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Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
of text in
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
from its conventional
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is ...
orthography into the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of
proper names A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Exampl ...
and
place names Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of '' toponyms'' (proper names A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functio ...
in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.


Features

The various romanization systems differ with respect to 12 out of the 30 letters of the modern
Bulgarian alphabet The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language Bulgarian (, ; bg, label=none, български, bălgarski, ) is a South Slavic languages, South Slavic language spok ...

Bulgarian alphabet
. The remaining 18 have constant mappings in all romanization schemes: а→a, б→b, в→v, г→g, д→d, е→e, з→z, и→i, к→k, л→l, м→m, н→n, о→o, п→p, р→r, с→s, т→t, ф→f. Differences exist with respect to the following: * letters involving the glide sound /j/, where some systems use Latin and some Latin : й→j/y, ю→ju/yu, я→ja/ya; also ь→’/j/y. * letters denoting palatal/alveolar fricatives and affricates. Here, the choice is mostly between Latin letters with
diacritics A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
, as used in many Latin-based orthographies of other Slavic languages, and
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
combinations, as used in English: ж→ž/zh, ч→č/ch, ш→š/sh, щ→št/ŝ/sht. Also, Cyrillic x may be rendered as either , or , and Cyrillic ц as either or . The rendering of щ as or is specific to Bulgarian and differs from the conventions for the
East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family nativ ...
, where it is rendered mostly as or . * the letter , which in Bulgarian (unlike Russian, where it is not pronounced at all) denotes a special
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
-like vowel. This sound, which occurs in the first syllable of the country name ''Bulgaria'' (България), is variously rendered as , , , , or, in more extreme cases, or . Moreover, Cyrillic у, which is mostly rendered as Latin , is sometimes rendered instead as to distinguish it from ъ, for example in the Danchev Romanization system and based on historical etymology (e.g., the fact that Cyrillic у was descended from Uk).


Standards

Three different systems have been adopted officially by Bulgarian authorities at overlapping times.


ISO/R 9:1968

An older system in the tradition of common Slavic
scientific transliteration Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
was adopted by the Council of Orthography and Transcription of Geographical Names in Sofia in 1972 and subsequently by the UN in 1977.UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems,
"Bulgarian" version 3.0
March 2009)
It is identical to that codified in the ISO norm ISO/R 9:1968. This system uses diacritic letters () as well as and . It was adopted in 1973 as the Bulgarian state standard BDS 1596:1973 which, although still valid formally is no longer used in practice, having been superseded by the 2009 Transliteration Act.


French-oriented

The second system was a -oriented transliteration of personal and place names in the documents issued by the Bulgarian Ministry of Interior for travel abroad, used until 1999.


English-oriented digraph systems

Systems based on a radically different principle, which avoids diacritics and is optimized for compatibility with English sound-letter correspondences,L.L. Ivanov
On the Romanization of Bulgarian and English
Contrastive Linguistics, XXVIII, 2003, 2, pp. 109-118. ; ''Errata, id.'', XXIX, 2004, 1, p. 157.
have come into official use in Bulgaria since the mid-1990s. These systems characteristically use rather than , and rather than .


Danchev

One such system was proposed in Danchev et al.'s ''English Dictionary of Bulgarian Names'' of 1989. A. Danchev, M. Holman, E. Dimova and M. Savova. ''An English Dictionary of Bulgarian Names: Spelling and Pronunciation''. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo Publishers, 1989. 288 pp.


Streamlined System

A similar system (differing from the former in the treatment of letters ''ъ, у,'' and digraphs ''ай, ей, ой and уй''), called the "Streamlined System" by
Ivanov Ivanov, Ivanoff or Ivanow (masculine, bg, Иванов, russian: ИвановSometimes the stress is on Ива́нов in Bulgarian if it is a middle name, or in Russian as a rare variant of pronunciation), or Ivanova (feminine, bg, Иванова ...
(2003) and Gaidarska (1998),M. Gaidarska. The Current State of the Transliteration of Bulgarian Names into English in Popular Practice, Contrastive Linguistics, XXII, 1998, 112, pp. 69-84. was adopted in 1995 for use in Bulgarian-related place names in Antarctica by the
Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria Image:Souvenir-Sheet.jpg, A stamp commemorating the Tenth Anniversary of Bulgarian Antarctic cartography in the service of the Commission The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and sinc ...
.L.L. Ivanov, ''
Toponymic Guidelines for Antarctica Toponymy, also toponymics or toponomastics (from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name') is the study of ''wikt:toponym, toponyms'' (proper names of places, also known as ''place name'' or ''geographic name''), their origins and meanings ...
'', Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, Sofia, 1995.
Another system along similar lines, differing from the Antarctic one only in the treatment of ''ц'' ( vs. ), was adopted by the Bulgarian authorities for use in identity documents in 1999; after an amendment in 2000, the official Bulgarian system became identical with that of the Antarctica Commission. The new official Bulgarian system does not allow for unambiguous mapping back into Cyrillic, since unlike most other systems it does not distinguish between ''ъ'' and ''а'' (both rendered as ''a''). It also does not distinguish between the digraph values of , and the value of the same Roman strings in rendering accidental clusters of separate Cyrillic letters and , as they occur in words like изход (''izhod'') or схема (''shema'').L. Ivanov, D. Skordev and D. Dobrev
The New National Standard for the Romanization of Bulgarian.
''Mathematica Balkanica''. New Series Vol. 24, 2010, Fasc. 1-2. pp.121-130.


