháʼí Persian romanization can usually be found at the back of a Baháʼí scripture.


ASCII Internet romanizations

It is common to write Persian language with only the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
(as opposed to the
Persian alphabet The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) or Perso-Arabic script, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari, Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in ...

Persian alphabet
) especially in
online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ar ...
,
social networks A social networking service A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or ca ...

social networks
,
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
s and
SMS SMS (Short Message Service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is ...
. It has developed and spread due to a former lack of software supporting the Persian alphabet, and/or due to a lack of knowledge about the software that was available. Although Persian writing is supported in recent
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
s, there are still many cases where the Persian alphabet is unavailable and there is a need for an alternative way to write Persian with the basic Latin alphabet. This way of writing is sometimes called Fingilish or Pingilish (a
portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movement of people between distant ...

portmanteau
of ''Farsi'' or ''Persian'' and ''English''). In most cases this is an ''ad hoc'' simplification of the scientific systems listed above (such as ALA-LC or BGN/PCGN), but ignoring any special letters or diacritical signs. ع may be written using the numeral "3", as in the
Arabic chat alphabetThe Arabic chat alphabet, ''Arabizi'' (, ), Franco-Arabic (, , or ), Arabish, Araby ( ar, عربي, ), and Mu'arrab (), refer to the Romanized alphabets for informal Arabic dialects in which Arabic script is transcribed or encoded into a combina ...
(though this is rarely done). The details of the spelling also depend on the contact language of the speaker; for example, the vowel is often spelt "oo" after English, but Persian speakers from Germany and some other European countries are more likely to use "u".


Tajik Latin alphabet

The
Tajik language Tajik (Tajik: , , ), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: , , ), Tajiki, and Tadzhiki, is the variety of Persian language, Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by Tajiks, Tajik people. It is closely related to neighbouring Dari with which it ...
or Tajik Persian is a variety of the Persian language. It was written in
Tajik SSR The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic,, , ''Çumhuriji Şūraviji Sotsialistiji Toçikiston''; russian: Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика, ''Tadzhikskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Re ...
in a standardized Latin script from 1926 until the late 1930s, when the script was officially changed to Cyrillic. However, Tajik phonology differs slightly from that of Persian in Iran. As a result of these two factors romanization schemes of the Tajik Cyrillic script follow rather different principles.


Variation proposed by Mir Shamsuddin Adib-Soltani

The renowned contemporary linguist Mir Shamsuddin Adib-Soltani has proposed the use of a variation of the Latin alphabet. This variation, also sometimes called "Pârstin", has been commonly used by other linguists, such as
David Neil MacKenzie David Neil MacKenzie FBAFBA may refer to: * Federation of British Artists * Federal Bar Association * Fellow of the British Academy * Filsports Basketball Association * First Baptist Academy (Houston, Texas), United States * First Baptist Acade ...
for the transliteration of the Perso-Arabic scripture. The letters of this variation of the Latin alphabet are the basic Latin letters: ''Aa'', ''Bb'', ''Cc'', ''Dd'', ''Ee'', ''Ff'', ''Gg'', ''Hh'', ''Ii'', ''Jj'', ''Kk'', ''Ll'', ''Mm'', ''Nn'', ''Oo'', ''Pp'', ''Qq'', ''Rr'', ''Ss'', ''Tt'', ''Uu'', ''Vv'', ''Xx'', ''Yy'', ''Zz'', plus the additional letters to support the native sounds: ''Ââ'', ''Čč'', ''Šš'', ''Žž''. Besides being one of the simplest variations proposed for the Latinization of the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...

Persian
alphabet, this variation is based on the
Alphabetic principle According to the alphabetic principle, letters and combinations of letters are the symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy), object, or wikt:relationshi ...
. Based on this principle, each individual speech sound is represented by a single letter and there is a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and the letters that represent them. This principle, besides increasing the clarity of the text and preventing confusion for the reader, is specifically useful for representing the native sounds of the Persian language, for which there are no equivalents in most other languages written in a Latin-based alphabet. For instance, compound letters used in the other variations, such as ''kh'' and ''gh'', in addition to ''sh'' and ''zh'' are respectively represented by ''x'', ''q'', ''š'' and ''ž''.


See also

*
Persian alphabet The Persian alphabet ( fa, الفبای فارسی, Alefbā-ye Fārsi) or Perso-Arabic script, is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari, Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in ...

Persian alphabet
*
Persian phonology The Persian language has between six and eight vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant ...
*
Romanization of Arabic The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering Modern Standard Arabic, written and varieties of Arabic, spoken Arabic language, Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a nu ...
*
Romanization of Syriac The Syriac alphabet ( ) is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic languages, Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and shares s ...


References


Toponymic Guidelines for map and other editors – Revised edition 1998. Working Paper No. 41
'. Submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran. UNGEGN, 20th session. New York, 17–28 January 2000.

New Persian Romanization System. E/CONF.101/118/Rev.1*
'. Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012.


External links


Comparison of DMG, UN, ALA-LC, BGN/PCGN, EI, ISO 233-3 transliterations

Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts

Iranian Committee on the Standardization of Geographical Names (ICSGN)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Romanization Of Persian Persian orthography Romanization of Arabic Persian scripts