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The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering
written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use of sufficien ...
and
spoken Spoken is the past participle form of "to speak". Spoken may also refer to: *Spoken (band), a Christian rock group from Arkansas *''Spoken (album)'', an album by Spoken See also

*Speak (disambiguation) {{disambiguation ...
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
in the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles,
cataloging In library and information science Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) is a branch of academic disciplines that deal generally with organization, access, and collection of informati ...
Arabic language works,
language education Language education – the process and practice of teaching a second language, second or foreign language – is primarily a branch of applied linguistics, but can be an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field. There are four main learni ...
when used instead of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by
linguists Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...

linguists
. These formal systems, which often make use of
diacritics A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based
Arabic chat alphabetThe Arabic chat alphabet, ''Arabizi'' (, ), Franco-Arabic (, , or ), Arabish, Araby ( ar, عربي, ), and Mu'arrab (), refer to the Romanized alphabets for informal Arabic dialects in which Arabic script is transcribed or encoded into a combina ...
. Different systems and strategies have been developed to address the inherent problems of rendering various Arabic varieties in the Latin script. Examples of such problems are the symbols for Arabic
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
s that do not exist in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
or other
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
an languages; the means of representing the
Arabic definite article ( ar, ٱلْـ), also Romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...
, which is always spelled the same way in written Arabic but has numerous pronunciations in the spoken language depending on context; and the representation of short vowels (usually ''i u'' or ''e o'', accounting for variations such as ''
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
/Moslem'' or ''
Mohammed ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...

Mohammed
/Muhammad/Mohamed'').


Method

Romanization is often termed "transliteration", but this is not technically correct. ''
Transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

Transliteration
'' is the direct representation of foreign ''letters'' using Latin symbols, while most systems for romanizing Arabic are actually '' transcription'' systems, which represent the ''sound'' of the language, since short vowels and geminate consonants, for example, does not usually appear in Arabic writing. As an example, the above rendering ' of the ar, مناظرة الحروف العربية is a transcription, indicating the pronunciation; an example transliteration would be '.


Romanization standards and systems

Principal standards and systems are:


Early Romanization

Early Romanization of the Arabic language was standardized in the various bilingual Arabic-European dictionaries of the 17-19th centuries.


Mixed digraphic and diacritical

* BGN/PCGN romanization (1956). *
UNGEGN The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) is one of the nine expert groups of the United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil économique et social ...
(1972). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, or "Variant A of the Amended Beirut System". Adopted from BGN/PCGN. **
IGN ''IGN'' (an abbreviation of its former name ''Imagine Games Network'') is an American video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, ...
System 1973 or "Variant B of the Amended Beirut System", that conforms to the French orthography and is preferred to the Variant A in French-speaking countries as in Maghreb and Lebanon. ** romanization (2007) is different from UNGEGN in two ways: (1) ظ is d͟h instead of z̧; (2) the cedilla is replaced by a sub-macron (_) in all the characters with the cedilla. *
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
(first published 1991), from the
American Library Association The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
and the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
. This romanization is close to the romanization of the and
Hans Wehr Hans Bodo Gerhardt Wehr (; 5 July 1909, Leipzig24 May 1981, Münster) was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster from 1957–1974, he published the ''Arabisches Wörterbuch'' (1952), which was later published in an Englis ...
, which is used internationally in scientific publications by
Arabist An Arabist is someone normally from outside the Arab world who specialises in the study of the Arabic language and culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, s ...
s. ** IJMES, used by ''International Journal of Middle East Studies'', very similar to ALA-LC. ** EI, ''
Encyclopaedia of Islam The ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' (''EI'') is an encyclopaedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or dis ...
'' (1st ed., 1913–1938; 2nd ed., 1960–2005).


Fully diacritical

* DMG (', 1935), adopted by the International Convention of Orientalist Scholars in Rome. **
DIN 31635 DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieva ...
(1982), developed by the German Institute for Standardization ('). **
Hans Wehr transliteration The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of ...
(1961, 1994), a modification to DIN 31635. ** EALL, ''Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics'' (edited by Kees Versteegh, Brill, 2006–2009). ** Spanish romanization, identical to DMG/DIN with the exception of three letters: ǧ > ŷ, ḫ > j, ġ > g. *
ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, conditions ...
(1984), letter-to-letter; vowels are transliterated only if they are shown with diacritics, otherwise they are omitted. **
ISO 233-2 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral conten ...
(1993), simplified transliteration; vowels are always shown. * BS 4280 (1968), developed by the
British Standards Institution The British Standards Institution (BSI) is the national standards body of the United Kingdom. BSI produces technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (g ...
.