New Orthographic Dictionary system

A modification of the system using a diacritic was proposed in the authoritative New Orthographic Dictionary of the Bulgarian Language in 2002, with ъ rendered as ă rather than a. However, that proposal was not adopted for official usage, and failed to become established in popular practice.


Streamlined System with -ia-exception

An exception to the rules was introduced by the Bulgarian authorities in 2006, mandating the transliteration of word-final -ия as ''-ia'' rather than ''-iya'' in given names and geographical names (such as ''Ilia'', ''Maria'' and ''Bulgaria'', ''Sofia'', ''Trakia'' etc.).Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works, Ordinance #3 of 26 October 2006 on the Transliteration of the Bulgarian Geographical Names in Latin Alphabet, State Gazette # 94, 21 November 2006. (in Bulgarian) In 2009, a law passed by the Bulgarian parliament made this system mandatory for all official use and some types of private publications, expanding also the application of the ''ia''-exception rule to all -ия in word-final position.State Gazette # 19, 13 March 2009
(in Bulgarian)
The Streamlined system was adopted by UN in 2012, and by BGN and PCGN in 2013. According to Arenstein, “The international roots of the Bulgarian romanization system strike at the core of one of romanization’s most perplexing paradoxes: an impulse to redefine and distinguish national identity while also ensuring the accessibility of that identity to outside groups. In other words, instilling nationalism with a sense of internationalism.”


Streamlined System with unambiguous reverse mapping

A variant of the Streamlined System allowing for unambiguous mapping back into Cyrillic was proposed by Ivanov, Skordev and Dobrev in 2010 to be used in cases when the retrieval of the original Cyrillic forms is essential. For that purpose, certain Cyrillic letters and combinations of letters are transliterated as follows: ъ→`a, ь→`y, зх→z, h, йа→y, a, йу→y, u, сх→s, h, тс→t, s, тш→t, sh, тщ→t, sht, шт→sh, t, шц→sh, ts, ия (in final position, if the ''ia''-exception rule is applied) →i, a. The standard transliteration form of a given text is obtained from its unambiguously reversible one by simply removing the additional symbols ` and , .


Other

Systems along similar lines to the new official Bulgarian system, though with differences regarding the letters х, ъ, ь, ю and я, have also been in use in the
ALA-LC Romanization ALA-LC (American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a leg ...
scheme of the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
, British Standard 2959:1958, the now-superseded 1952
BGN/PCGN romanization BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including ...
of the United States and British geographic naming institutions, and the 1917 system of the
British Academy The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research Res ...
. The
ISO 9The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World He ...
standard, in its 1995 version, has introduced another romanization system that works with a consistent one-to-one reversible mapping, resorting to rare diacritic combinations such as . The GOST 7.79-2000 "Rules of transliteration of Cyrillic script by Latin alphabet" contains an unambiguous and reversible ASCII-compatible transliteration system for Bulgarian: й→j, х→x, ц→c or cz, ч→ch, ш→sh, щ→sth, ъ→a`, ь→`, ю→yu, я→ya.


Archaic letters

The archaic Cyrillic letters ѣ and ѫ, which were part of the pre-1945 orthography of Bulgarian, are variously transcribed as ⟨i͡e, e⟩, as ⟨ya, ě⟩, and as ⟨u̐, ŭǎ⟩, respectively, in the ALA/LC, BGN/PCGN and ISO 9 standards.


