HOME

TheInfoList




The romanization of Macedonian is the
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
of text in
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
from the
Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet The orthography of Macedonian language, Macedonian includes an alphabet Consisting of 31 Letters. ( mk, Македонска азбука, '), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and p ...
into the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of
proper name A proper noun is a noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (ling ...
s in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by
North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia before February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A sub ...
's authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.


Romanization systems

For a number of Cyrillic letters, transliteration into matching Latin letters is straightforward. Cyrillic а, б, в, г, д, е, з, и, к, л, м, н, о, п, р, с, т, у, ф are matched with Latin ''a, b, v, g, d, e, z, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, f'', according to all conventions. Cyrillic ц (pronounced ) is mostly rendered as ''c'', in accordance with the conventions for many other Slavic (and non-Slavic) languages. The letter х is typically rendered as ''h'', matching the pronunciation in Macedonian. For the Macedonian/Serbian letter ј, the preferred transliteration is its visual Latin counterpart ''j'' (rather than ''y'', otherwise widely used in English for the rendering of the same glide sound in other languages). For other Cyrillic letters, the choice is between a single Latin letter with a
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
, and a
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
of two Latin letters. This goes mainly for the letters denoting palatalised consonants, and for those denoting
fricative Fricatives are consonants manner of articulation, produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two Place of articulation, articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the bac ...
s and
affricate An affricate is a consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech s ...
s in the
alveolar Alveolus (pl. alveoli, adj. alveolar) is a general anatomical term for a concave cavity or pit. Alveolus may refer to: In anatomy and zoology in general * Pulmonary alveolus A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin ''alveolus'', "littl ...

alveolar
and palatal range.


Digraph system

This system uses
digraphs Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography) A digraph or digram (from the el, δίς ', "double" and ', "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a m ...
instead of
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
s, making it easier for use in environments where diacritics may pose a technical problem, such as typing on computers. Common usage has ''gj, kj'' for ѓ, ќ, either ''dj'' or ''dzh'' for џ, and sometimes ''ts'' for ц. Such a diacritic-free system, with digraphs ''zh, gj, dz, lj, nj, kj, ch, sh, dj'' has been adopted since 2008 for use in official documents such as passports, ID cards and driver's licenses. The system adopted for digraph transliteration i
ICAO Doc 9303
CadastreICAO Doc 9303 (page 33, 34)
The Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences and the State Statistical Office of North Macedonia use similar digraph system.State Statistical Office


ISO 9 system

A standardized system of transliteration based on
Gaj's Latin alphabet Gaj's Latin alphabet ( sh, abeceda, latinica, gajica) is the form of the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, ...
is used since 1950s and defined in ISO 9:1968; this system was also adopted by the Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1970,Macedonian Latin alphabet, BGN/PCGN (in 2013), and ALA-LC and is taught in schools in North Macedonia It uses letters with diacritics ''ž, č, š'' for Cyrillic ж, ч, ш respectively (as for many other Slavic languages), and ''ǵ, ḱ'' for the special Macedonian letters ѓ, ќ. The palatalised consonants of Cyrillic љ, њ are rendered with digraphs ''lj, nj'' (although the academic orthography also permits using ''ĺ, ń''), and the voiced affricates of Cyrillic ѕ, џ with ''dz, dž'' respectively. The most recent edition of the Macedonian orthography mentions this system as well as the digraphic system, saying that the latter is used for personal names in official documents. The palatal plosives ѓ, ќ are also sometimes rendered as Latin ''đ, ć'', following a
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
convention (''đ, ć'' are the Serbian Latin equivalents of Serbian Cyrillic ђ and ћ, which etymologically correspond to Macedonian ѓ, ќ in many words.) This convention is found in the system adopted by the
US Board on Geographic Names The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior The United States secretary of the interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The secreta ...
(BGN) and the British PCGN in 1981, (before 2013) as well as by the
United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographic Names The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: links=no, Conseil économiq ...
(UNCSGN).UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems: Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names, Version 2.2, January 200

According to this system, ѓ, ќ are transliterated as plain ''g'' and ''k'' before front vowels (е, и), but as ''đ'' and ''ć'' respectively in other environments. Otherwise, this system is identical to that of ISO 9 (R:1968). The Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences uses ''gj'' and ''kj'' for the palatal plosives on its official website. The ISO 9, ISO 9:1995 is a standard that completely avoids digraphs and permits to romanize any Cyrillic text without knowing in what language it is. However, it is rarely used because of having unusual diacriticized letters.


See also

*
Cyrillic alphabets Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic ...
*
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
*
Macedonian alphabet The orthography of Macedonian language, Macedonian includes an alphabet consisting of 31 letters. ( mk, Македонска азбука, '), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and ...
*
Macedonian language Macedonian (; , , ) is an Eastern South Slavic The Eastern South Slavic dialects form the eastern subgroup of the South Slavic languages The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages The Slavic lang ...
*
Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...


Notes


References

*British Standard 2979 : 1958, London: British Standards Institution. *G. Selvelli
Su alcuni aspetti ideologici dei sistemi di traslitterazione degli alfabeti cirillici nei Balcani.
''Studi Slavistici'' XII (2015). pp. 159–180. {{Romanization Macedonian language
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...