ASCII-based

*
ArabTeX ArabTeX is a free software package providing support for the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middl ...
(since 1992) has been modelled closely after the transliteration standards ISO/R 233 and DIN 31635. *
Buckwalter Transliteration The Buckwalter Arabic transliteration Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey K ...
(1990s), developed at ALPNET by Tim Buckwalter; does not require
diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that ...
s. * Arabic chat alphabet: an ad hoc solution for conveniently entering Arabic using a Latin keyboard.


Comparison table

* Hans Wehr transliteration does not capitalize the first letter at the beginning of sentences nor in proper names. * The ''chat'' table is only a demonstration and is based on the spoken varieties which vary considerably from Literary Arabic on which the IPA table and the rest of the transliterations are based. * Review ''
hamzah Hamza ( ar, همزة ') () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . Hamza is one of the 28 "full" letters and owes its existence to historical inconsistencies in the orthography, standard writing system. It is derive ...
'' for its various forms. * Neither standard defines which
code point In character encoding Character encoding is the process of assigning numbers to Graphics, graphical character (computing), characters, especially the written characters of Language, human language, allowing them to be Data storage, stored, D ...
to use for ' and ''

''. Appropriate Unicode points would be modifier letter apostropheʼ⟩ and modifier letter turned commaʻ⟩ (for the UNGEGN and BGN/PCGN) or modifier letter reversed commaʽ⟩ (for the Wehr and Survey of Egypt System (SES)), all of which Unicode defines as letters. Often right and left single
quotation mark Quotation marks, also known as quotes, quote marks, speech marks, inverted commas, or talking marks, are punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and cer ...
s ⟨⟩, ⟨⟩ are used instead, but Unicode defines those as punctuation marks, and they can cause compatibility issues. The glottal stop (') in these romanizations isn't written word-initially. * In ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'' digraphs are underlined, that is t͟h, d͟j, k͟h, d͟h, s͟h, g͟h. In BGN/PCGN on the contrary the sequences may be romanized with
middle dot An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separ ...
as ''t·h'', ''k·h'', ''d·h'', ''s·h'' respectively; the letter ''g'' is not used by itself in BGN/PCGN, so no confusion between ''gh'' and ''g''+''h'' is possible. * In the original German edition of his dictionary (1952) Wehr used ǧ, ḫ, ġ for j, ḵ, ḡ respectively (that is all the letters used are equal to DMG/
DIN 31635 DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieva ...
). The variant presented in the table is from the English translation of the dictionary (1961). * BGN/PCGN allows use of
underdot When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the ''interpunct'' ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some Letter (alphabe ...
s instead of
cedilla A cedilla ( ; from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (di ...

cedilla
. * ' and ' are traditionally written in as and , respectively, while the latter's dot is only added initially or medially. * In Egypt, Sudan, and sometimes in other regions, the standard form for final-'' '' is only (without dots) in handwriting and print, for both final and final . for the latter pronunciation, is called ' , 'flexible alif'. * The
sun and moon letters In Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, J ...
and hamzat waṣl pronunciation rules apply, although it is acceptable to ignore them. The UN system and ALA-LC prefer lowercase ''a'' and hyphens: ''al-Baṣrah, ar-Riyāḍ''; BGN/PCGN prefers uppercase ''A'' and no hyphens: ''Al Baṣrah, Ar Riyāḍ''. * The EALL suggests ẓ "in proper names" (volume 4, page 517).


Romanization issues

Any
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
system has to make a number of decisions which are dependent on its intended field of application.


Vowels

One basic problem is that written Arabic is normally unvocalized; i.e., many of the
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s are not written out, and must be supplied by a reader familiar with the language. Hence unvocalized does not give a reader unfamiliar with the language sufficient information for accurate pronunciation. As a result, a pure
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
, e.g., rendering as , is meaningless to an untrained reader. For this reason, transcriptions are generally used that add vowels, e.g. . However, unvocalized systems match exactly to written Arabic, unlike vocalized systems such as Arabic chat, which some claim detracts from one's ability to spell.