Comparison table


Romanization sample


Personalized and stylized writing

Some people and companies prefer to use or retain personalized spellings of their own names in Latin. Examples are politicians Ivan Stancioff (instead of "Stanchov") and
Simeon Djankov Simeon Dyankov ( bg, Симеон Дянков, also Djankov; born July 13, 1970) is a Bulgarian economist. From 2009 to 2013, he was the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in ...

Simeon Djankov
(instead of "Dyankov"), and beer brand Kamenitza (instead of Kamenitsa). The freedom of using different Roman transliterations of personal names is guaranteed by Article 2(2) of the governmental 2010 Regulation for Issuing of Bulgarian Personal Documents.


Informal writing

Sometimes, especially in
e-mail upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

e-mail
or
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
, the Cyrillic alphabet is not available and people are forced to write in Roman script. This often does not follow the official or any other of the standards listed above, but rather is an
idiosyncratic An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below). It can also mean an odd habit. The term is often used to express eccentricity Eccentricity or eccentric may refer to: * Eccentricity (behavior), odd ...
Bulgarian form of text speak. While most letters are straightforward, several can take different forms. The letter variants listed below are often used interchangeably with some or all of the above standards, often in the same message. There is no set rule, and people often vary the combinations within a single message, so that "ъ" may be presented as "u", "a" or "y" in three adjacent words, and "щ" can be "sht" in one word, and "6t" in the next, and "ю" may be written differently in the same word. Conversely, "j" could be used to represent "й", "ж" and even "дж" in adjacent words, while "y" can be used for "ъ" in one word and for "й" in the next. This unofficial email/SMS language is often referred to as "shlyokavitsa"Satirical Cartoons – "Directorate for the Utilization of Sofia"
Щ deathbed
(6, t: "We're here, dad!", Щ: "My children..."), Jul 2011
Alphabet scroll
(= "а б в...ц ч...ш щ"), May 2011. Retrieved Mar 2013.
The use of Latinised Bulgarian, while ubiquitous in personal communication, is frowned upon in certain internet contexts, and many websites' comment sections and internet forums have rules stating that posts in Roman script will be deleted.Sheep Place/Bubbalog blog rules
''(in Bulgarian)''. Retrieved Mar 2013.


See also

*
Belarusian alphabet The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic , fam3=Ph ...
*
Cyrillic alphabets Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs , fam2 = Proto-Sinaitic ...
*
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
*
Faux Cyrillic Faux Cyrillic, pseudo-Cyrillic, pseudo-Russian or faux Russian typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the ar ...
*
Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels ...

Greek alphabet
*
Macedonian alphabet The orthography of Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethn ...
*
Montenegrin alphabet The Montenegrin alphabet is the collective name given to "''Abeceda''" ( Montenegrin Latin alphabet) and "''Азбука''" (Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet The Montenegrin alphabet is the collective name given to "''Abeceda''" (#Latin alphabet, Monte ...
*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian language, Belarusian from Cyrillic script, Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet. Standard systems for romanizing Belarusian Standard systems for romanizing ...
*
Romanization of Greek Romanization of Greek is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or ...
*
Romanization of MacedonianThe Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, li ...
*
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
*
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Rom ...
*
Russian alphabet The Russian alphabet ( rus, ру́сский алфави́т, russkiy alfavit, ˈruskʲɪj ɐlfɐˈvʲit or, more traditionally, rus, ру́сская а́збука, russkaya azbuka, ˈruskəjə ˈazbʊkə) was derived from Cyrillic script fo ...

Russian alphabet
*
Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This ...
*
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet ( sr, / , ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a used for various languages across and is used as the national script in various , , , , and -speaking countries in , , the , , ...
*
Ukrainian alphabet The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demograph ...


Notes


References

*British Standard 2979 : 1958, London: British Standards Institution. *G. Gerych
Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets.
Ottawa University, April 1965. 126 pp.


External links


Lingua:Translit
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level High-level and low-level, as technical terms, are used to classify, describe and point to specific Objective (goal), goals of a systematic operation; and are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as, for ...
module and online service covering a variety of writing systems. Transliteration according to several standards including
ISO 9The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World He ...
, DIN 1460 and the "Streamlined System" for Bulgarian.
2cyr.com
- A free online service for transliterating Bulgarian (Cyrillic) into Bulgarian (Latin script). Users can set their own personal preference for the letter substitutions of the transliteration.
Slovored.com/transliteration
- Another free online transliteration service (it uses the Streamlined System with the ''-ia'' exception mentioned above). {{DEFAULTSORT:Romanization Of Bulgarian Bulgarian language
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...