Transliteration vs. transcription

Most uses of romanization call for transcription rather than
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
: Instead of transliterating each written letter, they try to reproduce the sound of the words according to the orthography rules of the target language: ''Qaṭar''. This applies equally to scientific and popular applications. A pure transliteration would need to omit vowels (e.g. ''qṭr''), making the result difficult to interpret except for a subset of trained readers fluent in Arabic. Even if vowels are added, a transliteration system would still need to distinguish between multiple ways of spelling the same sound in the Arabic script, e.g. ' vs. ' for the sound ', and the six different ways () of writing the (
hamza Hamza ( ar, همزة ') () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from ...
, usually transcribed '). This sort of detail is needlessly confusing, except in a very few situations (e.g., typesetting text in the Arabic script). Most issues related to the romanization of Arabic are about transliterating vs. transcribing; others, about what should be romanized: * Some transliterations ignore assimilation of the
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a that has a or as its or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Noun phrases are very common , and the ...
''
al- ( ar, ٱلْـ), also Romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language) ...
'' before the "
sun letters In Arabic language, Arabic and Maltese language, Maltese, the consonants are divided into two groups, called the sun letters or solar letters ( ar, حروف شمسية ') and moon letters or lunar letters ( '), based on whether they assimilation ...
", and may be easily misread by non-Arabic speakers. For instance, "the light" ''an-nūr'' would be more literally transliterated along the lines of ''alnūr''. In the transcription ''an-nūr'', a hyphen is added and the unpronounced removed for the convenience of the uninformed non-Arabic speaker, who would otherwise pronounce an , perhaps not understanding that in ''nūr'' is
geminated In phonetics and phonology, gemination (), or consonant lengthening (from Latin ''geminatio'' "doubling", itself from ''Gemini (constellation), gemini'' "twins"), is an articulation of a consonant for a longer period of time than that of a singlet ...

geminated
. Alternatively, if the shaddah is not transliterated (since it is strictly not a letter), a strictly literal transliteration would be ''alnūr'', which presents similar problems for the uninformed non-Arabic speaker. * A transliteration should render the "closed tāʼ" ('' tāʼ marbūṭah'', ) faithfully. Many transcriptions render the sound as ''a'' or ''ah'' and ''t'' when it denotes . **
ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, conditions ...
has a unique symbol, ẗ. * "Restricted alif" (', ) should be transliterated with an
acute accent The acute accent, , is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembl ...

acute accent
, ''á'', differentiating it from regular alif , but it is transcribed in many schemes like alif, ''ā'', because it stands for . *
Nunation Nunation ( ar, تَنوِين, ' ), in some Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinenta ...
: what is true elsewhere is also true for nunation: transliteration renders what is seen, transcription what is heard, when in the Arabic script, it is written with diacritics, not by letters, or omitted. A transcription may reflect the language as spoken, typically rendering names, for example, by the people of Baghdad (
Baghdad Arabic Baghdadi Arabic is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Mic ...
), or the official standard ( Literary Arabic) as spoken by a
preacher A preacher is a person who delivers sermon A sermon is an or by a (who is usually a member of ). Sermons address a , , or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law, or behavior within both past and present contexts. Element ...
in the mosque or a TV newsreader. A transcription is free to add phonological (such as vowels) or morphological (such as word boundaries) information. Transcriptions will also vary depending on the writing conventions of the target language; compare English ''
Omar Khayyam Omar Khayyam (; fa, عمر خیّام ; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethni ...
'' with German ''Omar Chajjam'', both for , (unvocalized ', vocalized '). A transliteration is ideally fully reversible: a machine should be able to transliterate it back into Arabic. A transliteration can be considered as flawed for any one of the following reasons: *A "loose" transliteration is ambiguous, rendering several Arabic phonemes with an identical transliteration, or such that digraphs for a single phoneme (such as ''dh gh kh sh th'' rather than ''ḏ ġ ḫ š ṯ'') may be confused with two adjacent consonants—but this problem is resolved in the
ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bibliographic information ...
romanization system, where the
prime symbol The prime symbol , double prime symbol , triple prime symbol , and quadruple prime symbol are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quan ...

prime symbol
ʹ is used to separate two consonants when they do not form a digraph; for example: ' ('she honored her'), in which the ''t'' and ''h'' are two distinct consonantal sounds. *Symbols representing phonemes may be considered too similar (e.g., ʻ and ' or ʿ and ʾ for and
hamzah Hamza ( ar, همزة ') () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . Hamza is one of the 28 "full" letters and owes its existence to historical inconsistencies in the orthography, standard writing system. It is derive ...
); *ASCII transliterations using capital letters to disambiguate phonemes are easy to type, but may be considered unaesthetic. A fully accurate transcription may not be necessary for native Arabic speakers, as they would be able to pronounce names and sentences correctly anyway, but it can be very useful for those not fully familiar with spoken Arabic and who are familiar with the Roman alphabet. An accurate transliteration serves as a valuable stepping stone for learning, pronouncing correctly, and distinguishing phonemes. It is a useful tool for anyone who is familiar with the sounds of Arabic but not fully conversant in the language. One criticism is that a fully accurate system would require special learning that most do not have to actually pronounce names correctly, and that with a lack of a universal romanization system they will not be pronounced correctly by non-native speakers anyway. The precision will be lost if special characters are not replicated and if a reader is not familiar with Arabic pronunciation.


Examples

Examples in Literary Arabic:


Arabic alphabet and nationalism

There have been many instances of national movements to convert into Latin script or to romanize the language.


Lebanon

A Beirut newspaper, ''La Syrie'', pushed for the change from Arabic script to
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...
in 1922. The major head of this movement was
Louis Massignon Louis Massignon (25 July 1883 – 31 October 1962) was a Catholic scholar of Islam and a pioneer of Catholic-Muslim mutual understanding. He was an influential figure in the twentieth century with regard to the Catholic Church, Catholic church ...
, a French Orientalist, who brought his concern before the Arabic Language Academy in Damascus in 1928. Massignon's attempt at romanization failed as the Academy and the population viewed the proposal as an attempt from the Western world to take over their country. Sa'id Afghani, a member of the Academy, asserted that the movement to romanize the script was a Zionist plan to dominate Lebanon.History of Arabic Writing


Egypt

After the period of colonialism in Egypt, Egyptians were looking for a way to reclaim and reemphasize Egyptian culture. As a result, some Egyptians pushed for an Egyptianization of the
Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Watson; Walter de G ...

Arabic language
in which the formal Arabic and the
colloquial Arabic The variety (linguistics), varieties (or dialects or vernacular languages) of Arabic, a Semitic languages, Semitic language within the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic family originating in the Arabian Peninsula, are the linguistic systems that ...
would be combined into one language and the Latin alphabet would be used. There was also the idea of finding a way to use
hieroglyphics Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent ...
instead of the Latin alphabet. A scholar, Salama Musa, agreed with the idea of applying a Latin alphabet to Egyptian Arabic, as he believed that would allow Egypt to have a closer relationship with the West. He also believed that Latin script was key to the success of Egypt as it would allow for more advances in science and technology. This change in script, he believed, would solve the problems inherent with Arabic, such as a lack of written vowels and difficulties writing foreign words.Shrivtiel, p. 188 Ahmad Lutfi As Sayid and Muhammad Azmi, two Egyptian intellectuals, agreed with Musa and supported the push for romanization. The idea that romanization was necessary for modernization and growth in Egypt continued with Abd Al Aziz Fahmi in 1944. He was the chairman for the Writing and Grammar Committee for the Arabic Language Academy of Cairo. He believed and desired to implement romanization in a way that allowed words and spellings to remain somewhat familiar to the Egyptian people. However, this effort failed as the Egyptian people felt a strong cultural tie to the Arabic alphabet, particularly the older generation.


See also

*
Arabic Chat AlphabetThe Arabic chat alphabet, ''Arabizi'' (, ), Franco-Arabic (, , or ), Arabish, Araby ( ar, عربي, ), and Mu'arrab (), refer to the Romanized alphabets for informal Arabic dialects in which Arabic script is transcribed or encoded into a combina ...
*
Arabic diacritics The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including ''i'jam'' (, '), consonant pointing, and ''tashkil'' (, '), supplementary diacritics. The latter include the () vowel marks - singular: ' (). The Arabic script is a modified abjad, where shor ...
*
Arabic grammar Arabic grammar or Arabic language sciences ( ar, النحو العربي ' or ar, عُلُوم اللغَة العَرَبِيَّة ') is the grammar of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, Semitic language ...
* Arabic names *
Glottal stop (letter) The character , called glottal stop, is an letter (alphabet), alphabetic letter in some Latin script, Latin alphabets, most notably in several languages of Canada where it indicates a glottal stop, glottal stop sound. Such usage derives from ...
*
Maltese alphabet The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and Digraph (orthography), digraphs. It is used to write the Maltese language, which evolved from the otherwise extinct Siculo-Arabic dialect ...
*
Ottoman Turkish alphabet The Ottoman Turkish alphabet ( ota, , ') is a version of the Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the Arabic script as it is codified for wr ...
– a Perso-Arabic-based alphabet, which was replaced by the Latin-based
Turkish alphabet The Turkish alphabet ( tr, ) is a Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses Letter (alphabet), letters of the Latin script. The 21-letter archaic Latin alphabet and the 23-letter ...

Turkish alphabet
in 1928 *
Romanization of Hebrew The Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a of the . Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the and their longest-surviving descendants: the and . It was largely preserved throughout history as the main of (p ...
*
Romanization of Persian Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian ( fa, لاتین‌نویسی فارسی, Lātinnevisiye fārsi, ) is the representation of the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may re ...
* Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System (SATTS)


References


External links


Comparative table of DIN 31635, ISO 233, ISO/R 233, UN, ALA-LC, and Encyclopædia of Islam
(not normative) {{DEFAULTSORT:Romanization Of Arabic Arabic orthography